Dax and Monica host a conversation with Bill Gates about his new book, How To Avoid A Climate Disaster, for the Chicago Humanities Festival.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Welcome. Welcome, welcome to a bonus episode that we really had no intention of releasing right correct. It was a pop out. It was a big. We were really flattered, of course, to be asked by the bill gates to moderate. A discussion about his you book how to avoid a climate disaster which we love. It's a credible block so anyways. We we did Yeah moderated it. It was really fun. It was so fine, so flattering so fine, so informative. I get ass bill about my home, which felt very intimate and privileged and and it was put under the Chicago Humanity's festival and on what was kind of funny for us as a core performers is we can't see the audience and we also don't know who attends so we don't over eighty five year olds or ten year olds or whatever we do ploughed ahead as
it were an armchair expert show and we were inappropriate and it was fun. But I was nervous. The book is so digestible and so interesting and really worth taking up in reading. So hopefully this will like gonna catch in gear yeah, I loved the book sincerely. It really is the most pragmatic. approach. I've ever heard about climate disaster, so please enjoy elbows on black, so we didn't know we were gonna, be releasing it. So if in case, the sounding quality is normal. That is why it's not gonna be because we were not speaking to microphones in the whole point of this introduction was a say that, and I didn't do it this great, so yeah, please enjoy less than perfect sound quality version of Monaco Mouse in Doctor Sheppard moderating Bill gates,
Mama anything. here, the world immense over fifty one billion tons of greenhouse gases and, as we keep doing now, Consequences for human life will be cut off. When I first fell in love computers as a teenager, they were on normous eggs. and only the government in big companies can afford them. But my friends and I became obsessed with a wild idea. What could we do if there was a computer on every day? now the wild idea is quite team.
Some people not only have computers on their desk, but even in their pockets. Now the world needs another breakthrough. In fact, it means many breakthroughs we need to get from fifty one billion. And two zero, while still me in the planet's basic needs. That means we need to transform the way. We do almost everything our commitment Well, these innovations will mean the difference between a future where everyone can live at how to ridicule, live from one more word constantly dealing with the human and financial crises at a historic scale, entrepreneurs and investors have to build new businesses. m change, existing businesses to get these solutions deployed. Government leaders have to enact new policies that drive the market for clean energy and now Events have to keep their voices vowed to all a cannibal for rapid progress, avoiding
I meant disaster will be one of the greatest challenges humans have ever taken on greater than landing on the moon, greater than eradicating the smallpox even greater than putting on every death a mind basic optimism about climate change comes from. Belief in innovation in our power to them. That makes me hopeful. Why do you know what I did that no one could see elsewhere were so excited to tie Do you again, we would at this point can be terrible and waste. What are the great blocked? You help him from out it so that somebody looked at that is all I have to they had become a pretty good person to offer me to thank the Chicago Manifesto for having all of us. It's incredible. I guess I don't know, maybe take the right.
people probably monitor bossy, say bill that I think I'm a man person has about this, but because I'm very much a defeatist I've not ever really engaged. In this topic, I felt like these solutions that were being presented were naive that somehow we all pick the right far. That would actually addressed this problem. I thought the possibility was being put so much on the agenda your shoulders. It feels like it's much bigger problem now, so I enjoyed your books so much in a really really got me engage because I think that for the first time I heard a breakdown. It really encompasses everything we are up against in them. solutions. importantly, very pragmatic solutions that have to happen for us to address this. So I guess my first question, for you is why,
throw perhaps the strange. Why would you write a book about this? Top where we have two things that are as we have this goal to get two zero by twenty fifty, which is because this is very be hard to do the earliest we can get dawn, and we have a young generation that beginning to really speak out and say that this is a moral cost them beyond their own individual. Our success, and hopefully is that strengthens were seen. It in a throughout the country, both parties, even the throughout the world. So when you have those two things you want to have a plan. And go with it, and yet because most people are aware of all these sources, the missions or the scale of emissions, and you know that
demanding nature of getting the zero, which means you can't just pick the easy things you have to pick every thing that does emissions and you can just pick a few countries that you know use brute force and pay in a huge amounts to do it. You actually have to come up with a green products that will be adopted by all the countries, including middle income, countries like India that have yet to provide basic shelter, lady Inner now they need air conditioning, and so I thought, okay, I can contribute to the framework for a plan and the key metrics,
which will probably touch on this idea of the green premium, where you're paying extra for the clean stop and that that that's way too high and we need innovators to bring that down, and so you know I saw the effects of climate change, so I travel in Africa after their two thousand and two two thousand and five I got educated two thousand and ten. I gave a TED talk about it, not as famous My two thousand fifteen pandemic TED talk, but it's only in the last few years that I have seen this energy around the topic that made me think. Ok I'll help contribute to the discussion about a plan and it in a looks like it's fairly timely because we have a: U S: administration, Europe, UK we ve got a big climate meeting in November so and I hope it pushes the Thinking Ford. Yes, I I think that's like you say that the younger generation is incredibly passionate about this topic, as they should be the mouse.
