Here in the US, we're not used to needing to cover half of our faces in public, but if you look at the other side of the world, it's a different story. In parts of Asia, wearing a mask in response to the coronavirus pandemic was a totally easy and normal adjustment. Rebecca Kanthor is a reporter based in Shanghai who has lived in China for the past 17 years, and she tells us why the culture behind masks developed so differently there, and the doctor who started it all.
Plus, we look at the manufacturers who pivoted to make products that are in short supply because of the pandemic.
Masking for a Friend
We have a book coming out!!! Check out The 99% Invisible City here.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
This is ninety nine percent invisible, I'm roman Mars. Over the past month, we have all had to make some adjustments to try to stop the spread of covered nineteen, some of them
have been small. Like me, recording this episode Ernie the comforter in my bedroom, instead of in her studio in beautiful, downtown Oakland California, we met experiences,
You need to me, but another adjustment that I've made in one that you probably had to make too is wearing a mask in public,
Have you been paying attention to the directive is about where and when or even who should be, wear masks and there's a good chance. You ve got a little confused because they ve changed
magically here in the: U S, we're just not used and needing to cover half of our faces in public, but if you look
the other side of the world is a different story.
In parts of Asia, Brain a mask and responses of the Corona powers pandemic. Pussy totally easy handle adjustment
We would like a cancer is a reporter based in Shanghai who lived in China for the past seventeen years, and she is here to tell us why the culture of masks developed so differently there and the doktor
who started at all yeah. I remember around the first time I really started taking seriously I was. I was travelling on my way home to see my Inlaws actually for chinese New year and in the night before,
I'd gone out, everything was normal and then
that morning I worked at the door and you know I put the location of my gps app on my phone and you know how, on your phone you're, the gps apple will tell you in this. Like nice, calm voice, you know which direction to start. Often you will this time my gps upset this angel. She should enjoy eating at how jar gingerly action. So it saying please where a mask if you're going out and be safe
my gps ever been quite an intimate with me before tat? I may find never again, never know it baby. For I mean it's like a totally weird, but stuck with me
and you know after I heard that, then I you know,
Looking around I started noticing
everyone around me on the street was wearing a mass. It was like
during the day before and that day, like switch, had been flipped. Everyone knew exactly what to do. So
a week later I got back to Shanghai and the change was just even more drastic.
People weren't going outside, but anyone who did go outside was wearing a modest and there were poster,
Tal over reminding people to wear masks, and I was
writing my bike one day and I I passed this sum loudspeaker with a voice that was just like on a loop, reminding people too, where mass
and so the thing is you, like. Everyone has to wear a mask, but at that time you couldn't, by one anywhere
pharmacies were also allow me. I tried online, so does that mean
Everyone has already had a mask yeah. I guess I mean I think people had masks at home, so I mean eventually a friend gave me some, which was really nice,
but the whole experience got me wondering like how come everybody else was so prepared, and I'm like
only idiot like you, could get caught off guard
and we re amusingly, I mean you're from the. U S,
and you know I'm here in Europe we do seem to have a very different relationship with masks in in general. Yeah me-
nothing that I counted as something I should keep in my first aid kit at home, but he has every one else here was doing that
So why do you think that is? Why does China have different question with mask yeah me I was. I was really curious about that's. I started looking into the history of masks in China and it turns out they ve been used here for a really long time.
And so Roman I sent you a photo and zoom chat. You haven't there yet.
This is a black and white photo. Is a couple people worrying you big white mass, like everything is chronic covered, except for the eyes.
In its like a little thicker and Gaza than the ones that we might see people wearing around today. But it's basically the same principle.
the wind was this photo taken. So this
is from over a hundred years ago, when China was the.
Scene of another devastating epidemic. The great men, cherry and plague world men tree at the time was contested territory its where Northeast China. Today and in nineteen ten, it became the sight of a really deadly outbreak of plague. Ninety five percent or more of those that got infected, died and they died fast within just a few days of contracting the virus
And this outbreak was really well documented, especially in photographs? It was the first time, but you, hard cameras, could readily cover an epidemic about. It was the first
time that newspapers could carry. These images could carry good quality, photographic images, so this is Crystal slim CAS he's a medical entered
I'll just at university have seen Andrews in the UK, and he said that at that time photos of the outbreak and Manchuria.
