In this episode of Experts on Expert, the Armchair Expert speaks to author, professor and Israeli historian, Yuval Noah Harari. In this far too brief episode, Yuval discusses the differences between our experiential and narrative selves, he talks about a not so distant future in which AI will drastically alter the workforce and he theorizes on why the technological evolution could potentially warrant the return of communism. The two discuss the idea of myths, virtual reality and security. Dax and Monica mourn the fact that they only had an hour with Yuval and Dax takes an armcherry song request in the fact check.
Yuval Noah Harari is a tenured professor in the Department of History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He is the author of the international bestsellers Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind, Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow, and 21 Lessons for the 21st Century.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Pillar everybody. I'm Dac Shepherdesses ran a comrade man. That's me, and this is an episode of experts on expert in today's expert. Is you see one you ve
Harare. You're me talk all the time about both safe
Amazon Homo Day as young as a new book. Twenty one lessons for the twenty first century and its equally as stimulating as the previous two books there's a lot of concepts that he has entered
me, too, that I have rattled all find here, so I think Monica both felt this way we had x amount of time with you
all in that x. Amount of time went by in what felt like sixteen minutes.
Never in my life had the experience were time flew so quickly. I agree because he so
gang smart uninteresting year? It was a good time for
it was. It was candy. Brain candy was bringing me. We left turbo charge
so please enjoy the genius. We call you ve all Harare
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voluntary welcome to arm chair experts are you
Annabelle tour. Yes, you are just touring the North America,
Will you go all over the world? Now we have another year
p, a leg of the turf and then China, and then maybe Turkey in India, and eventually we hope to itself America's role
we are first two bucks sapiens in homo. I sold twelve million copies more at this point.
was translated in forty five languages yeah. So I assume
A very global appeal- I think,
So if we figure is it, is it mine blowing for an academic to have such success popular success? It was in the beginning. You get used to almost
everything but is also, you know, get a lot of help from a lot of people. My husband will also
my partner in manager is kind of the poor
I'll genius behind this whole are phenomena and they have a team of other people. Working ass ever will with us
and you know if it was only me. I would have collapsed long ago- yeah, it's it's impossible to deal with them. Just as a single individual arranged
I do have my wife here see. Actually he saw
cleats, quite a call, an arrangement that you know them. Marriage partners of the family is also the basic economic unit, so once upon a time
I mean you had together a field or a herd of goats and there
now you manage books. Well, I want to kind of lunch right into some. Your ideas on me. I just want to first say that I will I've read both of your first books. I've just started twenty one lessons for the twenty first century that your new book
the title, correct. Yes, something wonderful! I just passed the first test, but I read the first
two books and I've loved them.
sapiens. Animal Deus, I think I may be even homogeneous for me- was more
mine blowing in some concepts I had never thought of, but I also
I heard you SAM Harris over a year ago,
I guess, and use it
some things in their that work were not an either book. That really kind of blue my mind. So I'm gonna want to bring people slowly up to speed. So you you first, you have a phd in history from Oxford. Is at your accurate
originally, I was a specialist in medieval military history. I was writing about there,
say AIDS in the hundred these war and things like that totally.
topic but of using this stuff or what were there they're starting to bring two
market some of these potions that they used in medieval Europe? That could because they were right and it turns out that the
Some of them have been really effective in entreating like and dovers. These super viruses- I would be very sceptical about it,
life expectancy in the middle ages was under forty,
something like almost fifty percent of children died before they reached adulthood,
People muddy son. You wouldn't like that the safest thing
to stay away from it, but they did, they didn't realize they did. They had antibiotics,
they had they had the alchemist were coming up with the you know, they would let it rotten a yak belly and all this crazy stuff, but they were creating antibiotics but then as virus.
Evolves so quickly they become irrelevant and they just existed now in a book it,
fascinated me that you can do so
there's something amazing. Then you can lose it. Then you can. You can come yeah that that can certainly happen in history that we have lost a lot of stuff on the way
We don't even know what we have lost right. We don't know, we don't know
I don't know what we know: no yeah Enzo.
You grew up in Israel is yeah and you still lived there yet. I still live in Israel, ok and you also using any personal life for five seconds. I learned on same Harris. You also disappear for like three months of the year and go to India in meditate my accurate altogether. If you take all the retreats,
they do during the year. I think it adopted thumbs something like almost three months now
just want to say I admire that you
I mean, basically, what you have his boundaries for your life right,
it would be. I was soon quite tempting for you to just stay on the hamster wheel smell. It's not something I said.
Its exhausting so are really
it sir it it's not easy to just stop everything yet for a month or two, but it is tempting.
no sir, but but I would imagine there are people that are disappointed to learn that they will not hear from you
for another six weeks or something so in your real life you're having to tell people I'm very sorry. I know you need me, but I will be gone. Yes sets an admirable quality, I think it's almost the opposite of Co. Dependents
always a you know how to take care of yourself right,
a year by the guy he did. It also demands the cooperation of other people. Like my house
then they disappear for sixty days and he has to stay there and keep on
during the phones and emails, and you know ninety nine percent of what we
Do not always just say. No three: are people come with all kinds of requests
Rome interviews to theatre productions to some, and many of them are really wonderful ideas and good causes yeah.
And the just you know, I think, resembled the with human being so far you can't you can't copy them so he's a book. I can have twelve million copies of my book and
which everywhere, but with myself there is just one pair of legs and one stomach and one head today today and its
in one place and you can't caught. It will end on that topic. I think all
our minds are blown that you're here
saying yes to your and our stupid little act and that's a little my blowing. For me as a huge ran of yours, but I think what kind of unique about what you do is you- and this is always confused me- why there isn't it? Maybe
is now, but why there isn't a department at all universities that
aggregating everything into noticing o is there some overlap here are like we missing, or they are they finding little bits of truth,
that someone should be assembling or aggregating to come up with some some real thought
breakthroughs in what you seem to do. As you have a very comprehensive interest in the world. It starts I assume with history, but then
Much of sapiens is anthropological, which was what I studied, and then
You get in to technology and philosophy and Buddhists, Molly's things it's it's so comprehensive. Did you at all feel like you're, getting off the path by doing that? Yeah it's a bit of the path, but the reason that the scientific kind of enterprise is again it's built on cooperation noble.
