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381- The Infantorium

2019-12-03 | 🔗

“Incubators for premature babies were, oddly enough, a phenomenon at the turn of the 20th century that was available at state and county fairs and amusement parks rather than hospitals,” explains Lauren Rabinowitz, an amusement park historian. If you wanted your at-risk premature baby to survive, you pretty much had to bring them to an amusement park. These incubator shows cropped up all over America. And they were a main source of healthcare for premature babies for over forty years.

The Infantorium

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
This is not nine percent invisible, I'm roman Mars, there's a big old apartment building and South Minneapolis. That looks out place, it's a residential neighbourhood with some oh bungalows, in some auto shots, but his apartment building fills up an entire corner lot. I've bypass this place hundreds of times, and it always struck me ass kind of weird. That's reporter Katy Thorn I started thinking through old newspapers and I found out why it's there that building is the last remnants of an early nineteen hundred amusement park. It was called wonderland. A friend of a friend named Hilary lives there now and He gave me a two year: my apartment building the corner of thirty, first and third person, certainly as Then there was an amusement park here. I had a roller coaster, dance hall and log firm, but the biggest attraction with something much stranger,
A bizarre side show that used to fill the apartment complex where Hilary lives. Now when she signed the least her landlord told her that building used to be called the infant Torreon worries. At the time was like they had premature. Babies like living in this building and been taken care of in the building is part of the attraction of the park visitors to the infant Orion would pay zero dollars and ten cents to enter a spacious room full of glass boxes. They were incubators with tiny, premature babies on display. And this wasn't the only place this was happening. There was a pavilion for incubator babies, wonderland he's not, an isolated incident learn more benefits as an amusement park. Historian incubators we're premature babies were oddly enough, phenomenon at the turn of the century that
was a veil. Well born at state and counting there's an amusement parks. Rather than hospitals. This moment in history, if you wanted your at risk premature baby to survive, you pretty much had to bring to an amusement these incubator shows cropped up across Amerika. They were the main source of healthcare to premature babies. For over forty years, when the incubator attraction started in the late eighteen, hundreds, the world was a lot deadlier. Almost one in five babies in the United States died before childhood, and that was an improvement from the previous DEC. At the turn of the century, nineteen of twenty births were still happening at home, which is no problem if your baby is healthy, but not all of them were like. Today, a lotta babies were born to early
The majority of american hospitals had nothing to help them. No technology, no special skills. There is no central heating to keep them. Warm doctors would place heated bricks in cribs and cross their fingers. I bet people tried everything to keep premature babies alive. They put these infants and boxes stuff with feathers to get them warm. They rub oil on the babies and kept them near firemen, this, but more than three quarters of premature babies were dying in America. Now one in the medical community was trying to solve this problem, but things were different over in France, french doctors stolen idea from the poultry industry, which used incubators to hatch chicken eggs. They designed a human version, but basically it was a warm box heated by a hot water tank below in the eighteen nineties. A Frenchman named Alexander Lion, modernize, the whole thing, the errand lion,
incubator was headed by a pipe flowing with hot water. The temperature was pretty consistent and the box was ventilated, but lions. Real innovation was to put a big glass window on the box, and then he filled the box. With a baby he felt a better machine and he displayed at the Berlin industrial exposition in eighteen. Ninety six blown raffle is the author of a new book about the unexpected origins of modern incubation issue. The new machine with trainees and say It was a sensation. There were drinking hall, songs about it. He called it. I Kinda Bruton STAR, which has literally child hatchery, and so it took the environment a sideshow. I'm carnival showman bought knock off Washington started charging entry to their own. Premature baby shows, but keeping a baby alive is more complicated than putting them in a box and focused
which so most of them got out of the business pretty quickly. But one shall man was hooked on this idea in eighteen. Ninety seven Doktor Martin Clooney, put on his first incubator baby, show London. Somehow he may have just got down to. The idea of this is a kind of a cool way to make money in the beginning, so he went with this show. Unlike other showman, Connie hired nurses to hold the babies and feed them. Breast milk, the babies, were healthier, survived at higher rates, the public loved it Doktor Clooney decided to try it out in the United States at the Omaha Worlds, fair