in their children button There has yet to be from my perspective of really tackle call approach there's a lot of tasks in, but I have not seen broken down. So just one thing I want to point out is. I just love, I feel like Wasn't reverse engineer, and maybe I'm wrong about that assumption viruses. I love her. You take us through it Globally, operators, fifty one billion tons of emissions happening, By the way you are invited to say how far a lot in the box Why do you say emissions alot, tonight's ball, neither here not only nine minutes size I think it's such a great way to discuss your thirty one billion tonnes. What's making the fifty one in times and an arm really setting biker that really breaks down forests that I would love
take a look at me. I'm gonna be shocking for a lot of people where it's coming from. I think most people off the cuff would imagine the tall transportation or at all electricity. But it's a lot of things that are surprising, yeah great. Let's put that pie chop up, because I really hope that take place bugger air, the fifty one billion the zero and then all these different sources. As you say, the two that people are quite aware of are that one of the bottom, their electricity, twenty seven percent That is, we burn. Call me burn natural gas to make the electricity the second sector that their multi, wherever transportation comes out or their laughter, Missy passenger cars, that the biggest piece of that, but you ve all Scott Planes, buses, trucks and ships which are much harder to solve
because the total energy they use is much higher than a passenger car. But then we have these three other segments that our pretty low awareness, agriculture that includes the cat oh ah, farts and births, are actually methane gas. That's a powerful greenhouse gas, it's making fertilizer its countries where they are cutting down the forest and that releases carbon and Stephen garbage dumps that also They met methane. Ah then, we have heating and cooling buildings today, in the? U S more alarmed that natural gas are the creature missions, but the biggest piece of this pie that thirty one percent there. That's this physical economy, Ah, you know every building you look at his got stolen. Some man in your car
steal your road is cement, there's a lot of that that the world manufacturers- in fact those are the two by turning to biggest human activities. There are and then everything else like plastic paper, various chemically derived products. Add to that, and so we ve got it change and get green steel. We regarding get green cement to go along with all those those other pieces, and that's why storm team, Is that not only do we have to figure out a make, those green things without a huge price premium, Now we have to rule that out to the steel factories, all over the world include in India, China everywhere and not just in the? U S so we're enough. whose every one of these thirty years,
the remaining in a very intense way. I think it's interesting and important that we don't get stuck in like oh ten years ago. We said no, so now, I may be able to move this earlier. I was like always water bottles became pretty fast, a lot about talking about plans and act like what actual Maybe it was going to end up being a solution because it runs the carbon in the process of making. Perhaps a good draft. Even more storage device for carbon but once again does while on the book, is all these things that are our kind of major component they give me all try. What would is what does it do? What is the cost of this? broke, I love and I did want to buy one thing. There is another thing: it's always turnip running around about
the environmental movement, it seems to me intrinsically anti development, which troubles me. and what I love in the book. As you point out, when you see the difference between Shanghai fifteen years ago. In today's it started in that represent so much Stevens member to talk about which a problem, but it also represents Education, higher standard of living, increase, light had spoken he's a beaver goal that we should have an observer, refreshed by the fact that your approach is no. We want the stuff we want that. We want to be happier tradition, that's not brightness. We want these things, yes, the Ark Industry into doing, because we need more of it
to deal with the even the warming, more Gatt. You know, and actually do us today is the only country that has extensive air conditioning in other countries need to do that, but in using green electricity so that it it doesn't make the problem even even more spent you're right. It's the basic means that in a we take for granted, the law of the world has gotten yet the Eu S rich countries can cut back and that helps a bit but it's not a path to Cyril. You come back. You can help us get there sooner. I you can reduce some of the emissions, but asking India to cut back, that's completely unfair in a. We should feel good that we'll figure out how they get wet, some of what we have, but without a greenhouse gas footprint.