It can be an expert on everything. Most people become experts on more and more narrow subjects, and this is very important but
do need. Also, people who kind of look at the big picture and also are able to communicate this big picture to the general public, which is what I do
We are now. If all scientists will do what I do, we would not have any science prior. I suggest you have a bunch of guys trying to do to depict the big picture, but without any
he tells you have a lot of great dinner conversation, yes, no Iphone the AIR
so you need the people who spend like five years on developing
the new antibiotic, and you need
people who spent ten years on reach
even a manuscript me in order to better under
Then the relations between Christianity and Islam in the twelfth century and things like that and then yes, you need a few people who take all these bits and pieces together and build some picture out of it because it
People are now being flooded with enormous amounts of information, and the things
need most, these not more information. It's the last thing they need is more information. They need to make sense of it, and this is becoming more and more.
difficult well, this is, I don't know if you remember, but as soon as we had the Patriot ACT and we see that the government had all these, they could now gather all this information from telephones and all this stuff,
gathering information, no problem. They have billions and billions of megabytes of all this information, but nobody's figured out a way to sift through it or make any use of it really. So it's almost useless that their eating Gavin, even if you go in this direction in future,
for example, the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Nobody in history had such goods intelligent, gathering a bit
it is as the U S in Iraq and Afghanistan. You couldn't make yourself a cup of coffee in some Baghdad suburb with out the Americans, knowing about it and what they do.
With all these and hastening is Romania. They still lost or losing both the wars yeah. So apparently, just gathering lots and lots of information is not enough to make the right decisions, so I'm gonna try to join.
readers digest version sapiens, so I've view correct me if I'm wrong, but the can
Telling kind of narrative of that book is.
we as animals. We ass humans, we have, we have dominated this planet right, and how did we come to do that
near. First thought is our smart, but that their there's more to it than that in for us too, to dominate right. We have to build the gather and large large groups, and how do we do that in the answer? Is myths right? Is that the thing that allows to strange
to meet each other on the plains and that doubt strange
because I believe in money- and you do too so we have some business we could do. Are, I believe, and not Jesus is the Son of God, me too. So it alive
these miss a trick that are in group out group within NATO?
it, allows us to include a lot of people in our own group. So do a better job than I just
It allows us, above all else to trust and cooperate with strangers.
Social animals in the many social
most besides homo sapiens and all
also enables our have tricks about how to cooperate with other Annie
those they know
in pansies, can cooperate with fifty other chimpanzees with a hundred other chimpanzees euins.
be she's. Once there are many who in species we are, we all know the only humans around, but until not very long ago, I a couple of tenet of Asylum law of years. There were many different human species on the planet earth and there
so social animals? What is really rather remarkable about our species is not that we are smarter than everybody else, but that we can cooperate in far larger groups than anybody else.
we can cooperate in thousands and tens of thousands and millions, and eventually, today we have a global network of networks of billions of people. For instance.
Trading and belonging to the same economic system? So the question
Why, indeed, homo sapiens come to dominate this planet really boils down to? Why are we the only animals, the only mammals that can cooperate on a very large scale,
and the answer to that is the imagination, the ability to create and spread fictions, because if you look
any large scale, human cooperation. You will always find some fictional story at the bases, its
the clearest in the case of religions, that they are based
on fiction stories. Now even religious people will agree that all religions are fictional stories except one,
If my religion, of course see you, ask it to the jovial, total Judaism
that's the truth: what Christianity in all these stories, about Jesus, rising from the dead and being the Son of God. This is just a fictional story. Humans invented that you go.
the Christians, they will signal- and I know this is the truth-
but the Muslims they believe in all
he's crazy mythologies that Muhammad received the Koran from the outset,
angel, Gabriel and so on and so forth. This is a fiction. You ask the Muslims, they will tell you the Hindus,
I believe it really silly
myth like night, so it's very obvious that all religious really are based on fiction. I, which is that, doesn't mean
they are bent these fictions enable people not just to fight crews
it's an jihads but also come together to build a beautiful cathedrals or to build schools and hospitals and so forth.
what is more important to realise, is that the same principle
also underlies nations. Also,
there lies the modern economic system model economic sense
It is also based on fictional stories, corporations, which are the most important economic entities in the world. They are just stories in in
good by their powerful sorcerers that we call lawyers
cooperation like Google or to you,
general motors. It's it's other factories. It's not the people, it's another product, its story invented by lawyers
as long as everybody believes in the story, it works
just as you know a thousand years ago, almost or people
ah served some
marginal regard with the other, so today, more
so far ass serve some
imaginary cooperation or other
when I was really mad. I have this very. I guess I cognitive dizzy.
it's where I'm reading in your kind of taking me wisely from the most obvious, which
religion, which is an atheist. I'm I get that
the myth everyone believed in, and I see why it allowed people to gather in groups of tens of thousands money. Yes, money has no value.
this piece of paper. We all agree that it has a much value, but there's no intrinsic value in the piece of paper. We all disagree upon it. That makes sense,
and I'm going down the list of the things you exposes be missed: the nation state. I agree we ve. There is a line across the map. In one sides, Canada, one sides: America, we really think I'm american, that's my identity. I guy adds preposterous,
but then you go humanism. The math and I go
hold on their you. All. This is true
and then you say, civil rights is a myth
MA? Am you lost me and then I had to
really challenge myself. I might well what are the odds that I agree with every other example. He gave
but he's wrong on the do I cherish, which is Canada.
On of reading the book. If your open to that kind of challenging year,
south, so just explain quickly how on earth could human rights be a myth? What else I mean
there, they want it on your smog about they'll, definitely noted biological reality. I mean people talk about natural,
right and things like that, but on the biological level,
I still chimpanzees, don't have right and jellyfish don't have rights. Homo sapiens has no rights. They are not written,
you know DNA. You don't find the declared
Independence retains its line. I don't need shelter, water, food and a right to vote. You know in order to survive.
who needs all kinds of stuff, but he doesn't mean you have a right to. The
things you're, just as I dunno antelopes on the african Savannah, they don't have a right to leave. Try to convince
the lions and the cheetah is that the antelopes have a right to live so also
Sapiens, biologically speaking the right.