Those were always a little vague when Coon, he told his life story to Americans, but a few points stayed consistent even from Europe and he was trained in Germany and France, which were decades ahead of the. U S in terms of medical education. He called himself doktor. Martin coup, nay, though, has given name, was actually Michael Column and he said he'd just arrived in the: U S. For the first time, though, he'd actually emigrated from Poland about a decade earlier, like a good showman, he had a knack for exaggeration. Sometimes he said he invented the incubators he didn't doktor coming back and people to his show with bold hand painted signs. That said things like wonderful invention and infant incubators with living infants, lots of spectators came, and so did parents of premature babies who handed them to Doktor Clooney, hoping for a miracle coolly perfected. His side show at the nineteen o one worlds affair in Buffalo, New York, that fear
has gone down in infamy as the place where President Way Mckinley was shot and later died of gangrene But aside from that people had arrived good time with their doktor country was set up on the midway. It's the section filled with carnival rights inside shows, and in Buffalo it was popping off with attractions house upside down and Jerusalem. On the morning of the crucifixion of people, thousands of people paid ten cents each to see. Doktor Cooney's incubator show barkers outside saying, don't forget to see that Abies. Maybe the future president is inside maybe a showman. He knew how to talk to people and he loved talking to people Doktor Clooney, greeted thousands of people on the midway is exhibit was full of futuristic clasp incubators. One reporter wrote in cosmopolitan that countries, incubator babies were more exciting and agro newspapers, far away as Hawaii reported on this,
Bible of the influence, it was like a rat reality. Tv show in some ways where there were people who had come every week, delicate the babies and they have a favorite that they'd be rooting for local medical journal reported that forty eight of the fifty two babies delivered a country that summer had survived, but even so american Doctors or not being down cornice door for his machines. This lifesaving technology was stuck on the midway. Despite the big crowds and the good Press Clooney was still spending more money than he was bringing in to build and exhibit. Worlds, fair was a tremendous amount of work. Safety points of and parents and eager s arm of ventilation, electricity. You basically had to build a neck you and then When the whole thing is over, you have to do.
But I'll down. Luckily, for Coney, a new fad was sweeping the country in the early nineteen. Hundreds amusement parks took all the excitement of the fair, mid ways and Aiden permanent in the early 1900s. Amusement parks are popping up all over the country like all over the country. In one thousand nine hundred and nine a reporter from Pittsburgh apologize on behalf of the city, he wrote. We regret that we are possibly the only city in the country of any consequence that will go through the coming summer season, with only three amusement parks by one thousand nine hundred and ten, every? U dot s city with at least twenty thousand people. Had their own part. People wanted to have fun and amusement parks were all about. Unbridled pleasure is not an enemy actual thing at all. It's just a kind of giddy physical Musement the attendants figures for these parts are phenomenal. You could get things like a quarter of the population. Of a medium sized city on a week in most of the early parks.
Owned by electric trolley companies who use the parks to get passengers. Their trades, the trolley law. This would also entered the amusement park and the electric cables from the train would be hooked up to power. The roller coaster parks are places where new tax knowledge, was smuggled into american society under the guise of entertainment. At the time There was a lot of uneasiness about new technology, electric trains, lights and motors, aren't always safe, but in playing with technology wasn't something to be feared or mistrusted playing Acclimated people to them, physic, recreation, acclimated people to them physically with there bodies, but also made them pleasurable made them pleasurable time when there might be some anxiety about these new technologies People got on throw rides or watched firework displays, they saw, their technology could be fun and safe
way. Doktor, conies, incubator babies were the essence of amusement parks and conies exhibit in Buffalo caught the eye of two businessmen who were planning to build a brand new part. In Coney Island. They saw. This is a really cool show. Its is interesting as a ride. This would work at an amusement park Coney island already had to other self contained, amusement parks and until it burned down in eighteen. Ninety six story. Hotel shaped like an elephant, but these businessmen were taken to the next level. Sternly Linda it would be called Luna part, if featured around the imported from Buffalo called a trip to the moon. It brought passengers and to a paper Michel Fantasy World full of scientifically incorrect foliage and two hundred actors playing moon people and among Luna Parks. Flagship attractions was doktor, Goonies, incubator, Babies when the sun set on May sixteenth, nineteen o three Luna Park switched on two hundred and fifty thousand electric Light
