Today, there are more than a hundred abandoned asylums in the United States that, to many people, probably seem scary and imposing, but not so long ago they weren't seen as scary at all. Many of them were built part of a treatment regimen developed by a singular Philadelphia doctor named Thomas Story Kirkbride. Kirkbride was obsessed with architecture and how it could be harnessed therapeutically to cure people suffering from mental illness.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
This is ninety nine percent, invisible, I'm Delaney Hall, filling in four roman Mars maybe you ve heard a story like this: how, once upon a time on the outskirts of the town where someone grew up or where the went to school on the edge of the woods. There was a scary old asylum over the ass few years, so many people have hold me versions of this story? writer sandy our they wrote a book all that kind of miraculous paradise, about mental health care in America and Often, when somebody learns that I write about mental health, they will live to their old asylum story, how they used to begin to wine with their friends or how someone they knew saw goes there. The details vary, but the one detail of that almost never varies. The thing that to make an asylum story and asylum story is that the asylum is nearly always abandoned,
the former buffalo state asylum for the insane is an imposing stone structure on the north side of Buffalo New York. It's nearly hundred and fifty years old and its residents historian, Corey Fabian, bear it recently took me inside this is watch what happens in ITALY, the buildings by itself for years the interior was everything you would expect from an old abandoned asylum with border windows and long derelict corridors that, although paints crumbling off the walls, you ve the pink crumbling, often militants. Feeling graffiti. That does get out. Now has a butler stay college, students, nanny and all of the doors had been taken off their hinges, parts of the building where charred blue by fire yeah. There have been many fires here, so this fire actually place and nineteen. Seventy five right after the patient's moved out, didn't take the whole building, nope nope fervor
responded in the Nick of time. Also, these buildings, built, like medieval gases, Not an exaggeration, even though, the building was falling apart. It was clear that, back in the it hadn't just been imposing but fancy the floors had been laid with designer tile imported from England the exterior was made with Medina Sandstone Buckingham Palace is, faced and Medina Sandstone the Brooklyn Bridge Medina Sandstone, like they did not if, at all but more than anything else, the main thing that stood out about the Asylum Buffalo State was its size. The building was huge. Over a third of a mile long. It boasts it its own subway passage, so carriages could take people from one side of the building to the other. Today there are more than a hundred abandon the silence in the United States. Many of them not all that different from Buffalo State,
It's one of the reasons were also familiar with the idea of the big empty asylum. In the woods few, however, stop to wonder where all these structures came from, but in fact the massive bill. Thing the impressive grounds, the fine materials all of this was part of a treatment. Fishermen developed by a singular Philadelphia doctor, a physician who is obsessed with architecture and how could be harnessed therapeutically to cure those who insane Doktor Tommy story: cook brand Doktor, Kirk Bride was an amazing man, when Corey Fabian bear it speaks about Kirk bride. You cannot help but notice. She is a fan. He was one of the four people in America to say there's something better. We could be doing for people with mental illness, but it was some that could potentially be treated and cured that it wasn't chest. Condition where he would lock somebody help in the basement and throw away the key Thomas Kurt,
was a Quaker born The Pennsylvania countryside in eighteen, oh nine. His father was farmer, but young Kirk Bride, discovered early on that he wasn't suited to farming and he decided to become a doktor at first. He wanted to be search, then Kind of randomly talked into working instead, we run insane asylum outside of Philadelphia. A quick note about language historically words that may sound offensive now like insane or lunatic, would have been cut one place in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Even you, just by medical professionals. So for clarity sake will using the terminology that Kirk bride would have used in back. Then, when someone was deemed insane and was often thought to be the person's own fault, the assumption Was they were? You know, forsaken by God, where they were possessed by demons, or they had done something to deserve to be in such a desperate can