Seen in newspapers around the world and photography played a key role
in establishing these ideas. This idea,
The global outbreak allow outbreak which is spreading across the globe, so allow
are these photographs through were quite graphic scenes of victims, but there
also a lot of photographs of people wearing masks like the one I showed you and at the centre of these
photography, ease the mosque. Now why
The mask mosques had been used before for surgery, so I think the official history of that
mosque in a clinical setting or on the operation. Theatre dates back.
From around eighty
seven, but mosques. I've never been systematically used in an academic before through masked, had been used by doctors, but they were being used by the general public at this point right,
but that changed adventure acres of one guy. His name was wounded in the doktor rule
the young chinese malaysian doctor who had gone abroad to study medicine in Europe NEWS
Actually, the first idling chinese person to study at Cambridge.
The Djinn dynasty government call them into led the chinese efforts against the plague, since if it was an internet,
Every penny was surrounded by all these much more experience ganders from Russia, Japan, France, Great Britain, and he was only in its early thirties, but he was really smart and he was here
brilliant scientists and he soon came across the people with symptom same he concluded, gave Missus pneumatic plague and he had this idea that it spread in an airborne manner, so meaning it spread from droplets in air coming from people's noses our mouths.
And with this new idea, I mean how do people think it was being spread at the time. Were you know, there's different kinds of plague. There's bubonic concept to seem like those ones are spread by fleeing from small animals. At the time most of the experts say that was held. This plague was spreading, but doktor will he figured out that this outbreak was a different kind of plague Emmy? He was treating all these people with respiratory symptoms and he was convinced that their pay
bacteria was spreading through the air and he's right about it. We'll go do yeah, and so he made us like. It seem like a simple suggestion. Everyone should start cover
their mouth, in noses with face, masks,
which is the suggestion that we're all getting today this up, this broke rollover right, but that was the first time someone had suggested that an he was really serious about this idea. He he designed face, masks and
and so I talk to this historian at Shanghai Library, her name's Vivian Hung and she's been reached.
Watching the history of wooes mask and she was telling me about how it was designed. She speaks chinese. I'm just gonna translate what she said.
Hasn't towns that Joseph about I should
just put on them, and she said this: it was this basic gauze mask with two layers and in between the layers there was. I bought a war by six inch piece of cotton that was about a half inch thick and then there were these two strings to tie the mask behind your head and all of these materials were really cheap and easy to
and at the time. So it was something that was meant to be very simple.
A very easy and cheap to to produce
and which he invasion, that all his doctors all his nurse,
no, he sanitary staff should use
engaged in anti plague operations and any wants of the general public to wear these masks as well, but the other doctors in Manchuria at the time they were
listen to him, I mean, maybe it was because he was young or maybe because China at that time wasn't really known for its scientific prowess. They just didn't believe
or maybe some because their raises no, but even the local leaders were suspicious of him. I mean he was just nobody believed him, and I think it was because he was kind of a nobody compared to all these
Miss european and japanese doctors, so they recognize him
very, very actively and other is this incident, which he recounting he's autobiography, which was called the
fighter, where he's confronted by the famous french doctor
giralda misleading and mezzanine Pierce expounding airborne played fury
humiliates came in a very racist mother ended.
Isn't he goes on to operate in one of their hospitals to to
and the sick without wearing what
I'd suggest. It is an essential device teaches the mosque, so I think you can guess where this is going on.
Fortunately for the french doktor. He dines solar, now just play
and he buys so always suddenly and completely unexpectedly. Forlorn remain vindicated dramatic.
Yeah I mean we don't know if the mask would have saved him, but after he died. It was just this huge case in point that prove that we had.
Right. So the moment when mostly dies and basic aim
One starts accepting wooes theory in all these matters,
those fiery own over
be able to use that phrase quite the same way as I used to. But when I get his point at this point like it spreads everywhere, he how exactly I mean it was reported
all over the world. The men
Brian plague, ended after seven months. Some people say it ended because spring came in the weather. Warmed up, but doktor will claimed. Vic
Because of the recommendations made to stop it spread wearing masks, quarantining, sick patients,
off the Trans Siberian Railway lines, but Doktor wooes mask,
became the symbol first successfully controlling the outbreak, like everyone wants, the mosque and everyone starts photographing. The mosque and
mass becomes these kind of the symbol of scientific success and medical ability to cope with these dreadful disease in money,
Korea and worries praise, of course, as a genius in having invent today.
I think there is a huge success story
and she came out of these. As you know, the guy who's internationally recognised as having control of the epidemic.