jobs and open their gates to sixty thousand people who gathered outside many of them made a bee line for the babies. Coney Island was the start of something big for Doktor Coney in the spring nineteen o five. He travelled to Chicago Denver and Minneapolis to set up new exhibits. His incubators captivate the audiences across the country and he became stinking red Can you bought a nice house near the shore on Coney Island, where he was known to host extravagant dinners? If doktor country was in it for the money, he got what he wanted, but the thing is he made a lot of choices that warrant driven by profit. He really wanted to save babies and to get the incubators. Into hospitals in his travels cootie. Would wine and dined doctors and give them demonstrations of the incubators on multiple occasions he tried to get health departments to use is incubators after the local fair season was over,
He even try to donate his incubators to the city of San Francisco, but no one would take them. Matters had all sorts of reasons for rejecting a technology One reason was the disgraceful influence of the eugenics movement in nineteen, on an anonymous editorial made the rounds and medical journals asking if the incubators should be shut down. The author wrote that the human race suffered by keeping alive babies who would quote, transmit their defence CS deformities and faces to the next generation. Eugenics was a a full and racist pseudoscience, and it was not a fringe movement, a lot affairs, where Clooney showed his babies, also had eugenics exhibits there lots of other concerns about Goonies approach like maybe These reports were the best place for a fragile infants, I think of them primarily as an assault on your senses, the noise, the bright lights the smells of food. They were
what city amusement parks were Noise and a lot of them served alcohol and had gambling, and they became known as places where young people of all different backgrounds bumped a little more than elbows you could make out in the tunnel. Of or flirt on the dance floor, and then you would have over to the baby's. This juxtaposition made some people uneasy. That weighs could be incredibly dangerous. Many the parks were built quickly were pretty shawnee and prone to fire. One time in nineteen, eleven, a Coney Island park with one of countries incubator shows went up in flames, The New York Times stop the press reported on the front page there. All the baby's had died that was actually not true. It was an error. All the baby's had, in fact survived and beyond the safety concerns. There was something deeply unsettling about. The incubator shows today its clear putting babies on display and profiting off them is unquestionably exploitative and many
pays canoes exhibits were in line with the worst parts of amusement parks and worlds fares. In addition to the rides, many fares and parks had ethnological villages our native Americans or people from far away nations would live on site in stereotyped caricatures of their homes. Some people were literally caged and incarcerated on the grounds, with no record of payment. On a lot of many ways, there was a despicable willingness to exploit human life for the entertainment of the privileged and charging money to see struggling infants was another manifesto, none of us unethical practice and well we're talking about our discomfort with incubator, shows, there's one more thing that should make you uncomfortable with Doktor Clooney. He wasn't area doctor There is no medical licence on record for him in this country,
in their activities where he said he attended medical School in Germany. There is no record of his metric elation in any of those schools. This week common knowledge. Even coneys Obituary said he was a Doktor Coney Island sawdust, tat. He had a licence to practice in Europe, but it just hadn't transferred to the U S or something like that. They followed his instructions, the baby's lived and he worked magic with the media and passers by so Doktor Clooney was a fraud that doesn't mean his contribution of medicine. Wasn't real, babies in his care or more than four times as likely to survive and childhood saving. The baby this became Martin Coneys mission. He liked to say he was making propaganda for premiums. His staff took care. And nurturing the baby's even feeding those too weak to suckle driven knows with dropper. He took babies of all races and classes, and he never once charge the families. Everything was fine
by admissions after thirty five of course, incubator exhibits. His sideshow was still the best place to keep a premature baby alive by the nineteen thirties. Most hospitals, hadn't, created alternatives to the inventory him, so people bringing their newborns to the midway, but in the depths of the great depression incubators finally made a breakthrough when Martin Coney teamed up with a sympathetic doctor in Chicago, that's where he met doktor, Julius as was everything Martin Clooney wasn't. He was a real doktor. He had absolutely stellar credentials and has was very impressed with what Martin Clooney was doing and really learned a lot of what he knew from Doktor Kearny has was a respected physician with a passion for infant care and over the years he saw how coolly system was saving a lot of people, but has had to be careful with