mission? Karla Jani is an architectural historian Rutgers, who wrote a book called the architecture of madness, and she says that what happened to someone who labelled insane in the early nineteenth century would have depended mostly on their class wealthy families. Often, captain sane relatives at home or paid for them to live in private, mad houses, poorer people, fared worse. Some of them were a kind of cast out to walk along roads. A lot of them ended up in county jails. A lot of them ended up in some kind of no small, privately run almshouse what mad houses did exist were more like prisons, largely focused unconfined, being an often torturing people in some, such as England's infamous Bedlam, the public could even pay to come gawk and laugh at those kept inside p,
would go and look at the patients as if they were animals in a zoo, but at the quicker asylum outside Philadelphia called the friends Asylum Thomas Kirk Bride was exposed. To something very different, a newer gentler philosophy of how to manage the people in their care. It was called moral treatment. And the starting idea was that the mentally ill person was not responsible, for it to her illness pint. Aired by a small him full of asylum in Europe. Moral treatment was the growing trend among professional physicians, who believed that patients didn't have to be confined indefinitely. Instead, they could be treated even cured. Men, the person should get enough rest should sleep on a regular scheme. Don't should eat healthy food should go for walks and get exercise should go out and experienced nature. All of those things
were built in to treatment. Kirk bride worked it two years at the friends, asylum learning and practising moral treatment than in eighteen forty, he became superintendent of his own asylum, the Pennsylvania Hospital for the insane, and it was here that he began king about another way to treat insanity more specifically He started thinking a lot about the environment where patients were treated because there was a word for the mentally ill in the basement. Patients were kept in very small cells and think they were given food, maybe blankets, but not much more than that, and it was in a spirit of reforming that basement ward. That Kirk bride tried to think about a new way to treat people as part of a push to get patients out of that prison. Like basement, the hospital had already commissioned a brighter, more spacious building in the countryside, but Kirk Bride came to believe that when this wasn't enough, specifically
wished and asylum superintendent like him who actually treated insanity had been consulted when the building had been designed so a few years late, when he was finally given the opportunity to construct his own facility for the hospital Kirk bread begin to experiment the architecture of the building, the landscaping of its grounds, the efficiency of its operation, even the demeanor of the staff. Nothing was left to chance and when he was done, he sat down everything. He learned in an extremely detailed book called on the construction organization and general arrangements of hospitals for the insane with some remarks on insanity and its treatment needs a how to book a book on how to construct the perfect in asylum there's a illustration of the model asylum there are about pages and pages about how to design the heating system. What to do about running water
air are descriptions of how to design the windows so that they look like ordinary windows, but also so they would prevent patient suicides. Most patients Era were committed by their families and wouldn't be free to go, but her bread didn't want people to feel like they were in a jail so the fence around the asylum was also disguised. So he recommends building a trend kind of slowly slopes down when you put the wall in the trench, and then you build a back up on the other side. That way, it's still wouldn't be possible for a patient to escape, or the word they used was elope. It's not possible for a patient to elope, but you can't see a big looming giant wall from inside the spittle, but the most striking aspect of Kirk Brides plan for this asylum Slash Hospital of the future, was windows or the fences or the plumbing it was the building shape
A shallow v shaped like a row of birds in flight. The v consisted of two diverging series of wards or pavilions New arrivals would arrive at the administrative building in the center of the v from their patients would be first segregated a gender men going to one side, women to the other. They would then be sent created by condition according to four distinct levels of need, Korea Fabian, bear it says that patients requiring the most care would be kept in the pavilions furthest from the centre, which meant that, as you and proved you'd, literally move towards the exit. So the optimistic philosophy there is you'd show up terrible shape. You need so much hope, you're sent to the fifth building the magical, curative power. The architecture in the car cried plan and keeping active would make you a little bit better and go to four and then three two one in the need: walk up the front doors, since Each of the pavilions would be set back slightly from the last attendance could either