Which was astonishing because he was a nobody until then, and she was
meeting with very, very famous doctors that you will when under form tat.
First organization dealing with disease control and then later he formed the Chinese Medical Association. His work is the basis for China's Disease Control and public health system. Today,
and you do people remember him the day I mean did he get the recognition that he deserved? Well, I mean in nineteen thirty
five. He was nominated for a Nobel Prize winners who is pretty, but today I mean-
he never became a household name, not even in China I mean fewer people, don't people don't know em, but stay energies, one of the most sickening
can't epidemiologists of the twentieth century search ashamed that he's not better known. So what happens with
whose mask after the mentoring Blake. Where does it go well document,
design inspired others around the world to try their hand at mask designed to shoulder.
Competing buildings so becomes game.
Of a medical competition in design competition for the best mask. You know it's there, it's the Holy GRAIL off of that that be damaging to who is going to produce the best mass and most efficient mosque and
They might really weird things. You know they look like. I don't know like divers suit,
something the others are more simply, but rules is the one which prevailings one of the keys
I think about wooes design was that it was
disposable. So it didn't need to be disinfected. Some of the other designs were just too complicated, amazing
seven years later, when the nineteen eighteen flu epidemic hit,
similar to the ones that doctor we design started being used around the world. This was a device
globally recognised by doctors as well as the late public. Us
necessary and efficient
anti contagion device. You know, I don't know
you know how easy it would have been to make people accept this mosques. You know it and adopt them if it had not been
part of it. A recent outbreak that have been successfully controlled
and during the nineteen eighteen flew Americans. Warmer
a lot like doktor, Wooes Nancy Times is a history professor at Sunni Stony Book
and she's written a lot about the epidemic. She told me about it:
great photos of Americans wearing masks during the flu epidemic so gave this really wonderful picture.
Other baseball game in Pasadena, California, and you can see
the empire, the catcher in the picture today,
I'll wearied may have an
behind them can be kinder, also wearing mass. So
people wearing them during a baseball game like I can barely where one like on a brisk walk for couple blocks
so like does mean that everyone was wearing massive. This point ok set to be fair. I think that was the only baseball game where people can
it was reported as the first baseball game where Players WAR Masks- and it was probably also the last one and so was a little bit of
propaganda to get people. It was for Show- and Professor Tom said, that these photos, and mostly police officers, nurses, but also baseball players in society Ladys they were meant to convince
more people to wear masks till they were like Instagram influencers totally totally. He s
I mean this time around. During this pandemic, I've I've been seeing
use items and on social media photos from back in the nineteen eighteen pandemic, and you see these photos in its. I guess it's easy to assume that everyone was wearing the mask, but Professor Thomas's, we shouldn't assume that it was that universal. Were
I want to call it an elite practice that specialise practice, so you can find it among certain groups.
Their wearing other. It's gonna be replicated as a way to make everybody feel calmer and safer, but was the expectation that every American,
should go around with the gods. May ask. I dont think that happened. Still local health officials were calling unpeopled awareness
asks, and in some cities there were mass ordinances. So if you are
hot without when you were finder, you went to jail and women were being called upon to so mass for the cause, which is another thing you see today.
So right after that, nineteen eighteen pandemic ended Americans kind of stopped using masks.
It was his gun. This, like Blip in America,
yesterday, where it wasn't on you,
order mask yeah masks, basically
I want obscurity in the? U s after that I mean there were other,
epidemics throughout the twentieth century, but they weren't spread by coughing and sneezing in the? U S
but in China there was never a chance for people to forget masks for too long
First of all in China. You have continuity of the use of the mask right, so they met the mosque. Storing does not ended nine and eleven or nineteen eighteen. It continues
through several lover outbreaks, say in the twenties in the thirties and then in
always China. After forty nine again, the mask plays an important role in public health campaign
you see the mosques in in,
a great number of public health propaganda.
Upstairs. I think this is kind of an important point. A lot of folks would say that wearing a mask is kind of a cultural thing in China. I think that's kind of
but Vivian Long was telling me that its only
in normalized in China, because they were required to wear them by the state jumping in Shanghai
about one hundred zero homes have long held me that public health campaigns on neighbourhood chalk, words are posters and telephone. Poles are promoted, wearing masks and in the twenties and thirty's Shanghai newspapers
They published articles in cartoons that tried to popularized the use of masks.
Yeah a woman's magazines, stood masks, is kind of like a status symbol and they were
there were these magazine articles teaching readers had admit knit their own masks.