ok, so now you're gonna bring a wifi. You are so uniquely position to have a fresh taken on this. But he has just given. You disagree with business, which is you created something that had not previously existed. and I think you have an optimism about innovation that I can't even really relate to, and then, of course, because you brought so many actual products, the market, your comprehension of the economic forces and what it will take, our soul, relevant to this conversation. You never ever look at one of these things, yeah that make sense to spend a dollar to save five cents of electricity. You know that the matter would never work in your report suggests. Did you tell me how it is a proprietary look at us too, to really factoring in all these economic forces by the private sector, in a works to drive innovation,
You have to have, of course, government setting the rules, but you know termed over the last two hundred years with electricity, it now digital things and improve medicines. In a way we'd like to repeat that in most of the U S is lead in innovation with computers and digital in, which is why we can do events like this, even though we have a pandemic going on its lead in health products, and that creates companies that create jobs. they do exports. We need the replies that for a lot of these areas, where the Eu S innovation, power, universities, national labs, risk taking capital in a tune, venture capital to this climate problem, step up and not only make these products cheap enough for the. U S to say: ok, we'll go green, but make it possible for the entire world So what we all the world is not just
reduce our emissions does era. We all the world our share, which is a large share of that innovation, so that they can do it too. If we just right big checks, I'm not sure we'd be willing, but if you go about it that way it doesn't it only Tax, our fifteen percent, and doing right now we're trying to get China and India to make strong commitments. They are waiting to see what the price will be as their dealing with in us. the sun's warrant, nearly as well off on average as we are, and so the very fact that the last four years we didn't have that are on the increase and we were pushing to buy these green products will look back on that. A somewhat wasted time that we can hardly affords.
You won t ask your pandemic question. It's really good! You know I just like they're, so many a big words around climate change, climate disaster that people had they now but dont know bearing these conversations are like yeah yeah I'm. So I was wondering if you could find a breakdown, green premiums. I dont think people really actually know about that and if you could break that down ass, the observer dot to examples honour a slide here, but it applies Toby Services, your. How much more do you pay for the product or service that has no emissions,
In an electric car, are you pay a bit more up front? You give up some range, the charge times or higher, there's less charging points, and so, if you look at that right now, comparing to shiver lay products. Your pain about fifteen percent, more to go electric gathers and tax incentive that helps with that. And there is now scale and competition in tussles led the way and the other manufacturers are going well. We need to learn from what they didn't and catch up and compete with that and so over the next ten or fifteen years, those batteries. get cheaper, so the range will go up. The council go down in the charging, speed will go down to fifty minutes will be more charge points, and so we can say this will be the first
category Amal the emissions where, in ten to fifteen years that green premium will actually be zero without any government help pay, electric car will be as attractive to the consumer as the gasoline car was, and that's why you'll see very important Detroit company, whose ceo I was talking to earlier today, Mary Vera, who declared that by two thousand and thirty five they see themselves making only electric cars which, in and out released on people cuz GM in a gasoline car and Gm Gm and Ford the two you know a week. We built this world type companies and now, in their saying, ok, they're, gonna change. Is it true that when you do me onto a young man he's festival, your shirt slide. It's right is part of this festival. We got shit like that was very clever.
Release the chevalier in the book. I have to plead guilty that my first car was a Porsche. and so, when I went to get an electric car I was tat. They had one available, but there's lots of good choices and in our test, has led the way in showing you you can make a great electric car around, because a key goal, I knew you'd be exhibited caught will now you just grew up. And this is what happens: grow up with ease up new now in dreams about certain cars and that it gives a guy can have that there's a lot of it. the old most component to desert me back. I want to deal with climate change because I don't want to deal with the guilt associated
oh that's exactly while I'm your book is it's not in either of these by partisan silos. I've seen this topic approached it just as I said, the fact that you are proud about prevarication, obviously We know that list of about some of them that the real hurdles, because they were news to me- preserve- render the gates in the book. I guess when I thought of the time period, when crocodiles existed north of the the arctic circle, that that must have represented at the differences in temperature of like forty degrees, so right at the gates.
Oh, this is much so as a small change has a huge impact on just tell us the the gravity of these small incremental change here. So, if you wanna, if the earth was even three degrees, cooler in a human life would not have come come to be entrapped like we have these temperatures really. is packed ice sea level in a particularly whether the equator is habitable and at times it hasn't been. Even when people say this is bad for the planet. They don't really mean the planet. I mean you know the big ball of it's gonna be fine. What they mean is that they they natural ecosystems and the humans.