Don't exist. You take a human being. You you look anywhere, you want you caught the human open. You look in the heart in the brain in the dna, you won't find any rights. There is no organ. Those
more than that. The centre of the brain rights are,
by humans, not so long ago. It wasn't there throughout history,
in the last couple of centuries. It became a very popular and widespread story. This
idea that that humans have rights, I am not saying that there is that there is something bad domain
Many people when the when they hear that this is a story with a fictional story. They think that this is bad. It's not necessarily bed, I mean you can't organised people to do.
most anything unless they agree on some
a fictional laws, affliction fictional stories. You can't play baseball or basketball or football. Unless you get a couple of
people to agree on laws which should be obvious obvious to everybody we invented them. They did not come
Heaven or from physics. Yes, so that's a great point to make. Just because your point
now that it is a myth or a fiction or created by us is not an argument against it.
Or suggesting it shouldn't be issues. Let's
listen, remember all about what it is. First yeah, my Harry Potter is a fiction. It doesn't mean its bed
today as we ve craft is very needy people south killing each other, because they believe in a different version of the story of how reporter that's bad. But as long as they do that I mean it's a very nice book.
Well, that's what I'm guilty! I cannot want to throw the baby out with the bathwater. So if I see that people are arguing about whether Hogwarts was set
here or there and then causing wars. I'm like let's get her. This fuckin book like is causing all this
There was a very famous incident, I think in Britain, maybe two years ago I think, either in the plan
a hearing in one of the movies the they wanted to cast a black person
to play. Hermione, ok and there was this huge uproar in the internet, how kind of like persons,
player my on issues, which is why the eye, and they they went over the entire seven books of Harry Potter until they found the one
single case were there is a reference in the books to the skin color of her mouth.
something that the hour sneaking in the woods at night and day
moonlight shines on the on the white skin of her something like that. She's the one place in the whole seven books that they found- and this was the roof
My only must be a wise person at its unthinkable for a black person to play her, and you have. This was amazing
On the one hand, you know these despicably collects. Oh Jesus. That did you find this this here here. In Jeremiah
part three of the chapter one. It says that so and also that you will, you accept people
flying on broomsticks. Fine, that's fine, but headfirst lay a no. No! No, no, no I've had healed rather than yeah. Yes was again off topic, but have you
had the pleasure of seeing Hamilton. Yes, you are right. I was amazed that anybody without a phd in history can understand what's happening there. Apparently they can. They were there
many impressive things about it. One these. I read that book and I thought how on earth is dispersing and put that entire book into a two hour musical and by God he did it almost the whole books in their it's incredible. But
I had this moment or outside all. This is gonna, be interesting. There's gonna be a black Ehrenberg in Black Hamilton, or
However, in all these historical figures only play by blacker, hispanic actors- that's gonna be weird. That was my thought going in it with them
nine seconds of the way starting. I've completely lost that, unlike our doesn't fucking matter
oh, but I almost I needed to experience it to recognise it as doesn't matter. We honestly should be casting
black folks in movies as historic over it doesn't mean anything like how we think about. I know Julius Caesar Shakespeare play now. We are perfectly fine
somebody talking English as Julius Caesar Grand. Why we're both perfectly fine with the Christian playing Julius Caesar? Why not? Even though Jesus was not even born at times it too
Julius Caesar was alive so, but when it comes to something like race, skin color, no, no, no, no, no, that's that's impulsive, yes, and in it
throw. This was something that people got great joy out of his just how arbitrary an insignificant to even started cattle.
that would be skin color cause it's one of the most simple things in our dna right that years, a couple of hours
levels that are going to German, your skin color, while others, you know billions of other illegals that you probably have much more in common with someone would perhaps wax skin
is a terrible biological category, but its very
be very useful in terrible way for political and cultural purposes. Yes,
the ordinary you don't need to do to map the person's genome, to put them in the category, exactly that. If you want to build a hierarchical society, you need very soon.
But the categories and you usually also need
the glories? That's that our inherited in the family. I mean, if you're the king, you.
I don't want- your son Too- suddenly be in her home category yeah. So if it's not an inherited it, so if you don't inherited
the family. Usually it will
ought to be selected to be the basis of some hierarchy.
Call social system for more armchair. Their experts is supported by stitch fixed. It's as if this was created specifically for me
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Some bucks often feel like your rolling around through a sound trap. Another thing in savings that I love the you have really unique ability. You, you kind of cracked, two concepts for me in savings. One was we'll just
communism. I had never really heard why communism didn't work in such a very simple, elegant way, which probably other people knew, and I just simply didn't cause I'm a bozo, but the fact that it does
it was centralized? Is the problem? That's why that system doesn't work is just that you can have said
relies control of anything and have it immediately meet the needs to correct for supply and everything else. Yes
in the new at you kind of rum you met than under everything. Now, how we, how we trade ideas and how important everything is to be decentralized, and I just thought
oh ok, there isn't even theoretical or moral or anything it is. The almost a mechanical principle depends really on the technology you have at your disposal. You could look at the hall of history through the prism of
of methods to process information and
the two main contenders outside
actualized system. When all the information
goes into one place and being processed there, and the decisions are made there and distributed systems,
which the information flows freely between many different
its organisations and institutions and individuals. There is no centre and the
lots of places in an endless that what were decisions, important decisions are being made in the twentieth century political arena use
is a struggle between communism in and democracy. It's really about that
Communism works by concentrating all the information and power in one place. You have some some people in Moscow
deciding how many cabbages we'll be grown in
on farm in Kazakhstan and what will be the price of bread in every shop in the country, and then you have democracy and the free market system, which is
we'll just allow information to fly to flow freely between
between people and institutions and they can make their own decisions and given the technological realities of the twentieth century, it just worked much much more.
better, though there is a famous story or anecdotal ones, turd that at the waning
days of the Soviet Union where the system was collapsing, so Gorbachev send people to the west to understand how the
is capitalists. How do they manage their society? Ass,
the London and the British are very happy to do Margaret TAT shows in power. Every everything is about. The free market and capital is a very happy to explain to the soviet official how the system works, so they take him to the banks and to the stock exchange into the Ellis. Eat, took two to economics, professors
probably says, wait a minute. There is something more
more fundamental, I can't understand about your system back home in Moscow. We have. Our best minds
Smythe Soviet Union working on the problem of how to provide bread to Moscow and nevertheless,
in every grocery store in every supermarket? You have this long line.
a queue for the bread and human London.
The city of millions. We ve been passing all day
all these bakeries and grocery store. I haven't seen a single redline, so cancel all my other appointments and just take me to
the person, the Middle EAST or Minister Red Eliza and then the british host? They re like ways
this guy over him very minister
raising the shouts of providing rightful London and that's the real secrets of the system yeah you just allow.