Falling for this fashion thing as well, because I have a kind of a more technical store bought.
Mass good, looking and then five left over from the wildfires California, but elsewhere
and made one and it might not
and efficacy of the manufactured one, but I I like where anymore, because its prettier currently exists,
please you you're more willing to where something that you like the way, London sure anyway, throughout all doktor, Bruce Gauze mask design or something similar to it survive. And then, if we flash forward to the two thousand to Sars epidemic, again, masks appeared
doctors were wearing surgical masks, but Vivian Hung remember seeing people on the streets wearing mask similar to the ones that doctor we designed
deleting travel Doyle. European speeches were what are your pay phones, anxious,
back then she says she was a student. I wish he was stuck on lockdown under university campus in Shanghai and once again they were public
of campaigns on handwashing and wearing masks, and she says that's why this time
around everyone remembered and knew what to do so
Debbie that young people in China or more like inclined
culturally two messages had more occasion
in recent history to wear masks, and so they know what to do. What the deal is yet exactly, but that's not to say it's been easy for chinese people to get used to wearing masks. I mean even this time around at first older people really resisted
let her go happened here too, a returning comments or are boomer pair
Thursday and because they were, we were fearful, they would die so yeah and it's the same thing. I mean younger people here, we're too
gimme that at first they were really having to nag their parents and grandparents to wear masks, and they were joking that they had to nag there. You know older relatives with the same intensity that they were being nagged to get married, Zulu directed
what's he thinks the actually calling up their family everyday thing, please, where a mask, please where mass whatsoever?
Vivian. One told me it's. It's really taken chinese people a hundred years to get to this point of acceptance of wearing masks during an infectious disease outbreak and not to the point where people will just where them when they ve got a cold it just normal here. That's apple cure that hotel, Shiva Fitch HANS. She wanted
I wish that they can as a whole, but on your meal. She said at least wearing a mask is not strange. You were in the winter to keep warm or to protect from pollution or vehicle.
It's a normalized daily behaviour and no one would look at you strangely for choosing to wear one
yeah, and that really wasn't the case here in the: U s I mean
if you were in a mask before others like people, would wonder why it seems like that's really starting to change in the basket
yeah I mean,
now. I would say that may be like eighty percent of the people,
in stores are re Maston even walking along the street, and mean that without this reading,
in the Bay area. We act
a little bit of history of wearing in any five mass, because there's wildfires here every year, and so it's not uncommon for people to have
a couple in their home to deal with smoke.
I think we were more ready to take on masks, but I've never seen them like this. I mean it's. It's totally like
people are wearing every type of thing. Homemade masts in ninety five masks there there really everywhere yeah. That's that's quite different. I've been hast because I've been hearing from asian american friends that
It was like real trepidation about wearing a mask in public, because the culture of mass so different or has been so different in the. U s I didn't there was a lot of fear about how they would be perceived wearing a mask and professor
in terrorist talked about this, the mosques have become very aggressively ambitiously rationalized writer associated with China.
With chinese people in a very sign of phobic manner, so sign a phobia is basically racism towards ethnically
chinese people until you have. These phenomena were with some journalists call in Moscow Phobia, which is basically about
tribute of sign a phobia being attacked like people look chinese or who look asian being
In fact, on the streets of London about replaces because their wearing mosques, professor voluntary, says this kind of insidious racism
isn't even recognised by most people, but it's always been connected with this.
These so from the very birth of xenophobia in them.
Europe and America
Serbia has been connected with with this idea of epidemics.
Coming from China being strained strained by chinese people right,
and I think that the mosque and and Moscow phobia he's kind of a is tight
to these two, these racist and xenophobic attitudes, but in time
there's no mask a phobia, its people who aren't wearing masks during this pandemic that are seen as strict
so these serve. You know the baseline as it were of ourselves.
Direction, but, more importantly, more it's it's not so much about protecting yourself against being infected. It is more
protecting others. I think
This is something I didn't really fully appreciate at the beginning of all this I mean, I think,
if his instinct, that when people were mass before that, they were trying to protect themselves-
they were. There are really worried about their own health and when it came to a pandemic, but the truth is it's like the opposite of that, like they think they have a little bit
Wolden, their own spread to you a mask does a really good job of keeping them from spreading to you there protecting me exactly there being conscientious
So have you got news to him? Ask regularly, I mean it's not it's definitely not fund aware mass hurrying. I'm not gonna lie
I mean I I have glasses wearing massive. It is the worst. What's the worst yeah, it's it's tough!