Who live on the surface of this planet. We're gonna be in trouble. Now the planet, ten or twenty meal mutineers now can evolve back. some coral reefs and hopefully beans more intelligent than us, but in terms of any reasonable timeframe, the destruction going on here, because we're driving the temperature up very very quickly. In this we haven't seen in natural history, this type of temperature forcing and its at speed. That means that evolution can't keep up, I don't know where to migrate to the corals. Don't know how to form their outer shell, and today they just get up they they bleach and they die, and the dramatic nature of that. That's your to rise is putting us in very unchartered
rectory. Ah, but it means the ice will melt. The seas will get higher than wildfires will comment. The equator. You won't be able to do far. And so all the farmers which are most people in those developing countries. There will be incredible unrest in own twenty times, worse than the seventh, the servants of war, where people will be migrating till the parts of the earth where you can still grow food- and you know that is one of the greatest security stability risks that we run and yet you know, if you wait till it happens in this case, you can't do something like you know, just invent a vaccine and then wait a couple years. Don't goes way this
one because of the scale and variety of activities you have to be smart enough to anticipate that the bad stuff you see now will be so acute in the rest of the century? That you're willing to invest to drive that innovation cycle and get that green premium down in them in a very broad way. Yeah, comprehended. The timeline is essential for this, and I did as one of its itself accelerate as it gets warmer right marshlands. Now, and then more method which ones the atmosphere twenty times as much So if you just kind of really wrapped up, as you say, but let's talk about relic with some of the the crazy challenge as an end, and if my gratitude that you have breakthrough working out to serve the electricity as you point out this huge problem and internet, we care
the whole world run solar and wind as the seasons change daylight. King is making sport well, others not really even looking like a Your work will ever be able to store incredibly efficiently. So then we again Reverse engineering works like ok. Well, then, what's left while new deal in Spain, then people hate nuclear. While you re right, ok, what does it matter MT. That's an issue for me is your approach to that of a low rate of walking through, because I think it's it's it's gangster, so electricity is percent are important, because it's really the main source of energy that we do see a path to make it completely green. So the incredible price
action in solar and wind is key to solving this problem, because in the future, like eighty percent of all the electricity production will be those renewable sources. The reason we can't put one hundred percent exactly what you said, which is that when, when you do get a cold front over the MID West, those you dont ten, To get sign or wind now that's not what happened in Texas a few weeks ago, that was about a failure to whether wise so there's three things subtle, that'll info. That reliability. We will have some storage, but not enough to bear. The whole thing will have some nuclear vision, which is not whether dependent and his green, and then third will have more transmissions. We're very. Lucky tat the? U S is a big country, and so you have electric transmission lines all over the country.
Ah, which we it's very limited, but we have today. In fact, Texas is kind of isolated. There's the West Grand in the EAST grid and the text spread, so they couldn't call on other states when they had, production must stop and they had people getting cold. They had to deal with their just themselves in the future will have ten times much transmission. So if the wind is blowing off the EAST coast, then our power can move in MID west of the MID West is windy, but the but coastal windows not running than the power or move. We have that today between Washington and California, where you'll have wind in California in washing sometimes will go to California. for parts of the rain and the sun in California, we'll go north, so that transmission line actually sometimes goes one way and sometimes goes the other now getting transmission permitted and people
good about it being nearby. That's tricky, that's not nearly is tricky as helping people get comfortable with nuclear which, unless the storage thing The class come down on the scale goes up way beyond what I personally expect. We will have to have that scalable, whether independent source and tried investing in a company and I'm not the only one, but we got support from the government where the private side pays. Half in the government pays happened in five years
You have reactor with any luck that the cost, the safety, the ways to all the key issues have been dramatically improved, but we have to pursue every angle, so we can have this grid that will prove to be providing three times as much energy, because your car will use electricity, the heating of your house and so now for gasoline electricity, even some of these industrial processes like making plastic or our paper. A lot of those will switch from hydrocarbons to electricity. Is their energy input so That's a mammoth task and we have to model it out to make sure that everybody gets to stay warm even in top weather conditions. Yeah, you know tat
unfortunate for them. This is the perfect time to talk about the great, because what was an example of not being led to some national bread and arms. So that brings us. see, was the view that the governments have to really do some stop rubbing I'm gonna be a private here, that's gonna make a national lies, are powered right. We're gonna have to have some major project level dedication for this year for the that it's a mix of the government and the private sector if you can clear the right of ways actually, then a lot of this construction and financial risk with the appropriate gum framework, the private sector is owing to do, but getting that permitting. It has been tough enough that even some very obvious transmission projects, like Canada, Hydro coming down into
New England, or there was a line that was going to go from Oklahoma to Tennessee. That would have brought lots of wind power out of Oklahoma and and benefited both the source and the destination there until I have to look at what's held that back, because we're going to want to make it attractive, including how the the permanent get streamlined. Hopefully, as part of this bill back better that provide an administration, is talking about you, I paid jobs. You want people have a sense that ok If hydrocarbons are tending down not overnight, but over the thirty years, is there something that feels that in. and having electric grid with incredible transmission. Three times this big, all that wind and solar, that will be a gigantic jobs creators as we get.