we open windows on all four sides aiding and ventilation the narrowed points of contact between sections also protected against fire? making it easier to seal off any one part of the facility from the others nature itself was to be curative and so Kirk Bride call for the asylum to be surrounded by parkland that and as you walk down the buildings tiered corridors with their tall ceilings in almost every erection. You turned, you would see towering landscapes of greenery on sky. The idea was for the asylum to feel like a victorian home. Each word was supposed to be structured like an ideal organ family unit, so they all everything together, the doktor has meals with them at the head of the table to model an ideal, victorian fatherhood, the nurses, the matrons, is at the other end of the table. Is the mother and they're all acting like this family, and if that sea
strikes you as a bit paternalistic. That was an unusual for the time. A whole. Moreover, for Movement was building around the idea that society had a duty to provide care for the less fortunate. Much like a father should provide for his children, one most famous reformers was a teacher from Massachusetts named Dorothy Addicts, dicks toward the country counting and writing reports on the condition of what she called the insane poor. She wrote powerful speeches. She'd then have men deliver on her behalf. As a woman, she was barred from speaking herself to state legislatures. Nonetheless, and by one she got twenty states to fund public asylums, and so they were paid for with taxpayers dollars, and this was a time when American states didn't pay for much of anything. They barely paid for roads, Kirk, bright, index corresponded frequently allies in the battle to fund asylums. He even in
who did a section in his book addressed to the same officials, dicks would have been lobbying. He reminded them that anyone, including them, could go insane it didn't matter. Their race or creed or class Her cried called insanity. The great leveller. So when the elegantly titled on the construction organization and general arrangement of hospitals for the insane. With some remarks on insanity and its treatment hit the stands, it was widely popular. It's super dense. If you read it today, you can't believe this was popular, but it was one thousand eight hundred and fifty four and people loved it. Silence began popping up all across the country in eighteen, forty, The United States had just eighteen by eighteen eighty There were a hundred and thirty nine most of them were built with state fun. And were designed in accordance with the current bright plan the planet.
An architect everything they need to build a beautiful optimally, functional asylum, with their distinctive vision They were soon known simply as Kirk Bryce, which is high, the city of Buffalo New York ended up with that giant, Kirk bride that Corey Fabian Bear. It was showing me around earlier this week this was the result of intense competition, any self the prestige. So when the New York Legislature agreed to fund new asylum, as a source of jobs and prestige. So when the New York Legislature agreed to fund new asylum in eighteen, sixty five to serve the western half of the state, there is a huge.
Competition throughout Western York region about where this hospitals going to go, Batavia, Lock, Port Buffalo, a few other smaller towns are all jostling for the bid. Buffalo ends up winning has off by offering a perpetual supply of free water to the hospital. This state spared no expense. They hired Frederick LAW Homestead the co designer of central park to surround the facility with hundreds of landscaped acres and one of them. Architects of the nineteenth century h, H, Richardson designed the buildings exterior, topping it off with two enormous copper cited towers. Almost like the towers of a cathedral as for what they were for that's one of the topics Since I got about those towers like what was up there like, what is what are they doing? that's towers and nothing. They were purely decorative from day one, and it is hard as hard. It is to believe that a state project would spend all that money and effort onto massive decorative two hours as exactly what they did in the eighteen. Seventy
The exterior grandeur of the Buffalo Asylum was nothing compared to what was going on inside hospitals operated almost as town. They were cities in microcosm mean if they had a full complement of everything. A small town would mean her bridegroom. Even that patients being occupied with key to their recovery, so many asylums contained full working farms staffed in part by patients. Cows, pigs, horses, chickens, realities, it causes it was yeah. Kirk brides had bowling alleys, dance halls, baseball diamonds, one even had a kind of pre electric rollercoaster. The asylum in Poughkeepsie had a nine whole golf course. People could even purchase. Postcards featuring a lovely drawing of the area's book bride. Like Miss, you darling, here's a pastel, a lunatic asylum like literally
