In August 1934, Ann Cooper Hewitt was having lunch with her mother when she suddenly felt pain in her abdomen. When she went to the doctor, he told her she would have to have her appendix removed. He never examined her abdomen. She later told papers that when she woke up from surgery, she heard a nurse saying that Ann “didn’t suspect a thing.”
Audrey Clare Farley's book is The Unfit Heiress: The Tragic Life and Scandalous Sterilization of Ann Cooper Hewitt.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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and could pursue it had lunch with her mother Marian. They talked about what kind of life in wanted when she turned twenty one and would no longer be a minor. They
buddy I'm getting married starting a family,
and so there dining and she suddenly struck with stomach pains, author Audrey, Clear, Farley and her mother has the chauffeur drive her to a hospital in San Francisco, which is where
I lived and there at the hospital the family doctors waiting, and he just says. Well,
an I understand you have appendicitis, but he never.
Examined her abdomen. Instead, he takes her to another room where there's a psychologist and that woman began to ask her civics questions. So she says what is the longest river in the United States. When was the battled Hastings
questions like that in an doesn't answer her. Instead, she says. Why are you
asking me such ass? The nine questions so four days later, she returns to the hospital
the auspices of having her appendix remove, and, I think, that's very curious, because today we tend to know that appendicitis
This is more of an acute issue and when she's kind
The last thing she overhears her nurses, talk about their quote idiot patient and she beat
and to suspect that something is very wrong and later told papers that she heard a nurse speaking to the family doctor and saying that an quote didn't suspect a thing, and then she said she heard the nurses talking about how breathe her mother had been. One said I can imagine it was easy
for her, but it was the right decision and slowly realised that in the last month that her mother was able to make medical decisions for her as a minor, her mother had made a big one. She had had an sterilised
and an thought. You knew exactly why her mother wanted to make sure she couldn't have children.
and mother had had an affair with a man named Peter Cooper Hewett. His grandfather had invented
the gelatin dessert later known as fellow and designed the first steam locomotive in the. U S: Peter had inherited a huge amount of money was an inventor as well and
the years older than Marian. She immediately attracted him in a way that his wife never had a lot of. That was because she was beautiful and she was just very
very witty and she had a way of entrancing man. Marian was always looking to improve her circumstances. At the time marriage provided the
we opportunity for a woman to better herself newspeak
it's called Marian, glamorous and mysterious the San Francisco Chronicle reported that from the moment, Peter Cooper Hewett met her at a horse show he was hopelessly lost
and so they swiftly began in a fair and that a fair went on
a few years they had an before his wife. Finally divorced him. I think the birth of Anne was the final straw for her. How was this little baby received by mother and
other. Well, Marianne loathe Dan from the beginning. She thought she was ugly,
she was born prematurely. She wait only three and a half pounds and she suffered a lot with bronchial troubles.
mom, always thought of her as this ugly duckling. That was a word that she used to use with an and she
so resented an because Peter adored her an reports that her mother would leave her in the
read for long periods of time, sometimes for them,
higher day, but
would remember her father coming into the room and lifting her up out of her crib, and she says that's one of her,
earliest. Memories of him is just ten lifting her out of the crib and rescuing her answer
father, took her for walks around Paris, where they lived in
danced with her in the living room. She was
Peter Marian got married. It was Marion's third, marriage and Peter Second and
when I was six years old, Peter started getting very sick. Eventually, he became so weak that he couldn't pick it up or leave the apartment
and while gossip started circulating that ends, mother had started
a manager of the hotel, the where she and Peter lived in Paris
twenty four years old and a barren Audrey, Clear, Farley, says Marian was interested in the baron's title. She visited bohemian hang out in Paris with him and would invite him and friends up to her apartment. Even when Peter was very sick
Peters nurse once tried to kick them all out for being too loud and wild and knocking things over in response Marian fired the nurse, but she had to react
her because she couldn't find another nurse who spoke English. A few weeks later, Peter was transferred to a hospital to consult with long specialists. The same nurse later reported that, while he was in the hospital Marian had tried to convince her to give Peter a mysterious drink. Now she
offended herself by saying that it was a painkiller, something that the baron had given her and then
His papers never really got to the bottom of it, but they did suspect her of wanting to her
things along, not long after Peter Cooper, Hewett died. His estate was estimated
to be worth more than four million dollars in nineteen twenty one, which would be
almost sixty million dollars. Today he had adjusted his will just three weeks before he died and what did his will say? The will stipulated that two thirds of the inheritance went to an and one third went to an mother, but it said that ends share reverted back to her mother. If she died, child bus.
That clear! Yes, I'm Phoebe Judge this is criminal,
after an father died. Her mother, Mary, the young baron
and sent an away to an institution in the Swiss out. She would often tell the
directors at institutions that an was vexed crazed. She claimed that an had been addicted to masturbation.
since she was three years old and that she refused to be educated that she was
very ornery with governesses Marion, also told school directors about a time and was discovered in bed with a boy when she was eight years old, and it was the first person her age that she had connected with and she was found in bed with him by another nurse, and there was nothing going on the two were just you know, laying in bed together
So this do this reputation in a would proceed. Her she'd go to from one school to other. When should get there. The mother would say I dont know what to do with her exactly and so, when her mother would go to an institution and say here's. My daughter here is everything that's wrong with her that gossip with work its way from the directors to the teacher is down to the students, so the students would also treat an as if she was this pariah and an echo a lot of the gossip that they had heard from the adults. She was always an outcast, even with her
pierce and then, as a teenager, her mother would forbid her from having friends and she would often introduce and people
being a moron. So if they were in
company of people that they ve never met before she would
Oh don't mind her she's, a moron and people sort of took Marian at her word for this, and so on.
then she would try to make friends with the help she developed a close relationship with the chauffeur and
even did think about running away with him, but it was in large part because she wanted to get away from her mother.