On the other hand, it has to be the first step because nothing, the laughing. I want you to talk about it out wizen. What were the innovation a bit me? I'm not aware of it is his Katherine. It so and point out yet steel production, which every human in in America's responsible for about six hundred pounds of steel, the men individually. So that's hard were using now that thus far has been a huge foundation. Better n. Currently, however, doing it's gonna continue to be so What is the technology that is going to exist or is potentially going to happen that is going to capture the carbon during expressed an inordinately electricity will have to be a huge component of being able to run that. Yes, we want. Ideally change the way we do things
so. There are no emissions are so that the electric car that battery makes our emissions. The there will be some things that we can't change and propose, what will do is call director capture rule. Have these big boss says that the wind blows through now have a fan and now still pull out of the air. The seal to molecules that are only four hundred and ten out of a million molecules The air are the co2, but you knows it blows that are through there's a way to grab it, and then you press, where I said it becomes a liquid and then you put it in a underground,
where it's gotta stay for. Ideally millions of years that could have director capture will be the kind of clean up thing for the things that just we have no other approach for that's very expensive. Today, six hundred dollars a ton, I think it will come down to a hundred dollars a ton. I hoped that somebody surprises us ah, and gets into even cheaper on funding lot of these companies, Elon Musk just did X prize for companies to get these costs down in a significant way. So that's one of these place. We need lots of crazy in a wild new approaches. I've seen five or six, and
usually have pretty high failure rates, but just one or two those could bring the cost of that down a lot. Then that would now would take care of the entire set of things that you don't have even cheaper ways of doing like we'll have the electric car, where we just never make the emissions in the first place. So a hundred dollars time would have been five point. One trillion dollars to clean up our currents, inaction! That's right! He s a bit! one billion times a hundred and that's the way too much I mean somebody can say: okay,
the world economy. You know that's only like seven percent, but it's not gonna happen, and so only through innovation. That would bring that number down. By about ninety five percent too, like two hundred fifty billion, then I can see how between the rich countries in the middle income countries and helping out the the port, countries that overall the planet could in a reaches agreement. Hey you know if you don't go green, will not trade with you, so we really It. Everyone involved in making sure that this this disastrous heap increase, isn't continuing passed. Twenty fifty yeah, I guess at my passing on that topic- is how do we get everyone on the same case, because if we look at the pandemic, as
kind of precursor of me. I was just telling back like in in my life and I think for a lot of people like this is the first thing. That's happened that like every single person is affected and you feel bad. You build on a day to day and kind of disaster is the exact same thing, I'm not sure we handle gray, I think the dress rehearsal, wet brave the whole house people on the same page about this job requests from the pandemic. It's awful trillions of dollars of economic cost in a mental health, things that are hard to measure in a loss of education years, particularly in the inner city,
you know. So, a lot of the dimensions of equity. The pandemic has just made worse, and you know I feel guilty almost that I have a nice house, so I can work from home with lots of room, I have a great internet connection, the nature. My job is such that in a and way my hands in front of a computer screen all day, and now we we should say ok, how did we do? Well, we didn't do nearly as well as we should have. We didn't listen to the warnings in advance and make some investments, but the vaccine manufacturers who got all but Pfizer got a lot of? U S! Government money! That's the one thing! The! U S! Government and its a program called bar that have been put in place over a decade ago, but it did fund that and amazingly the success rate at the back
aims is very high in the first five hour working quite well. Now the variants mean we may have to tune this little bed. We can see the end here because of the vaccine work, so that's innovation at work, but that was innovation after the problem hit us, and so your right, the number of people speaking about the past damn it was too small, and even I was very loud and it's not much on that one say: hey. I told us you know now now the crazy people say that you know I I I like it, but that that is dead Anyway. The motives for when I was on my way
Sk I wanna get draw everyone again, everyone I make up your mind, you can't they sale and attract people, but I haven't figured out why I do somebody. It goes against the gotta. Tell me what I'm gonna do it all that information anyway, this series of peace here is that the commitment and advocacy this, one will have to be a million times greater than the voices in the wilderness. Who didn't get heard relative to pandemic preparedness? This is a generational thing. No single philanthropist can tackle some high percentage to this one I mean in its great we ve got. You know, gps. I myself belong. We got lots of the companies now coming around this, but it's really the borders, we'll have to say. Is this a priority, and so the advocates exposed people too. You know these scary negative things were an apt,