yes, asylums had become the symbols of civic and social achievement. All still on the belief in insanities possible cure. But from their inception there is a gap between societies, ambition for these buildings and how the buildings actually functioned. For one thing, the very size of many of the state asylums built in the late nineteenth century ended up working against Kirk Bright, had been adamant. A superintendent should be able to visit each and every patient so that an asylum should be two hundred and fifty patients maximum but asylum. Superintendence were under financial pressure. They wanted to increase the maximum asylum size to six hundred to take on more pain patients. So, at this for attendance annual meeting they held a vote Kirk bride, but it against the measure, but it passed anyway. So when a teach Richardson designed the Buffalo Hospital for Insane and the early eighteen. Seventy he designed
for the maximum six hundred, so there Never enough attendance. There weren't enough nurses, which rule in all of the aspects of the moral treatment, but the larger problem was there: many patients staying at Kirk, brides didn't leave from the beginning the idea had been that patients in any one Kirk Bright hospital would soon be cured continually making room for new patients, so you're supposed to come here, be here, taken the Kirk Righty, goodness for no more than a year and then go here it and you go home. This is not how it works in practice at all. Bright himself, claimed that his asylum in Philadelphia had an eighty percent curie others. Superintendence claimed rates as high as ninety or even a hundred percent, but the doktor had been collecting and reporting their own data, so A person who died in an asylum might be counted as cured, while a patient who required a second visit might be counted as two people cured the result,
that once occurred bright asylum opened. It quickly filled up and state that way. People are staying here, much longer, and they realise that within two or three years of a hospital opening mailing, you know it with us some work as an acute care facilities were a long term care place and we don't have enough space, to me that so they became places where people who were very poor and very sick ended up lives. Their entire lives. Twenty thirty, forty years by the mid twentieth century, the buildings had become overcrowded with far more patients than Kirk Right would have ever dreamed. Buffaloes asylum, for example, which recall was designed for six hundred. At the height of this house, but which is in the nineteen. Fifty is. There are thirty six hundred patients living here, the state mental health but all constructed during the early twentieth century grew even larger and they resembled
statistical buildings like prisons: this was the very thing Kurt bride had wanted to avoid the largest Pilgrim State Hospital on Long island at APEX housed over fourteen thousand patience by one thousand nine hundred and fifty five more than one slash two, A million Americans were confined in state mental hospitals so they became warehouses for humans and They were criticised for causing insanity rather than curing it. Meanwhile, psychiatrists had turned their focus to curing what were now termed mental illnesses. They focused on physical interventions like Lobata means insulin, comas, electroshock, treatments and eventually chemicals marketed as psychiatric drugs. In the nineteen sixties, new laws prohibited psychiatric patients from working without the contribution of patient labour. Many hospitals infrastructures were brought to a halt
In the nineteenth seventies american state, mental hospitals were largely de funded, emptied and shuddered during what was called D in the two, the Kirk Bride and Buffalo was only shut down in nineteen, seventy four its view remain impatience, transferred to a smaller facility next door. By that time, almost everything about the original purpose of these buildings and others like them had been forgotten. Asylums were reduced to the role of a pop culture. Trope. One built entirely out of their last gruesome chapter to overcome, take fattening our common asylum sitting just outside Gotham alone, on a hill with its grand gothic architecture. Don't bother screaming for white or the terrified. Institutional nightmare of one flew over the coup. Goose nest, cigarettes, please mismatch which way
incidentally, filmed in a Kirk bride in Oregon, featuring many actual patients as extras. I heard your question MR chance and I will answer your question as soon as you ve come down and then there's pretty much anything from season. Two of the effects. Ryan Murphy show american horror story. Asylum is electro shock therapy, something he would suggest you know what what bothers me is when they try to get you to admit that their their creepy places Chris Pain as a photographer, whose probably been inside more Kirk brides than anybody else. He photographed Seventy abandoned mental hospitals in thirty states for a book called aside The lamb inside the closed world of state mental hospitals, that's a question that gets asked endlessly, is