These consumers and producers to exchange information and make their own decisions. Now what people often forget when
they hear this example or the analysis is that it all depends on the technology of the day
in some situations in given some technologies.
centralized systems are much less less efficient then distributed systems.
This was the case in the late twentieth century, and this is why the United States defeated the Soviet Union, but it's not always like that. Given a difficult technological reality, things look
very different and one of the dangers in the twenty first century. Is
that machine learning, an artificial intelligence will make central,
eyes systems. Much more efficient, then distributed systems and dictatorship might become more efficient than
more crises are fascinating. That's juicy
there. I assume, as in twenty first, that's part of twenty four and twenty one lessons for the twenty first century
right, because there was no way for the Soviet Union to be gathering the appropriate dad
real time making real time decisions in techniques
de as such, now that that could conceivably happen with some mega computer gathering the day
time is less is the problem is not so much gatherings of data, its processing internalizing it, so
I can nineteen seventy Soviet Union. You would have all these
massive amounts of information flowing all the time from the most this
So the provinces of Russia in Kazakhstan and Ukraine to thee
control nerve system of the whole of the hope of the whole organization in Moscow. In very you had the problem. Nobody had the ability,
to process these enormous amounts of information fast enough.
efficiently enough and make the right decisions? So they are marking worse
worse decisions, but
towards changing. Now is the time
given machine learning, an artificial intelligence, we are developing a that technology that can process.
enormous amounts of information, much better than any human being in one place and
Actually, there is now an advantage to trying to concentrate all in one place, because you can thereby discover all kinds of patterns in the data that, if you,
we'll have only partial data. You will never be able to do it to give an example, if you think about,
the advances, knowing genetics, so to discover what a gene or a group of gene is doing you
most of the time just based on statistics. You have statistics about the deep
Nay, and the
medical situation in the life of a lot of people, and you just discovered patterns are people who have this gene they tend to suffer from this disease
people who have this combination of genes, they tend to be very proficient in this kind of skill. A high found something. So it's all statistics,
Well, a lot of great steps coming out of like Denmark in those those nether lincoln. Yes, where the that your medical information, although private, it's not doesn't have your name attached to it, does go into a database exactly and they do all these great epidemiological studies there and they have breakthroughs in three hours like here. We we people had the spurious connection between one.
our vaccines in autism, and they were just like a letter.
tell you in three hours here. You know, videos and people had that vaccine here, zero correlation your case solved in exactly yeah and end in in
These cases concentrating all
the data in one place actually makes it, then the systematic, more efficient. So to take the extreme example, what happened
if, tomorrow morning, the chinese government issues
older than ever
a citizen of the People's Republic of China should go within the next two weeks to the nearest clinic or police station
and given a dna samples and also, of course, give free access to order.
Medical records in school records and in whatever and you build in, at a stroke, the largest genetic data base in the world.
and with zero privacy concerns, and you can start making all these amazing discoveries and then what are the next thing that happens is of people all over. The world
they realize. Actually the Chinese are the most advanced in this field of genetics. So if
I want to scan my dna and discover what kind of say ailments I am more susceptible to. I will not go to some American come
any, which has just said that a base about a million people- I will go to the Chinese with their not a base of one point: four billion people and when everybody goes there, it's a snowball effect
It becomes even more efficient and very soon, and it's all based on concentrating the data in one place. Yes, so for us
Americans hell bent on liberty and privacy and all these miss. We have basically come
the other to celebrate. That's a big leap for us right yeah. We have a lot of distrust
with whoever is in charge that database and for a very good reason that mean I'm. Not you kind of to recommend the chinese system is the best system in the world. It obviously has a d.
inside the answer
but he knows so much about you and they are hardly accountable to you
like the recent election in four years, and you can vote them out of office
you are extremely exposed to control and manipulation of the kind we have never
seen before in history, stunning and Hitler didn't have anything like that. Right now, you have some
clairvoyant powers. You have some incredible there in Harmodius their amazing. Your observations. Does this make this kind of thing being able to potentially map one point, four billion people's g,
no I'm solve, probably of laundry list of medical conditions. Does that make you excited and optimistic, or
fearful or a combination of all both bombing these
kinds of developments the
always have an upside and a downside. They
and do amazing things for, for example, our health and is the same
they can have terrible political and social consequences resulting worst in India
earth discrimination than ever before in formal dictatorial regimes
never before in opening really biological gaps between, for example,
full classes in costs that we have never seen before and its roof? Every
a major technology in history it
always heads in upside downside, Brazil, futile to even
worry I mean like it that the future you present is likely. Nothing could stop
no. I really nothing is a waste of your anxiety on none. I don't agree, I mean. Are you better have just do?
these things than deal then than as bad com.
solving those those consequences, or should you be fighting passionately to prevent it from even happening? I guess what what's the word
need, first of all that we need to realise that technology doesn't determine how people use it
I mean you ve. Somebody no comes along and says: look a eyeing, genetics, Lucy, scary stuff. We should just stop all recent
she nay iron genetics. This is that this will not happen. Some foreign actor will do.
Ah, yes, I hear somebody will do even if you can get an entire country even in the great USA, bans all further research in genetics, so it will just continuing
the places and very soon the Americans will realise that they are being left behind, so they have to join the zone,
You contest cereal steroids in the Olympics. What the hell are you going to do
the example of the ILO because hearing you can
So they do something. Regulation is effective, it can be effective and there is a very good case to be made that we do need to regulate something like steroids in sports and that we can do it. The technology can help us and we thought you were
both ways you can use the new technologies, for example, to
give more and more treatments due to two athletes, but you can also use technology.
To monitor these kinds of usages in a more effective way and regulate against them. If this is what what? What do you want to do it
same with something like a iron surveillance that it pressed
and we see the development of more and more. I systems which work in the service,
of corporations and governments to me
Peter individuals, but there is nothing about the basic, a basic
if abilities of ay. I, which says you cannot use it in the opposite way. You can build a,
systems that monitor cooperation,
and governments in the service of individuals. These out of the government is not being a capital required to have that kind of system, just naturally
exclude the proletariat like. Does it how
You want to develop it yourself, but there is a huge market out there, for example, to develop an
I system that monitors gum
meant officials in order to prevent corruption there,
the same way that the government could employing a I system to spy on the citizens and locate in.