even better at that, and you know that advocacy creativity, I'd, probably won't be able to add much to it. So, the creative community that your pardon by in I challenge them. There are things like this David Attenborough movie that showed pay nature looked even better back. He was a young man, and now this population growth means that a lot of those beautiful scenes from his youth, you go back and you say: wow those forests are gone knows. Coral reefs are dying in, I think, there's a lot of ways to motivate people, but this is the cause of kind of, in a sense, the ultimate cause that we have to orchestrate humanity around. Ok, we're gonna go to some questions, but before we do you have there was no more covered. So as regards the pandemic, I think what really
hamstrung, our response to it was if he coming politicized, I mean, what's the most disheartening thing to watch last year, political party would dictate how you responded or thought about. This was so troubling, and I think likewise, this issue suffers from a similar politicizing and I think, This book you ve written ah how to avoid a climate disaster is as straight up the middle, as you can be. I think it is the most bipartisan look at this. I think it's so pragmatic, I think its prey No, I think it's responsible, economically and politically and morally, and I think you somehow spend the whole thing is incredibly impressive and genuine.
we are so grateful that you exist and that you're, not you when you're you're, bringing yes I'll, be really do that you're, bringing he's everything you created over your life to bear on these hard heart problems, and thank God for you sincerely now we'll have some audiences ask you what your favorite song she's my brain cancer. We talked about. I get my money making on the flight had suicide. Sorry aid have thy voices like him. My scissors, ok, there's a question from sheer. She says: what are your pact has episodes the ship were he to jobs, also by very jealous Dignan, ratified betrayed you don't like this question that
exactly. What? If I would ask us what we just touched on back, it talks about whether people can really change, and do you think climate denies will. However, ever change their mind is a waste of time to think about and vertical where we do need a lot of the younger generation. One hundred percent to be familiar with climate change and test to see those negatives me we have three types of people are a problem then denial us and now that the oil come these are not promoting that you'll see that died down, because the science is just super, wrong? There's a range of you know how quick the tempter goes up and how much you meant that temperature into bad things you know and I am about ranges, super bad. Even the lower end of the ranges is bad, so they did.
you got deniers, you ve got people who think that it's going to be easy to solve, and those are mostly the other political party in their again education. Talking through all the the scale and sources will help us there, and then you have people who think it's impossible named. So oh we give you know. Let's go party before this thing boils over. In that light, All. Three of those camps hold us back in the sense that we are asking for this huge level of engage for this the more new mental task and so alone, but the green premium I agree, would be good to track attitudes towards climate change. Maybe that's leading indicator but whether we can get this done. He knows more than my favorite number, which is that green premium thing
Attitudes will lead on this and in a we're short in the science courses, teaching us in a fair way, so that everyone of graduates, kind of comes out, saying: ok, have that basic knowledge, and I can our Europe tactics to get to the goal, but the goal seems like fighting a war, sobbing health problems to be something that shouldn't be part. We have to agree on the enemy S, having one billion tons of exactly ok, quite another three from an anonymous person, so this might be a little dice. They wanted to remain free web uneasy. Our role as an individual's corporations and governments different regarding climate change, solutions for the individual, that's where you get tee in a by an electric car. If you can try out the artificial
twelve ground beef from people like impossible and beyond and they'll be lots of food products that are low emission type products, that the quality is getting better. The prices coming down. That's one sector where, if you ask me five years ago, I would have put it up as high cement and steel in terms of difficulty, but because a lot of these companies have come out, even as they were offered in restaurants and grocery stores. That demand actually was beyond what they expected, and so is a consumer you're buying the green products helps drive that or indeed, by just turn the improvement and about the price going down. You know educating other people where you get extra credit. If you commit somebody who's, not mere political party car shoe boat and in a year an employee in these big companies