associations like Coney, he was also up against the medical system that didn't seem to care. If these babies lived or died has wanted, has cause to be taken seriously, being the doctor that endorsed the medical sideshow at the local amusement park. Wasn't a good look has design his own incubator and in the nineteen twenties, he got a little bit of funding to open an infant wing at his Chicago Hospital, but it couldn't keep up with demand Julius has had been struggling with in this system to try to get publicity and funding, and just get in that he was turning away patients because he didn't have the resources he needed. A poem city machine and Connie at that point needed respectability which you cargo hosted the world's fair and nineteen. Thirty three cooties exhibit had the explicit support of Julius S and that carried a lot of weight, even Chicago Health commissioner got on board the fair for two summers and in the second summer they held and in
he bade her baby reunion event. Joyous mother. Whose carried their wonderful babies and stroll down the midway. Each baby had been saved by the incubators just one year before after the fair Chicago became the first city in America to create a public health policy specifically for premature infants. Doktor Julius has became known as the Father of American, neonatal Idjit and with the blessing of the Chicago medical Community, other cities started putting incubators and their hospitals to as doctors got on board coneys inventory. I started shutting down across the country, but the nineteen forties Ireland was the last of his exhibitions taking babies and some of those babies are still alive today. I've had people referred
good luck, Cecconi's hospital in all of this kind of terminology, but it was, it was no such thing. It was a sideshow. This is Beth Allen born in Brooklyn and one thousand nine hundred and forty one yes. Well. I was one of the last group of babies, took care to love. He was not a young man, then. Seventy eight years ago, best mother was a rush to a hospital near her house. She had been pregnant just six months. She pushed out to painfully tiny twins. One died shortly after childbirth. Beth was a mere shadow of an infant at just over a pound and a half. She wade less than a third of what she should have weighed. The hospital staff had no choice, but to tell bus mother to take her tiny, struggling child to Coney Island. She was totally against it when the doktor said that she had a son, we we go to doktor coolly. She would she was
now that my baby is not a freak she's not going through a sideshow no way I took a personal visit from doktor cooling to convince her to let him take me. Now Clooney was in the seventies. He knew this child would not survive without his help. He pleaded with s mother and finally, she agreed Beth says it's the only reason she's alive today, the dock. Didn't want it. They felt that they were the. Babies were weakling viva, they lived or they died, and nobody made any great effort to save them. Beth was an attraction. Pressing staff, would take a wedding band and put it around her wrist just to show how tiny she was as though it was an obvious. There wasn't he clothing that fit her. So she literally war dolls clothes, but if you asked Beth, she considers yourself lucky
her. Parents visited her every day and they grew to trust and respect the same showman who convince them to turn their daughter into a sideshow attraction. My parents took to visit him every fathers day until he passed away because that's how they felt about him. In nineteen forty three, a Brooklyn hospital open. The city's first department for premature infants and Martin Clooney closed up shop at Coney Island. He told his family. His work was finished. Oh Martin, Cootie died, Penniless Beth Alan's parents were at his funeral, I'm so proud to be an incubator, babe. But seven years after his last show, Martin Cootie died, Penniless Beth Alan's parents were at his funeral, I'm proud to be an incubator baby, because there are so few of us now who are left to tell the story.
Make sure the doktor Clooney gets all the praise. He deserves what do you have to say to the people who think that this was exploitative or wrong? play look at meeting here I am Beth is just one of them has been preparing to come, of coolness. Forty, five, your tenure as the sideshow. Oh despite everything, Martin Coneys attraction, save nearly seven thousand babies
alive for our amusement of next more of the consequences of putting babies on display the story of the d on contemplates. After this, we often don't think of winter as a time of growth or creation, but if you think about it, it's the perfect time to create your own website, because you're, cooped up you're thinking about being productive and now square space can help you do it whiskers base. You can take your cool ideas if creative content, your services, goods and you can t
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wheezy about these scenario by the end, especially when you hear from Beth you. This is a happy ending to this story, like he did a lot of good and saved a lot of abies lives. But you came across another incubator story. When you were researching this. That did not end that well, yeah totally, I mean the whole. Thing is super conflicting, but definitely talking with bath and talking with dawn they all my other babies of doktor colonies and they all kind of said, the same thing that Beth said, which is it's just that they felt so, and they knew they wouldn't have survived otherwise. But I did come across a story from the nineteenth thirties took place in Rural Ontario like more than two hundred miles north of Toronto, outside of a town called calendar and basically in nineteen thirty, that is during the depression, and the sky contact as local newspaper and he's basically like hey Is it more expensive for me to announce like five? these being born, rather than just one because my sister in law just had five babies. That's me