Incidents in which citizens express criticism of the government. It just goes over all your emails and all your phone calls and picks up the patterns of that are the government
deems to be dangerous. Can do that. You can also do the reverse
building, a system that constantly
monitors the action
the email than the bank accounts and the lifestyle of fair of government officials in order to discover patterns that are linked with corruption and
Why not- and there is a huge market for that. Where will they come out of the university who whose fighting for us at Bay
Then too, and we don't see many such systems being developed. What I'm saying is is the technically it can happen
happened? There is nothing that technologies. It says it must join in the survey I uni directional. Yes, so it could come from a cooperation which realises hey
There is a huge business opportunity here. I can sell this
monitoring system to countries all over the world in order to fight corruption?
You know, corruption is
business worth trillions of dollars.
yeah, I saw out money, they saw many things going on over the world. It can come from an angel,
you can get people to you know. There are many Ngos fight against corruption, so they need to get together and get a few good quarters and start developing these kinds of tools. It can be sponsored by a government lot of government. I am not very happy with
their officials being corrupt museum. There is a huge opportunity, other regional armchair there
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ok now of the many things I bring up at dinner parties that year are your thoughts, the one I think I I trade in most often is in
today, as you talk about this very profound thing, which is the self and we think of the self has been one thing me Dac shepherd. I myself
a new point. Now that minimally there's two Dac shepherds, there's the experience shall back shepherd the one who's tribunals,
only through Instagram and so happy for two hours, the whole time out of doing it, I'm in Heaven and then
I go to lay down at night to go to bed and then there's the narrative self, whose writing taxes, life story uses Jesus dude you fuckin spent two hours staring at your hand, that's a terrible ways. Dear life, I'm disappointed in your right, so used
wages. Introducing this concept that even we aren't unified is one thing we have. These facets
net, where we're heading with technology is that your smartphone,
very soon in the future will be measuring. Biometrics it'll know your blood sugar, your heart rate, you're cortisol levels
These things, in the example I think you give is that you could set a goal on this smartphone
to help. You realized something in that smartphone made by
it is your walking into a meeting and say: hey Dax, don't talk in this meeting because the last time, your blood sugar, was this way, and you got this little amount asleep you a pissed off your boss, yet just shut the fuck up for the next hour and a half
An you pose the mouse intoxicating question of all is
what is the device? Can a service is again a service, the narrative Dax or the experience yourself self, and will we go?
permission to make that decision there
blew my head off my shoulders. What did I leave out of
I will give you a labourer there. I'm just find that to be. We will be confronting this problem,
you laid out in my lifetime
Yes, yes, I mean, as is
understanding of the human body and the human brain improves,
and at the same time as we,
of more and more sophisticated ay. I so these guys
of scenarios that you know can going all kinds of
corrections. You can have the government monitoring you twenty four hours a day, so we
believe in North Korea and then what
he's just described will take a very different form. You have to worry Biometrics bracelet all day which constantly monitor.
I was just what you said. You called you so level, the audio sugar level, your brother blood pressure and so forth, and if you do
Stepan to listen to his speech by King John gone and the bracelet picks up the by biometrics. Signs of anger. That's
I love you, so it can go in that direction in in some countries
even get even Nike, even more inconsequential,
Those, like my wife's, got it hooked to my wrists and I walked by a beautiful girl in the street. She goes excuse me, sir. I see you
happening in your, but yes, that's oral and of all internal live once thought, experiment which maybe even being done to them mature immense,
in that you're wearing a shirt which reacts, which is called the showed its content,
the two biometrics sensors lucky audio, fit better whatever, and the shirt can light up in all kinds of colors. I've you're angry becomes red
if you are sexually obstructed, it becomes red with flashing lights. If your board, it becomes
no blue and
just imagine what it means in Dundee. Technically, it's very simple. Maybe there is
but these start about their, if not after this port cost. I think we will have a couple jar, and maybe I should actually register
dear relying heavily herons wanting it for their kid. You have. You could just visually know what animal you're dealing with the amount so helpful, but just
at an let's leave aside, you know this sexual issues. Ok, boredom like what happens if you go to meet your boss, yield to having a chart with your mother whatever and the show
goes blue men may know- and you know all the sea elder
things that for millions of years evolution adapted us to hide yeah. Suddenly they are out there so that the shirt
experiment. This is like that the most in your face we're, but you have all kinds of sir
two scenarios in which only the government knows only the cooperation knows, or only you know like you, want
to gather information about yourself during the day that will afterwards be useful to me,
king decisions in life, I mean because of what you d get you describe this device
in between the experiencing self and
rating sail for the storytelling self. We experience life.
one way, and then we imagine it and we tell us of stories which are often completely different
A hundred percent fuel married. You experience, I daily yes, so if you think about making the
visions about. I don't know like which friends you like to hang hang up with and so
You think you enjoy yourself with which these friends, but actually this truth, is very different. Stole the device can tell you what you actually enjoy and do you know
people not experiences. For instance, with the ways television was veal, D ve
demand always Netflix. That, though, is that there is a famous study. I think been done, that when people record on there,
veal d, all kinds of movies, they tend to recalled all these kinds of
I level drama was- and you know things like that, but then, when the moment comes to actually watch a movie unanimous, you never want to see it. You want to see some stupid Hollywood comedy and watch your mouth. Please
Nevertheless, there are some very good work, but the thing is that that and and and this device-
Are you, you see it's like you, you scroll through the list of movies, and you say yes, I recorded all these movies, but I don't really want to see them because,
my name's narrating self. Has this image of me is a very severe
indicated version watch these french out nouveau dramas in whatever, and but I don't really want to see them
you know what your mama comparison would be eat every, not everyone lots of people, my circle, subscriber the new Yorker and then, if you gonna, thereby
German there's, a new Yorker Anna Us Weekly got us weekly. The pages are almost worn off and they have not crack the new Yorker like they want to be the person who reads in New York or every time they can sit down yet, but they just can't resist the juicy pitchers so bit, but what's interesting about this world, your
this future of ours. Your painting is that these
questions that are ultimately philosophical questions yet
it would almost think would have been rendered obsolete as we kind of get more technologically advanced. They are almost the were in a position where they're they're gonna be vital. Weirdly, like we actually are now going to have to find out what our philosophy
because we're going to engage these machines to execute what we think. We believe that, so we had better figure out what we believe and raise more now than ever. Its parents,
that we know what we're trying to
enforce, as these things a system to get there. Nothing philosophy is now more important than ever before, because lots of what used to be philosophical problems are becoming very practical problems.