they can reach and when they build a new building by only some green stolen It may be all over time. The tech companies use electricity in their data centers. They can make sure others and any hydrocarbon ever who's, not just now, but in or never use, because they are pioneering customers of these storage solutions that we need to scale up and So you know we all play a lot of different roles. The government is huge. It's gonna find the Aren t. It's gotta create the tax credits. It's gotta be in demand, visibility that nobody can hide their activities in these. These measures are there, so investors and customers- can see all of that, and so it's good to see that you're, the Biden Ministration, is really in a pushing this and and pick very strong people across many parts of the governor
Yeah, we will be able to learn coalitions. Internationally to help everyone, go in the same direction, which hopefully is going to happen. I'm David endorsing emanates from setting an arm above it I haven't, read about it. Why haven't you? What is it always trying to change innovation or technology? They wonder I dont know if will achieve, but would solve a lot of problems. We could have been able to make hydrogen in a clear way so called green hydrogen and make that super cheap. That would help with me B of the manufacturing problems, because you know you could make steel works, actually, the hydrogen that does the work of taking these iron ore and converting it to the metal and,
We make fertilizer right now, use natural gas, so there's a kind of a cool level of activity. Now where people are looking out. Ok, how could you do that? Can we get that price dumb down enough and it'll start out with a high green premium? But if you get the volume up, then these components that day is called Electra Eliza those could get extremely cheap and some enthuse there's. A lot of talk about doing. that wasn't. There are three or four years ago You know the number of cool companies, this large breakthrough energy and our first some we have forty. We just started our second fun where the candidates for a second forty look very, very strong in the first one. We got a lot of storage and food, so the second fun we're looking at that direct our capture. This, the green hydrogen I mentioned, in the work on aviation fuel is
what's the timeline for fusion worldview, is a wild card, because the science isn't well understood. Basically, if you get hydrogen up at a ridiculous temperature, ten million degrees then bounces around so fast that, even though it kind of repels electric We still runs into each other and that's what the sun is doing and when they do hate each other. That release is energy combined to make helium, but there's energy left over and that that's why the sun does a good job. I hearing this up and towards doing that right now. We do that with hydrogen bombs. We don't want that that sort of an uncontrolled fusion reaction there about thirteen companies, but that's one where I say I'd be very surprised if, by twenty fifty that's a significant peace now others people working on their outbreak drew energies, invest
One of those we tracked them, but it's not mature, like vision, is where you take a big thing like uranium and when it breaks into it releases a lot of energy. So vision is what all the electric power reactors have been. Although we're talking about designing that from scratch and cheaper, say. Way fusion. We ve done experiments, but we're not at the energy break even level yet because it takes energy to make those in same temperatures, yeah, ok anonymous once do now. What's the one thing that help you stay optimistic about the state of the world right now and if your optimistic, they want to know. Why are you so delusional?
Ok, all the pandemic is a huge set back. So let me just plead that. Yes, you know that, for some issues is a two year setback for summits and five year, some it's a ten year set back. But before the pandemic, You know we were making progress on reducing child to death sooner we'd cut it behalf since the year two thousand We want more aware of the inner gender inequality in Detroit Foot short flight into. Since made us in a redouble our efforts that look at all these people
or an how in the outcomes for them whether its jobs ring calmer health, you know just on are as good as we expect they would be, and so, when society gets upset about something in a we, we focus on it and we make progress. Sometimes it social awareness that we have a better values. Sometimes it's innovation without electricity, it be hard to have the civilization that we have today, and so I get to work in the digital world which it's mostly good news that that is moving so fast. I get to work on the health world where progress on things like cancer and malaria. Finally get polio, almost
things are and are our future, and so there is a lot to feel good about, while we still in our are disappointed about the inequality in difficulties that remain yeah. You ve seen first hand progress in a part of that, who had big ideas that are happening, so I think that MR often as close feedback loop positive- I am of a provocative, you don't like. I didn't, learn a lot of smoke this whole time, but is it your mind. What is Europe Hall early? What this warming opens up all this fertile land, the northern hemisphere, everything's hunky, Dory that costume That's from anonymous, not yeah, he's crazy.