that was is concerned mainly because of the amount the newspaper by. That's. That's, like Wessex all down paper. The person whose placing the birth announced my bad guy, but he's also staff order so he's like Norway, your follow the, and so he goes out there. The uncle is like I swear that she had five babies because at the time there is no Quinn tablets that were known to have survived so the staff rapporteur goes out there and he's like yes, is actually quite tablet, and then it just gets picked up like all over the? U S and all over Canada, and so did the surviving yeah five of them survived and as. Mentioned. It was because of an incubator. So. Basically, I remember how we were talking about the Chicago Worlds: fair in nineteen, thirty, three in nineteen, thirty four waited did the reunion, so the quintet bullets were born. They were called the deal and they were born two days after the fair started
and was actually William Randolph hers? The newspaper may Knight who was like get Clooney up there, get him up. Two calendar outside of calendar, really farmer Ontario and when he said no, but her sent up a reporter and with the reporter he sent them an incubator because they knew that the baby's we need an incubator survive. They didn't have electricity in the house, they sent up this gas powered incubator and I guess it was as whole fiasco at the border as they really are. We have no idea what that is, but basically it wasn't coming about some other people from that same worlds: fair from a different attraction on the midway flute, on Terrio and they asked a father to bring the baby's down, so they get feature them in their attraction. They gave him a really big check, which was super tempting because he already had five kids and now we had five more and it was the middle of the depression. So did he take the money? He did take the money which is kind of where the story takes.
Pretty dark turn. First before he took the money he went to the local priest and the priest was like yeah. Should take it and then, while you're at it. Why don't you give some of that money to the church, because the churches responsible for miracles and this whole birth is Miracle yadda yadda isn't that and so that everybody is like fear, rheostat. He took the money from velvet, the parents who are exploiting the children. Are they shouldn't be raising them and within two days. A dad like, never mind. He gave back the cheque, but every it was already super angry, the public the outrage and they put him under pressure on the other. Your government, not to let the parents raised, the kids So what did the entire government end up? Doing, did end up getting a legal order to take the queen tablets away from their parents, and then they passed a D Ancona tablets, guardianship ACT which made the can tablets wards of the crown, so basically removed all authority from the parents and made them the responsibility of the governments and then they realized, hey, there's a lot of it trust in this week,
make a lot of money off of this, and they built this sort of like hospital nurseries in them to grow up in, and it basically came a theme park. They called it quit land and people would travel up to Northern Ontario to go to Clint land. This is so grim, so the people in coming to quaintly yeah they totally came to current land. I mean supposedly taken to prevent their exploitation, but then they absolute, we are exploited by this guardianship board. There are super super popular, they were in a bunch of american newsreels. Always Moroccans Americans knew about them. Actually there still some those newsreels available, so maybe you can watch on together. Where I have on here only started
services with the Orange reports, a calendar Ontario Noddy setting the answer is a thriving trade. But while they wait outside, we go in fine, the two and a half year old little girls enjoying the final dip of the season and our own private bathing who, as even with the ribbon and I have used general but then all generally in the play out, even takes the center of the state and already he's got that this move. Mary, two thousand yards terrible because, like you know how terrible their story is- and yet it's just so cute when it's like a nightmare, I dont go, God is she's ring a cowboy had become more, I can handle it. I didn't say that were down and then just surrounded by those little fence dates. It's it's a little zoo, verve forbade because only yeah. It was absolutely as you for babies and that's really how people treated it like
I came to Northern Ontario. They would watch the girls as they grew up for you, there is an years of their childhood through like one way, glass but obviously Girls knew that they were there as they could hear them, and it was just like pretty bleak. And in addition to the zoo aspect of this, watching the girls who are adorable Walking around and interacting away toddlers do there is huge. You know: gift shop, such waste, front legs, desires and stuff? I mean those became such a market. There were such a cottage industry around it. They had these dolls and their dolls. Outsold. Surely Temple dolls five to one that's wild. I've heard of surely tumble, but I've never heard of the rank when tablets before their story. People would just take root. Rocks from the area and seldom as fertility rocks, because people would go there because they thought there was something magical about the soil there