of engineering and more and more engineers, I think, need to learn. Philosophy in
to solve. Like other the best example, I Norway's Miss self driving cars that, as it is now
when I think about it in order to put a self driving cars on the road you
aid to solve a few philosophical question of bright, like that
the most common scenario. Is there. The car resist is driving, and it's only two kids running after a bull jump in front of the car and the only
to save the two kids used to swerve to the side and full of follow for participation, kill the owner of the car, who is asleep in the back seat. Now
should we do these kinds of questions? Philosophers have been arguing about, for thousands and thousands of years with very little actual impact is the drawling. That's only priority is actually a trolley problem and the interesting thing about the trolley problem. There is a very big difference between
what people say in in their philosophy Seminary University and how they actually behave. Yes, but we are so driving car. You need to programme
the algorithm in a certain way. You can't just leave it undecided here, you can't live here, you mean an answer. All reasonable brought. The engineers need an answer. So the also concur
in all kinds of ways you the governments can money
eight, an answer all you can just
say. I believe in the free market, test law will come up with the Tesla outraced and the test legalese and
you just choose. You know the arteries allows right. Let me answer that question for you now they don't even have to bring the philanthropy
into the market everyone's via the ego is desolate. There was actually again study about that kind of thing is most people who were asked said: they think that the car should sacrifice its owner, but then, when they
then would you actually buy a car? They said absolutely not what they went. Crazy, that's right, I'll buy a Mercedes. I bet there. Let me live yeah yeah,
now this was neither your books by this was this comes from SAM, and I did this again was another mine blowing experience for me.
is your line of this future of ay? I am
you are talking about the high probability that in the future, eighty percent of the jobs that are currently be
done now by humans, will be done by machines and that you're gonna have a huge class of people. The useless class
they don't really do anything, but all their needs are met by these different robots right.
And Samson will what water people can do all day to give meaning to them,
life and you several they're gonna participate in virtual reality. They're gonna play virtual reality. Games probably does ringing
My getting it wrong. I am familiar with the UK for so long
I say, I'm I was listening to you and I thought, or this is so distill back. I dont want my kids to just put fuckin goggles on and that's their life right in
said, one so discouraged that's what people are going to do and then you said, O Sam,
we ve been plain virtual reality.
thousands of years. Religion is virtual. Reality explain to us how religion is virtual reality, while you have a copy of a fair rules of the game which were invented by humans, but
those who play this political game. They are sure that this is the reality and you leave your entire life trying to gain points
and not to lose points. So if you play the christian game, then are you need to give to charity and you need to pray?
Should there, you shouldn't, have sex before marriage and jobs,
Fourthly, no homosexual. Sacks this view you lose a hundred points, if usually big one and that's a big lie and even the end of life you
the high enough score, then you move,
onto the next level of the game in Heaven. Yeah, that's wonderful and some people special, I think further back in history, are playing a game for hours of the day. They are aware of that game like a good chunk of their consciousness, is dead,
It is true that game and how their interacting with people and everything so the what's another example. You could give us this virtual reality. We ve all been blame. You have what people first of all, I have to say this is absolutely not
a prophecy like nobody really knows how the job market or how the world would look like in fifty years,
this was just exploring. One shares are one of the possibilities that we are facing. We can still do many things to prevent.
this particular possibility from being realised. But if it does happen- and of course all
much worse, possibilities there.
Is the scenario that you have a law, a lot of people who have no jobs. Knowing
economic value, no political power and nobody cares about them and they get no support. They dont get to play virtual reality games because they hardly have anything to eat, may have to struggle for survival.
So there are definitely worth scenarios evil. Their team
you are describing it as I was listening. I thought sure at the point where eighty percent of the people are unemployed and we really figured out some production scale that feeds every.
unenclosed them great, but then I said it's when its thirty five percent of the popular
that you, I don't even know how you get there like. Yes, if you couldn't turn on the lights which an eighty percent,
zero unemployed gray, but I don't know how you get past the when thirty five percent of the kind
is unemployed. That's a revolution, I dont know me before thirty five, but I dont know how we get there. It's almost like you just have to keep building the infrastructure
Building a billion is, and we were not allowed to turn that lights, which, on until it literally self sufficient
which of course, will not happen. You're in
many many pitfalls or on the wane and again people. It's not like that
They suddenly. Eighty percent of jobs disappear and that's it. Now, it's it's a gradual process. Some jobs disappear.
Some jobs. Change new jobs appear, the will be new jobs, but one of the problems is that the pace of change is going to accelerate and in order to
find employment in the new jobs. You will have to retrain yourself and not just once, but several times
because you got a new job in ten years later. The new jobs, too, has been automated.
Ghana have to reinvent yourself, and it's going to be very difficult to retrain people, not just on the I no practical level of new skills, but
you, you really need to reinvent yourself even psychologically. Well, my ear,
I'll, just told me that he doesn't think he would recommend his son go to medical school. He said
you ve, seen Watson Diagram,
Cancer at eighty percent success rate in the young colleges are only fifty percent. I can tell you Bertie assuredly that jobs not gonna exist for my kid item. I won't answer. No, I mean something that has to
who only was information infirmity.
Comes in gets processed and and
an information goes out. This is the easiest thing to automate, so a doctor whose
almost soul. Duty is to
sock information from you process it and come up with a diagnosis. This is not going to be a viable.
Job in a couple of the mine blow, but a nurse. On the other hand, this is a much safer bet, because anything that involves both cognitive,
and manual skills is much much more difficult saw.
The will be nurses, human nurses, long after the old diagnosis of cancer is done by computers, but because to give an injection,
or to replace a bandage role.
What's so far away from there,
you see what about whether the development of robots today that will win. We met, I think, two years ago, this expert on a robotic
and then she said that if the rapporteur
coming from you insane some apocalyptic robot science fiction movie before the robots are coming. For you just closed,
your behind you know robot silver able to manage these simple task of opening the doors of just one.
the video and arrows so excited that this robot did in fact open a door
I didn't like this. Like forty five seconds, other disorders already laid out. Those clumsy is a goods. I wanted you to talk about
a little bit, because I also love your breakdown of of craving. I just think that's a fast
Maybe a thing to be aware of as a human being is, is that true suffering comes from craving? That's that's a breakthrough and thought for me
another that's you know Buddhism, one or one for the last two thousand thousand five hundred years, but basically that
yes, I mean suffering. Is you want something you don't get it that suffering? That's that's the whole deal
yeah, I mean I grew up. Thinking
morning. The loss of somebody was suffering, but
recognizing no craving to not be feed
clean that morning is the suffering knowing when, when you when, when you miss something, it's not an abstract idea
It's very unpleasant sensations in the body to very unpleasant experience, and then a part of the mind goes. I don't like this year and in
is this. This is generated by the mind and then this is basically. This is one. What suffering is all about, and when are we go about trying to change the entire world? We
completely disrupt the ecological system. We fly
to the moon. We split the autonomy wage world wars and it's all because we can't handle the.