What was it like inside was creeping Eugenie goes. I didn't, I didn't find them creeping at at the very opposite I felt lucky to be in them and to be able to photograph them before he was a photographer. Cress pain was actually an architect, so to him that these places used architecture itself as treatment was all the more impressive. I think that you know when you go to architecture school every arctic dreams that there their designer their building is gonna, sway someone in a move, someone on that level, no change their lifestyle change their mind. The power These buildings once had to change boss, mines that was part of what Chris wanted to capture, because then someone's been abandoned for three forty years and what you vandalized at once you strip things out and once things start to fallen on, each other could be any abandoned. Building could be anything so it was very
hard to find those moments that were still intact and were very specific to this. This way of life, and so I spent hours days inside them taking pictures, and what Chris found is that, despite decades of disrepair, the buildings were still beautiful the light still flooded in through the stately windows. The trees planted a hundred and thirty years ago had grown tall and graceful, but he also found evidence of what had made Kirk bread self sustaining that's for making sauerkraut a beauty, parlor three dresses handmade by p seeing his photos helped me imagine a little what life might have been like at these Insta. Since when they were truly operational, they gave me glimmer of a group of people whose silence in this historical narrative is always very loud to me. The pace,
themselves. There's this one photograph of Christmas. I keep thinking about resumed the cabinet of toothbrush, Is it Hudson's? Hudson River State Hospital in Poughkeepsie, like dozens of toothbrushes, orange green blue pink each carefully labelled and for some reason when they emptied out the ward. They left this cabinet of this cupboard of of toothbrushes each the patient's name on them, the says, that's how many people once called this place home? That's how many people once hung their toothbrush here, and it says that this is how hastily this space was abandoned, like wherever these folks went. Next, they didn't get to bring their too brush of a few dozen Kirk Bride buildings that are still standing. Many are in the process of slowly decaying. There were, where as public nuisances or expensive headaches Handful have managed to stay open, though often-
in a very diminished capacity, a small portion of the building whose first some administrative function, while the rest is abandoned. Some Kirk brides have been or are being transformed, condos another one in Sydney, Australia became home to an art school There's the Kirk in Washington DC same Elizabeth, it's about to become the, voters for homeland security. As for the Kirk Right in Buffalo, It's not entirely abandoned either. Part of it is now a luxury hotel, Corey, Fabian are told me it's an especially popular spot to get married, sometimes because the couple is interested in the history of the asylum, other times. She says they just want a place that looks like Hogwarts stroll the hotels, long bright hallways. I could sometimes catch a glimpse. Of the still abandoned part of the asylum, just one wing over on the buildings front, where the somewhat menacing. Looking caged in porches, I've noticed them one
first arrived, although actually standing in one had been nothing at all like I'd expected between Latin, fortunately porch, oh oh, terrorists, right, ok, yeah. This is one of my favorite places to bring people on tours because they are first, one to admit they look terrible from the outside. They do look like a cage, but once you act, who stand in them and get out in them. You get a totally different perspective, an early, oh yeah. That's what I've been a nice spot
when we come back we'll talk with Peter and reporters Sandy Alan about small way in which Kirk Brides ideas have remained alive. Only this time and a place that is most definitely not abandoned, stay with us. We often don't think of winter, is autonomous growth or creation. But if you think about it, it's the perfect time to create your own website. Cooped up your thinking about being productive and now square space can help you do it with squares basic into your cool idea. As you ve creative content, your services, goods and you can turn them into a beautiful website in just a few clicks. Does it because there is to use templates, are created by world class designers, and then you have the ability to customize the look and feel
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it was actually cofounded by Thomas Kurt Bride in eighteen, forty four and at first it was about it As an asylum superintendence, who would come together to swap information about how best use their buildings to cure patience today, the organisation is totally different. Thereabout forty thousand psychiatry who are members and they have become pretty entangled with the pharmaceutical industry. So Sandy was at their annual conference, which that year they were having in San Diego and they were actually having it at the Big Convention hall where they do comic con. So it was kind of like going to comic con, except it was all about psych meds on the salesfloor. You know it's like he's huge banner order ceiling like big rotating displays, with flashing lights. In the logos of this pill and this pill and this pill, and this bell and all these nice pretty people trying to talk to you in hand. Sweet, treats and so on, and you know it was