Lessons are always flagged up and I I hated wearing them unpolluted days in Shanghai. They made me feel really depressed
but during this outbreak I'm really surprised. They do not make me feel depressed, and I I feel like see
in seeing everyone around me wearing a mask. I feel like a sense of solidarity. I mean I can't see their face. I can't see their whole face, but I feel like were telling each other and watching out, for you
and I mean I am paying much more attention to people's eyes because that's that's how I can tell what their expression is
right. You can see that their smiling yeah, so I mean when I see-
other people wearing a mask. I feel like its remit
Do that we're all in this together.
coming up. Individual people are not the only ones changing their habits to deal with. Corona virus manufacture
There are also finding themselves in uncharted waters, switching to produce the masks and gowns and Ben letters that we need so desperately some story
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dotcom, slash invisible, talk to a therapist online and get help when you want in wherever you are about three weeks ago, Tyler Mental was in a home depot at six, a M taken his first steps in trying to solve a huge global problem. Just looking at
just a wall of parts
in pieces and hoses just trying to figure out what I could put together to put together a baseline ventilator.
Chemical ventilator that could assist someone who has trouble breathing because they have covered nineteen o eight areas, starting
sign process. You need something,
communicating with teams. The first thing you put together a lot of people to understand direction. It defines things you never thought you would define so just having a physical concert can always
very helpful, so Tyler and colleagues from the home depot and noticed off on the wall is designed for ventilators staring at a wall of
one way valves for pity connections like they didn't fit
what we are using it all. They were silly, but they and there are the wrong pressure great- that everything was wrong about a foot.
But we need to understand what it is we are working with is saying it was a throwback to the scene and now a politician
and this is the scene where the mission control technicians have to figure out how to fit us.
Where filter into around whole, using only the items that can be found in the APOLLO, thirteen spacecraft or all the astronauts are going to die.
That is just one we gotta come
We are in a way to make this really into the hall for this using nothing but then
that's a great has seen a movie history anyway way doesn't started thrust up in a cart, and I put a hundred fifty turn our backs on my credit card.
Ran about just after eleven restarted
things together until it made our first adoration ventilator, as you can tell
Tell her mental doesn't normally make ventilators must the time I make robots TAT Sancho water pipes to finally
This is a huge problem with all infrastructure. Twenty percent of the world's clean water is lost to leaky pipes, but suddenly that wasn't the most
the same problem in the world
when Corona virus came and hit us like a dead
ability to travel and do in other big projects. We have come up went away, so we started to look at what else we can do and
My co, founder of the ventilator project, is actually
Also, my roommate. We
We work in the same building and we just
you're talking about the fact that ventilators are going to be a huge shortage and so
started digging into a new start to find out that ventilators, not that difficult product.
I have difficulty doesnt mean it's easy remains at straightforward.
So Tyler in his cofounder at the ventilator project, Alex Frost,
what a team of over two hundred remote volunteer engineers, medical, regulatory and business professional.
To try and help solve the global ventilator shortage as fast as possible, and even though the details from company to company are very different, a lot of manufacturers are making us
or a pivot. You know of your manufacture, that's kind of what
You're always looking like we make something like that. We make that that sort of inner blood you know this is met Henderson the co founder of sound devices. They normally make high end audio, mixing and recording councils a couple,
ex ago. I was texting back and forth with my had a manufacturing LISA and said you know:
I wonder if we could make the ventilators or masks or something they ended up, concentrating on facial masks
hey man and talk to my sales guys and said he
you guys, want to call some hospitals and see if this is true about there being a shortage, because I don't know- and
they made some calls and they came back and they said yeah. Definitely, hospitals really need these badly. So that's
You know a few minutes later we just started buying parts,
you know that was on a Monday that we started that, and then it was thirty. Two hours later we had the first ones coming off the end of the line, and today,
If you go to the product page on sound devices, dot com, you can order eight thirty to channel three extract mixer
and a one hundred pack of single use medical face shields and much like the ventilator project when met described his companies pivot to our producer, Emmett Fitzgerald, who you're here and the next
It wasn't the technology or the know how needed to make the product. That was the hard part you take.