Experiences within also yeah. Ok, so my my real question, for you is, is you
have more than any other person. I've ever read the most com,
perhaps a view of the world. Simply because you know it's history, so well, you know a lot of its science.
you really know how this places working know now
No! No! No! No! I don't! I don't. While you accept that, but I'm gonna tell you know how its working a lot more than most of us,
I want to know that as you come,
understand more and more. Why we do what we do again. Savings about how we got here days is about where we're going.
Twenty one lessons about where right now, which I'm glad you're figures out
well said. The mileage complain about the two books. Is that there's nothing really prescriptive? Incidents like this is where it's gone. This is where it was
I need you. Smart person, tell me what the what should we do, but that, aside from having
this comprehensive understanding of how we got to this place and what why we do the things we do Bio chemically
as that exacerbated the plight of the human condition, or has it helped
I want to know, I think it's helps, I think, the two to under
stand to be realistic about us
elves as individuals about ourselves as a species is a very good thing
to align your expectations with reality to be a were off of,
our own biases of our own weaknesses, these sees an extra
the important thing,
especially now, because of the really
fraud and other powers that we are gaining a species,
We are really, I say quite often, will really in the process
upgrading ourselves into gods and named mostly
Cyril and then Nuno banal sense that whatever abilities ancient mythologies ascribed,
the gods to Zeus Anti Vishnu into you are aware, we are now acquired
these abilities to ourselves. For instance, the ability
to engineer life than to manufacture life and we need to have a realistic understanding both of power,
end of our weaknesses and biases. Otherwise we are going to be very irresponsible gods and if you did choose
between your two now it sets why
being whatever. We would describe your meditating in India as mode. We call that are you buddhist.
I know I can try to understand myself, as is as much as possible, ok about something you ve dedicated a ton of time to as much or somewhat commensurate with your worldly knowledge,
I'm gonna, I'm gonna, I'm God and I'm gonna, raise one of those. Two understandings would you? When are you gonna give up whether they are very
closely intertwined yeah, I think of them as opposed, but you probably don't know. I don't think that I could have done my slowly work and written
they peons in homer deals in twenty one? Lessons with out both the insights of, but also a deeper level, simply theme, the mental training that I
got a from meditation in order, for example, to try and condense the whole history of human kind. To four hundred and fifty pages, you need the ability to focus yeah and they got that that from meditation. So I think if you took away like my
experience with was meditation mom most of my
I slowly achievements will go away with it. So many
I'm guessing you would not let go the meditation above all
I think this is an area where I think this is a first.
Ok and then you in your partner. Let's say you guys, have a daughter or a sun Adobe's more like, but in this scenario and I dont think dogs go to college even in an eye. Not yet are you
are you hoping if you have that child that they pursue
one over the other. I guess it would be you'd hope that they would learn some internal peace. Probably start. I think the most important issue,
is to learn this to get to know yourself better, also because it's going to be them
unlike in previous centuries, this is also going to be the most important for things like the job market. And,
finding your way around the world, because
When do you are living in a situation
which you have all these systems, as we talking the beginning, are really hacking you and yet
to know you so well, so you have to know yourself very, very well. Otherwise you can
he's so easily manipulated and controlled by these external systems.
And then as you're just saying this is it occurs to me, even if you think about it in terms of the market, if there is
technology? Now that's going to replace so many parts of what a human can do. You had better in
as in the one thing that can't be duplicated yeah, that's
the one thing that will still be scarce: yellow
still no so very little about the human potential I most jobs that exists today, utilise just a tiny, tiny part of the human potential we don't know most of it.
So both as individuals and also is a specie? I would say that it's if it's a very urgent thing to explore ourselves and to get to know a fully human two hundred and ten,
before it's too late, I'm so mad? You have to leave, I don't think I've ever been more advice and their beer cells by shall I'm so flattered. You came in sauce and I hope you have a great rest, your both to our ears like an awesome,
I advise you because you're incredible, I thank you and now my favorite part of the show the check with my soul made Monica bad men, ok,
RO one down. Mrs a request on land
This is an arm. Jerry request feel free to make em. I will note what was, and I wrote it down
oh yeah yeah, I guess a little low place where we can get to get around
Jack, Bailey B. I got me your car.
a slower rate seats about twenty, so hurry up and bring you box money that
use a little low place where we can get do get back
bay be required,
An armchair common people come in, please our eye, you
good luck check in those facts, when you have someone like you, ve fallen need you Jack
correct those not very many to Chad, rose ass. He or she is the facts. Yeah he's who I would be looking. Ah, yes, so so now, not very many UK. So did we decided to just take on new Baltic? Put him on retain or to do our fracture.
We are spending like three million dollars. You're just bankrupting ourselves do know that the facts are coming from the generator.
Most fire might be worth that to know that their skin truth so use of it
sapiens, homo deus or twelve million copies yeah. That's it. I read that directly off of the book jacket that their promoting
First, I want to ask- and I am inclined to think that's correct- might be correct. I I guess, scoured the inner
for those numbers, and I could not find it yet right on them the jacket at the book or not all right
they are well on the internet in two thousand, seventeen each his those books hit one million in the? U S, married domestically,
this is a worrying. Why not translated in the foreign some languages? I don't think so anyway, ok, so this is all
Ricky. Now you said that there is only
couple a wheels that determines the term
skin color. Thank you are you talking about, because people
define race as skin color and there is like eight genetic variance in like just even african. What I'm saying is the criteria by which their sorting people under racial groups yeah that's what I'm saying
is solely skin color right, exactly witches,
easy because, but I think that is,
everything's I'm a little different skin color is a super. It's is incredibly simple part of our genetic code, whether your skin is brown white black. So even if you are attempting to group people
similar genetics. The last thing you would do is take this really simple thing of skin color and make that the criteria by which it
sorting these people out. So what I'm saying is that there are people in Africa that have the same skin color, so they have a couple
the illegals are low sigh for that, yet a much larger part of their deep.