the most of humanity lives in neither Tropic zones are progress. Answer temperate zones and so the idea that okay, the way we'll deal with this as well move everybody to Siberia or in or near the arctic circle? That's just not going to work that is country's. You know that type of mass movement in a won't work. It is the supreme the further north you arm will be less. I am an in our overall ability to make food and have stable countries. there is no. Let's just abandons that equatorial regions that works out for this. We ve gotta preserve those tropical for us. We gotta make
those areas level ball. You know India alone, you know is one point four billion people and that if we don't act by the end of the century, their farming output will be so reduce that they will be facing starvation, which is what parlor thick predicted before the Green Revolution and the reduction in family birth rate made here prediction foolish, which was super good news that that negative, you turned out to be wrong. We need again to you no help. Families in Africa, where most of the population growth is have access to control and improve their lives where families volunteer we decide. The smaller fan, Besides and we need to make sure they have enough to two on their farm, that they're not feel
like they have to move? So you know wholesale transportation. Isn't gonna get us out of this one guy, I should not be investing in canadian real estate. Is that near hard to say? Maybe Siberia We have one last question from the eyes and it is from a land he wants to know. If will eliminating fossil fuels entirely Tom prohibitively expensive for the average person or household? That's it. That's the very, very good question. If we just said today that everyone has to use green products, the impact at the household level would be gigantic and we don't even have the capacity to make them so they be in short supply in the price.
food, co op. It would be in a super inflationary and so even in the US doing this kind of brute force, you know, is not the solution and I can afford to pay for gold standard carbon offsets like direct air capture, Eunos, at zero, but I know that many millions of dollars for that Green av. Fuel and all the things they get. That gap me there, and so it's not a scalable way to solve this problem. So even if you told me we couldn't innovate iii would join the hey, it's impossible on pessimistic crowd. But then again you know if you look at human life today, vs two hundred years ago. That's the story of innovation. If you look at the work, I was lucky enough to be part of it. Microsoft. In a week
any expectation like the Gates Foundation in a we knew. We wanted to reduce child to death with our partners, but the fact we will look at it from ten million to five million. I would have expected that in a we got new vaccines Don. We got them out Ah, so when things go well, little somehow get as much attention you know like once we get we're the polio people or are not Go around saying: hey where the dead people got polio. They just won't even think about which ok, that's fine, but you know things the absolute progress we made and that with the right focus we will make on climate always is wondrous to me I think your way of looking at things must include how holistically situation it. So, yes, if your kid,
not have plead diapers, just what you don't care about the temperature. Twenty fifty so when I was working together right like reviewer your solving these really pressing and immediate problems for people that bank where's the path to worry about some of the more long term issues. yeah, I'm going government, some people are lucky enough to have well like I do. You know it's up to us. We have kind of responsibility to think about those long term scenario I am going to invest in them and really going to figure out the science. What why that's happening, and how to avoid it immunity. I see the early stages of that coming together with both govern sand individuals quit last question. I just bought a house and sun and I'd like to make here
oh friendly as broadly as possible. So, what's like the one being that of someone's within your house building a house at the base of the prioritize, the other girls went from true you're heating and cooling you should use was called molecular, keep pump it it god it connects to the electricity which will be green and then and some jurisdictions the incentives and whether such a pudding solar panels on your roof eyes. A very good investment in California tends to be a very good investment and a few other states. But this electric keep pumping unless you're on the very cold as parts of the the? U s it works phenomenally. Well, so far that we both love, diet, coke, allowing other people say rough.
could be the foundation of a best friendship. I want you to be my warm up at the invitation has been put on your table accepted or not, but I think those two things or pounds back oaks and Sandra the law, why I measured renounce other words too, but yeah. I look having a diet. Coke, the other winner, the pandemics over such a pleasure to get to talking about the spoke again Let me log in a genuinely converted me, I thought: overwhelming about not realistic that normal really evaluating wants to take. But the reality is all this. Are it's all there and how they climbed disaster hobble. So many people read it and get motive digestible yeah there Just what is not a damn. You know what you like about Bill Gates voted, but it's gonna wait for damage. You know you did a good job of making up for the wind, nor the port dummy
folks are actually very good. Ivo by I rose to that standard yeah. We try to keep it short, but it's fun Our hearts and birds are excessively boarded even eat it java breaking down you're, not really basic understanding of how these things are created. I can see him didn't dance is perfect. Everyone gets it reads it to a family. Member of another political persuasion, Thanksgiving an all hell breaks loose, but it'll be more relaxed. Thank you, they're yeah, the Chicago Humanity's, the agreed to see you guys your job Maybe that's what I think you did a good job, no sudden savagery. now, you listen, listen like six times data
everyone's right to build things again. For all your time, the dedication and down monitors didn't give you some of her money as well to help solve a guess who told me before are you guys? sunlight
Transcript generated on 2021-03-13.