Stick it on their staple on the elastic. In your done. It sounds really simple, but am getting these three parts in
I am has been difficult, so we
have supplier its
It's our normal suppliers for the plastic shield and for the foam. Luckily, we ve got great supply
as for them there right near by
Wisconsin and we by a man- that's all great, the elastic peace, a pet spent
a nightmare to get in quantity. I'll, give you
for instance, last week, two of our purchasing
people, Lorraine and Chinese were dry,
being all around northern Wisconsin, going from Walmart to Walmart and Joanna Fabric. Two giants fabric buying up
all the elastic they could find. I believe, when you picture manufacturing you don't picture manufacturers driving to Gillian Fabrics together
well, I'm normally you don't put
a strange situation right and so it's tip
When you call you say, I want to buy this much foam and they say lead time
MS six weeks, and you going ok, no problem, you plan for that. Well, in this pandemic six weeks, does us no good
supply genes, regulations and factories have to be more nimble than ever before, because the virus is a moving target. Just ask gender Reno see
of the industrial sewing and innovation Centre in Detroit, which normally makes fashionable. I will tell you that this has been such a quickly change all environment at first it was mass now
mass mass, so he said, but always met us all, these mass
and then it was no longer methods. Roy gowns and gowns is really turned up, beat the big the big problem.
Really. What we're most suited to make. What is
Isolation, gown exactly so nicely for now is for
as the varying degrees and entrust me when I say I have learned a lot less. I have wow, I mean acronyms. I didn't know before the whole thing. What makes an isolation gown is that it has particular protection to varying degrees
is so if you're in surgery, you have, you know, really take costs around your wrist and tight around Europe. Your neck. You know your high spread material and the level, but one is just sort of like a sheep that you put over that
you know helps you a little bit. The industrial sewing and innovations enter also known as Isaac was already emission driven company before krona virus, so the industrial sang in innovation centre.
Is designed to be a people centred institute that trains people for advance manufacturing of some goods
like apparel, and to do so in a way that is responsible. The fashions Risa very polluting yours,
possible industry. For the most part, it puts about forty five billion units and garments into landfills every year beforehand,
There were one of the solutions to changing these bad practices is to manufacture closer to home,
So instead of stores speculatively buying clothes, they think we'll sell nine months in the future. They use more advanced and local manufacturing to call
we fulfil orders on demand, so you get ready
a whole waste stream, and now you have a whole resource poor that you can now allocate to pay higher wages and being sustainable
that standpoint, we really believe that having a sustainable products is not sustainable unless the people making them have sustainable wise. You
fight every battle at the same time, right until they get that, but power view approached balancing your mission to the moment
You can't make everything first priority, so
sustainability. I will have to tell you right now is not the our number one you priority
because I'm workin on polypropylene and these
swell Mcgowan's. Do what I once knew, how to do the opposite
We have learned a lot about how that stuff it's recycled.
You know we're learning as we go about these waste streams and what you can do about these waste streams. So its interest
saying that, even though our sitting, where ways were also understanding what you do with it, when it's done, but I think what hasn't changed is our commitment to training people and treating people differently than they have been treated
factory environment. So we were just making different products. So how do you physically make the factory safe so that workers can be separated, still do their jobs requesting?
So what are the things we have to do is what, when you're, when you're manufacturing in a lean way, you reduce costs by reducing the space, by which you hand things to each other.
Though, in a typical cell,
The team of people working on different parts, one item once the items through the sell, its complete, it literally have pieces fabric that are better time.
I gather that are kind of making their way around. You know. The South Sea are very, very re, closing, that's how your that's, how you remain competitive, so we had to distant,
is that so literally, what we did was ready brand new gorgeous machines that mean ok are there
programmable there really beautiful and
between them. We ve read these. You know corrugated
I've heard pathway is seldom duct tape. You know
between with sails. So that way,
create enough distance at least sixty eight to pass within a material cross. The men to wear masks the glove. So it's been this real, you know just figure it out and make it work
as we continue to navigate the pandemic, notably without the proper planning and guy
More federal executive were mine,
the ingenuity and generosity of these manufacturers to fill in the gaps there.
We'll be allowed, but just figure it out.
The Vietnam more, but the ventilator project, sound devices and the industrial sewing and innovation centre go to nothing.
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how come you know it's by Crook,
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ninety nine percent visible was proves this week by Rebecca Canter, Emmett Fitzgerald and Vivian lay mixing
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by showing Rio came angle. Is our senior producer call studies the digital director? The rest.
Senior editor Delaney Hall Joel.
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and me roman Mars. We are
Ninety one point: seven K, L W in San Francisco and produced on radio row, which is defined.
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Transcript generated on 2020-06-10.