may will bear more resemblance to someone from Ireland than they do even from someone in another part of Africa? That's right! Right
I guess there was a New York Times article with this, professor from the University of Pennsylvania. Those sing researchers pinpointed eight genetic variants
in for narrow regions of the human genome that strongly influence pigmentation in in Africans, so making scan darker and others making.
later so, and that is saying the same thing that we are. We are attributing race to color and that's wrong, but it's it's kind of saying. No,
cancer, biological, meaning that I'm talking about? It's just simply that about this. If you're trying to separate food into
nuts plants, dairy and you said, be
as cheese is yellow and so is squash. Those two things are the same right. That would be a terrible wait: a group food right, yes, actually yeah, yeah, yeah yeah, I say a phone.
thing about skin color that I dont know, everyone knows,
the whole reason that I am white is because my ancestors left Africa. They went to a new
other incline with far less sunlight in you. Cynthia
eyes vitamin d from sunlight? And if you had dark skin and took on less sunlight, you would die of a vitamin d deficiency. You could pass on your genes,
that's what skin colors all about, while also
Nor has the duty to make melanin is a big part of it.
sure melanin is the thing that makes your skin indifferent, color darker yeah yeah. So if you have less of a genetically odds of passing, your genes on were much greater in a northern climate cause. You be second in that vitamin D. Also male pattern: baldness, that's the suck up more more that yummy bite,
de this, according to than men, human skin color as apologetic trade, meaning multiple Jean Luc High, are involved in its expression.
last count: the International Federation of pigment cells. Society has determined that there are a total of three
a hundred and seventy eight genetic low Llosa. Oh, what does that mean
Low size like let's say, there's seven billion markers on a dna strengthen each one is the low sigh I like location, yeah, yeah, that's why that's why I gave it a hard see bright, said
answered Octavio right at the end, and seventy eight involved in determining skin color in human and mice, gladly through mice and therefore yeah
there are wondering about my own case- we talk about the trolley problem- would just mention the trolley problem. Really quick, encase people don't know with the trolley problem. Is they dont want the good points
exactly the good place is the trolley problem. It's a thought: experiment in ethics and for
Sophie where you see a runaway trolley, moving towards five tied up people lying on the tracks, you're standing next to a lever
that controls a switch, if you pull the lever, the trolley will be read:
bracted onto aside track in the five people on the main tripe will be saved. However,
there is a single person lying on the side tracked. You have two options: one do nothing and allowed the trolley. They killed the five people on the main track or to pull the law
diverting the trolley unto the sidetrack where it will kill one person. What is the most ethical option to interest? Is such an interesting woods interesting about vat in
south. I don't find very interesting, cuz everyone's going to say I pull that lever and save for people, but the way that they didn't take the exact same math and fuck you up worse.
is there may go okay. So now there are five sick people in hospital bed, one healthy person line in another bed and you have the option of killing that person harvesting the five organs that are required to save the five other people. Would you do that in? No one thinks that we should do that yeah, causing your actually murdering someone
It's by your hand, why I think it was the same endangered the yes, that's how you feel about it. I think it's because we have come to accept that people get sick. We haven't come to accept that innocent people get hit by trolleys. We ve come to accept that people get second die, so we're very used to that outcome in somewhat comfortable with it it's a natural
Trajectory for people sell these five people that are dying of an illness, you're just you're used to that yeah. That's what happens, but this healthy person should be sacrificed to prevent something that we know is inevitable, beginning by trolleys, not inevitable. I think
where it gets a Hiccoughy. I guess the them in that. That does make sense. I still think part of the dilemma
it is an there's still a part. That's removed all say that the results like robotics has got into a place, and I bet you just pull a lever and then the robot comes in euthanize is the person in absentia
harvests. Their organs then visit. Yet I may I think a lot of people would say yes to that, still going to be a very low percentage of people. Let's would say we should kill a healthy person to save five ill people, which is interesting as it's. The exact same math is the trolley equation, although again
it is, but it I guess, you're right that it is in its because one is by natural.
Forces and the other. Is someone tied these people to a track about the five people,
this all standing on the track. Looking at the CNN Tower Guy
They have been like a captured and being held hostage on the tracks like there's one guy,
I on the track on the left, he's looking at the CNN towers well and then on the right side. There's five people looking at sea and under such as either
five. We were going to kill their one person's getting it.
and then the other one, five people- and I are one person's gonna yeah yeah. Yes,
I mean it is all Matthew. Both use do start, but, but I think I know now you ve all. It does is point out the frail d of the human mind and how we have all these really glad of abstract rationale, for why things are moral or more like a robot. If the robot would picture to kill this one person
I trust that same robot would definitely pick to kill Latvia, but ok. Asked of the modern form of the problem was first introduced in nineteen. Sixty seven, however, an earlier virgin in which
in person to be sacrificed on the track was the switch men's child was part of a moral question air given to undergraduates university wash?
Wisconsin in nineteen o five. So that's where it started
ok, you mention Watson, you said it diagnosed,
cancer and eighty percent success rate and the call to survive, hold percent or in two thousand sixteen human experts at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine tested Watson by having it analyze a thousand cancer diagnoses and ninety
percent of the cases. Watson was able to recommend treatment plans at matched actual suggestions from oncologist, not only that, but because it can read
and I just thousands of documents and minutes. Watson found treatment options, human doctors, mist and thirty percent of the cases.
the eyes. Processing power allowed it to taken due account of the research papers or clinical trials at the human oncologists might not have right at the time of diagnosis.
now stuck in my song. Sixty minutes spectacle. I was just about diagnosing the patient with cancer. To begin with, it wasn't like recommending treatment is the thing I saw, but they can die
knows cancer there not very great at their their right about half the time is what this thing said: ok, that's it now that did you like you ve all the idea. The deal immensely,
can you walk me through what was going on in here in your head. Wound was happening,
I mean it was just like being in school being in the best lecture, yeah. Ok, let's go
and you say one fund fact about evolve. Yes, please, I saw a fun comical fact was when you ve all arrived,
We learned that he had just met with somebody and ends
person knew he had met with lives like a hundred and fifty feet from us. Yes
but you can exit the neighbourhood either. The north or south side made exited on the wrong side, and then it took them fifteen minutes to get here through the back.
many others are also sorry was took us fifty mentioned to get from this person's house, and I said you know that person's houses
It will be that way. There was we gotta go
well. It's a nice long ago, little icebreaker night by loving value.