www Erhard, came to visit like just a few weeks before she went missing in kind of, in the same way that we started this story with that building in Minneapolis. You could really do the same thing with current land, because you could say that There is a six lane highway in the middle of nowhere in Northern Ontario because they built all this infrastructure to get all the tourists out there and they were all these adds- I mean there will make. There is a lot of money made off these young girls, and I mean that's a lot of pressure to put on two kids, who probably dont, know any different. But how did they cope under that sort of pressure? It didn't end when they were children It's like they never got to learn normal social skills and ever got to learn normal life skills. You don't remember exactly what the story was, but I think one of them when she was eighteen and she was out on her only she had never handled cash before so she didn't know how to spend money
and it's all really twisted, because Ontario government, like you, said they supposedly took over their guardianship to keep the current upwards from being exploited. But Instead, the Ontario government did a lot of exploitation. They spent all this money that was supposed to go to a trust fund for their quintuple. That's they spent at all on, like security for their amusement park and salaries for stabbed and Oh later on in their lives, they ended up A lot of financial troubles, so what is happening with the contemplates ass? They grow yeah like a Usually they went back to their parents after kind of a long drawn out legal battle, so they were nine and one slash two years old when they went back to their parents, but their family life was just super painfully rocky like they never got to learn how to be a family. Their father was a save was really really painful and when they turned eighteen, all the tablets left and they tried to just find a quiet life elsewhere, one maybe even too I went on to be a librarian, so much quieter life, Animal
this really tough and then in the nineties to survive England tablets decided to come forward about their exploitation and that's where this person named Carlo, too, can you comes in? He is a friend of the deal. Now. But at the time he was working p, r and D. Let him tell the story. A book at her trousseau I'd calls me up, and he says, Carlo it. We need your help. We have a book here. It's about the ongoing topless I up to the ongoing. Operates. I I'd know that story in a very well our the sisters. Doing today I told me This is exactly why were we were putting out a book? I said, oh what's goin on here as well The three surviving sisters are living the same house with a leaking roof, and they wanted to put out book in order to to help to pay for the groceries at to fix the roof, and I said how can this be? You know I was. I was flabbergasted traffic yeah, it's heavy and
hello, something just but a background about, Carlo when he was a kid and he started school. He didn't speak in English and He goes to the library and the first english language book he ever pulled out from the library, It was about the D Ancona tablets and so He got to work on this project. He got super emotionally invested, not just in the book. He did a bunch of research. He paid lawyers and forensic accountants out of his own pocket to prove that the sisters had been terribly exploited when they were young and he I'm getting them a bunch of media attention like this is back in I need an all of these senior citizens of Canada. A start writing to the Ontario governments and they say hey. Says wrong. You should pay some reparations and three years of work. He finally got my settlement, which was pretty awesome. About three million. U S dollars so good. The story is horrible, but I'm glad there's a little bit of justice. In the end, they re all creditors Karla in what a saint
amazing and totally yeah he's a really good friend, and obviously money can never undo what happened to them that we know to innocence There are still alive there super close friends. They dont really talk today media. They still want to live a quiet life. They have some friends, they got their house fixed up, it's a museum now, so those are, you know somewhat positive outcome, Well, there are maize and thank you so much for reporting them and work with us on. This has been fantastic. Both acts ninety nine percent. Invisible was brief week by K, Thornton and edited by Chris Peru Bay and Joe Rosenberg mixing debt reduction by reviews of music, Sean Rio Kitty. Mingle, is this in your producer. Kirkwall state is the digital director ferocity senior editor Delaney Home every travel, Vivian Late, Sophia, Clatter em
Fitzgerald and me roman Mars. You can buy more of Katy Thorntons work, it's Katy potent dot, com, special thanks to K, L, a community radio in Minneapolis and DAWN raffle, who wrote the book the strange case, doktor cool We are project of ninety. One point: seven K w in San Francisco and produced on radio row in beautiful, downtown oakland. California, ninety nine percent invisible as a member of Radio Tokyo from Pierre, accept, fiercely independent collective of the most innovative shows in all upon casting support them. All ready utopia got, I found you can find the show enjoy discussions about the Sean Facebooking tweet me out, roman Mars and the show at ninety nine p I or run Instagram and read it to but Katy collect.
Some amazing pictures of amusement park. Incubator shows you can see them and then I M p, I dot org. Radio.
Transcript generated on 2020-02-14.