all this sort of stuff. That's focused on. How do we like change that one individual whose you know perceived as being somehow like air so very different from what we heard about in the story about Kirk Bride, which is about moral treatment, and this idea that altering the person an environment can really help yeah exactly like an of all the things I saw that day. At the EPA Fair, there was one little something that dead remind me, of that older idea of that different approach. It was unlike everything else. I saw it they stuck with me, perhaps literally because I ate it, it was a piece of cheese and a four months later, I went to meet the man who helps make it compulsory biogas. Originally from Caracas finish so Jose lives and makes cheese at this place called mauled farm in Massachusetts and if the
BP, meeting, represents kind of the mainstream thinking in modern psychiatric treatment than gold farm is a great example of how Kirk brightly and ideas remain alive anyway. So tell us, our about gold and how it has kept some of those ideas alive. Well, first, all farm is a real farm. They ve got seven hundred acres in this super beautiful part of western Massachusetts, called them Berkshires, and it was started over a century ago in nineteen thirty. Keen by a guy named Well Gould. So, MRS Thirty, whereas after Kirk, brides, death and will hold was really christian and really into the idea that, having a place in the countryside, that was welcoming towards people who are being outcast from society that that that was his divine mission and fast or in a century in farm, is really do in some senses, it's much larger. It's better established its secular, but it still today, totally focused on that original idea, providing a farm where people with severe psychiatric
challenges can stay and work and hopefully recover so. So that she's hunger Jose had had a tough life, he had exe he moved to the EAST coast about thirty five years ago and as an adult he been in and out of sight, hospitals and he'd ended up very. Isolated and eventually a doctor tells him about this. Arm, and initially he was really skeptical told her, the city person and I never thought that I could survive in a place like this, but when he got to gold farm right away, he could tell it was different than other institutions where he stayed so for one at a regular mental health care facility, usually doctors and staff would be wearing uniforms and actual farm. Everybody was just wearing regular clothes, there's no khakis and walkie talkies as listen, fenced and puts it
she's, the director of gold farm, we have protocols, we have policies that enable us to respond quickly and an emergency or a crisis to de escalate licence by you know the state, the permanent mental health, but to look round. We don't where all of those things are sleeve or something else, you'd, never see at a regular psych hospital. None of our doors are ever locked. I frankly, don't have a key to my off as our cars are never locked, and that goes for all of us. Less unexplained. Gold farm is a commute did and communities are all about trust. So it's Definitely not the like big iron fence, philosophy of mental health care right. Definitely not so what happens after Jose arrives, he notices at all looks very different. It feels very different and then what happens next with them
well, Jose is a really tall guy and back then. He was also really heavy and he'd become really afraid of even trying simple things, because he was a fine thing or drop. Some thing in people may think he was a class. I remember how the compromises even bring vicious from the kitchen into the dining room, but when a new gas But when a new gas like Jose, arrives at the farm, there immediately absorbed into the farms daily working life, so maybe they're on the nursery crew. Maybe there in the forest and grounds crew, clearing paths, it might be winter and sap season, and so you'll be out in the woods, tapping, trees and hanging buckets and collecting sap and boil down into maple syrup, so everyone it old farm has a job and the entire staff lives their works. There too
less than in her family, live on the farm, as do the roughly forty staff members and how big is the farm like how many patients lives there? Well, for one thing: there not called patients father there, they're called guests witches very deliberate choice. They ve made with the language so about forty guests, live at the farm at any. Given time are the people who come here. People who are managing mental health challenges like schizophrenia, ask its effective disorder, bipolar major depression. These are typically folks hoof Sperience plenty of the traditional american Mental Health care system and still like Jose, have found themselves struggling. But for her, Everything changed when he got a gold farm and started getting curious about cheese. Do you know some point I said: can I kind of I'm making cheese. He tried at he liked it and he got really into it and cheese. Take some commitment getting up in the four o clock in the morning.
Because at that time, we used to pasteurized milk and make the cheese four Jose. It was when he was learning to make cheese and gaining the confidence to walk a plate across the, any more and learning to do dishes or learning to cook and taken walks and making friends and just being in this beautiful natural place that all these things is his self image started to fundamentally change and I started to develop a lot more confidence on myself. And see myself as a plot anymore. Social reject, Jose eventually even worked at Gould farms. Roadside diner, which is another thing- that's really unique about this place, so the diner guests are servers and cooks. They are dealing with the public, topping off coffees selling homemade beagles in these big gigantic pancakes, and you can, I think really here-
or an echo back to Kirk Bride in that idea of giving people meaningful work. You know helping someone feel like their competent and you for it. So, unlike the mental health care status quo, where people are being shut up in some institutional building told to wear pajamas all day and play cards, you know here. Instead, you ve got people who are presently receiving residential psychiatric tree. And being given this tremendous challenge of running a restaurant and they are totally kicking bought at it, and so what's up with those I now as he is, he still Augusta Gould Farm he's actually today he's a staff member at the farm and his he's also what's called a certified pure specialist. So he someone who's on this training in it. He has this first hand experience with psychiatric diagnosis being in treatment that kind of stuff and he's lending that expertise to other people who are presently figuring out their own recovery. So Jose talk to me about how he,
to feel like such an outsider, but now he is part of that community and it's not just the Gould Farm Community, but the wider community there's this relationship between the arm and the town, which also feels very Kirk Friday. You know locals have histories with the farm they had family and friends who have stayed there are worked there I mean some people even just go by the cafe further morning, coffee there's a way in which the towns, history is really intertwined, with the farm sister in the pharmacist ruse intertwined with the town, and I think it matters that people who are in psychiatric treatment and those who aren't are integrated? You know that we have are too needs to be reminded of one another's humanity. I think it matters whether people who need mental health care have access to tools like supportive environments. Opportunities to grow to work
socialized to be outside. So in a way. What we do here is as old as time and is also the case that we know through contemporary research and studies on the. What we do here is important and mixing So in the scheme of things, how rare is a place like gold farm in Amerika, really really rare, another others farm and a few others like get some of which were directly based on gold. We, the taxpayers do spend a lot of money on mental health care, but it is not going towards studying or funding approaches like this. We don't receive any government funding in and there is really no insurance reimbursements for people in a residential programme. There, a nonprofit. Therefore reliant on constant fund raising. This is expensive care to provide. That said, the folks I met a gold seemed really committed to their path. It isn't necessarily easy, but they do feel strongly it's right
and I'm not gonna lie when, with the situation regarding mental health care in America, right now can feel pretty hopeless. So when I get to eat something especial as a piece of gold farm shudder, I'm glad to feel a little bit of hope will think so much Andy. Thank you. For much more from sandy about mental health care in America, read their book a kind of miraculous paradise, a true story about schizophrenia. It was published by scrivener and its now out in paper, We also recommend you check out Sandy's new podcast, mad chat, the show unpacked, what our pop culture is telling us about madness and mental health. Their latest episode is actually about Batman, the animated series it somehow fascinating and funny and important all at the same time. Ninety nine percent invisible was produced this week by Sandy Alan and edited by Jo Rosenberg Mix and
Technical production by Sri Yourself, music by Sean Rio Katy mingle is this in your producer, the rest. The team is me: Delaney Hall, every truffle men, Emmett Fitzgerald, Vivian, we Sophia clatter Roman Mars. We are. Our of ninety one point: seven K, L W in San Francisco more produced. Radio ram and beautiful, downtown oakland. California, I cannot do that is both room. Ninety nine percent, invisible is a member of Radio Tokyo from Peoria, fiercely independent, collective of Most innovative shows in all of podcasting, find them all radio, Toby, DEC can find the show and joint discussions about the show on Facebook. You can tweet Roman Mars out roman Mars. You can tweak me at De Ap Hall and you can With the show at ninety nine p, I owe Archie
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Transcript generated on 2020-02-14.