So she was beginning to repel a little bed
and in her mother, spend a lot of time at a hotel on the ocean, the hotel De Coronado outside of San Diego, when an turned twenty, the manager at the hotel planned Big Party for her. There was a big deal
because an haven't had a real birthday party, since her father died the hotel staff
arrange for lots of flowers and invite
at other young people who lived in the hotel when an mother found out, she was furious
she told the manager. I want you to understand. I'm no pauper get out of here in mind your own business
and said she almost died of embarrassment. There's no party. That was
One month before an and her mother had lunch at the hotel when an suddenly felt a strange,
and are adamant. So I suspect what happened
The mother put something in her
drink to make her feel sick and set her plan in motion.
arranged for her to have her appendix removed
so, when she goes to the hospital to have this surgery. The doktor
Remove her floppy in tubes, along with her appendix and
Don't know what had been done to her, but she did think there is something
and about the way the nurses we're talking about her. Something was off
She remembers how her mother had previously ran about what a moron she was and how she make a terrible mother, and so she kind of puts to it
do together and realizes with horror what her mothers don
also in the back of her mind. She is, she knows that
she dies without having children all the money
votes to her mother. Yes,
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and right now you can trace it recruiter for free, a typical dot com, slash criminal, that's zip, recruiter, dot, com, slash criminal. After an Cooper, Hewett surgery. She went her mothers apartment to recover. She later told reporters that she had been kept in her room and that her mother had removed the telephone
she couldn't make any calls. One am turned twenty one and was no longer a minor. She finally had access to the money. Her father had left her and moved out of her mothers apartment. She got a lawyer who determined that an had been given a mental test, then deemed quote deficient and sterilised without her knowledge and file to five hundred thousand dollar lawsuit against her mother and the doctors involved in the surgery
Audrey Claire Farley reports that Marion paid to doctors, nine thousand dollars each to advise on and perform the surgery did normally only cost hundreds of dollars and Marion did it allegedly with money from her daughter's trust fund. When the lawsuit was announced on January Sixth, one thousand nine hundred and thirty six
it a public statement to the papers. She said I had no dolls when I was little and I'll have new children when I'm old, that's my story. One of the reporters asked if an thought, her mother plan to kill her since the will stipulated she wouldn't receive ands portion of the inheritance until after her death and lawyer responded. Mrs Cooper Hewett has always said that her daughter sickly, she is also refuse to acknowledge her own aging, the woman
probably presumed her life expectancy exceeded her daughters. One of the doctors accuse demands, lawsuit told papers that he had performed the surgery at the request of vans mother because she was afraid the Danes mental condition might led her into quote moral difficulties. The term ands mother used
with feeble minded. What's his feeble minded even mean, while at the time it could mean epileptic, it could mean sexual deviance and then
what the definition that Miriam was leaning upon feeble minded. Just me,
weak minded, and at this time, disability and intellectual deficiencies and promiscuity were all perceived to be the same thing. So if a woman was thought to be promiscuous, it was just assumed that she was intellectually defective and and that's what Marian tried to prove with an that she was promiscuous and therefore
That is a defective and should not reproduce the day after an file to civil law sued San Francisco
strict attorney Matthew, Brady called for a criminal investigation.
Two ands allegations. He believed the doctors, as well as an mother
could be tried, should make him a felony which was deferred
and as unlawful and malicious, remove
of a member of a human being or the disabling,
disfiguring thereof or rendering it uses?
There were two questions.
There are an had actually been disfigured by the removal of her philosophy,
tubes and whether her mother and the doctors
Who advised on and perform the procedure
had legal justification to prevent an
from having children due to her quote unfitness.
Ring was held to determine whether criminal charges could be brought. The judge questioned the state psychiatry guest who,
given and the intelligence tests before her surgery, the one that included?
questions like what is the longest river in the? U S, the test had determined,
Anne had the mental age of an eleven year old, the Judge Ass, a psychiatrist,
give him that same test. When the cycle
I address concluded that the judge had a mental age of twelve. The judge said I thought
it was near ain't, the
told and that I know very few who
it is clearly as you do.
signed a warrant on February forth for the arrest of ants mother and the two doctors he said
The necessity and the desire to bear children is something not ITALY to be interfered with newspapers.
reported on aliens case every day debating whether or not,
and his mother had done the right thing. They printed opinions from rabbis ministers, psychiatrist and even novelists, and the public
was discovering that sterilization was more common and they might have imagined ants family doctor who ordered the operation? Doktor Tillman told the San Francisco examiner
that there are many girls in San Francisco who have been sterilised and do not know it.
There are many more in state hospitals.
sterilization, isn't an uncommon operation and if it were necessary,
that such an operation be performed on my
daughter. I wouldn't tell her: how did this practice come about? What was the use for it
How is it being done? Rather,
involuntarily a lot of times. So the idea
first, a relaxation came from eugenics and eugenics was actually the brainchild of an english intellectual, Sir Francis Golden who was that
Charles Darwin and after reading Darwins ideas on evolution Golden began to wonder if humans could improve breeding practices, to create a better society.
Now he came from a very noble family and he was irritated that families like his had to support the lower classes. He thought that poor, disabled people and criminals had defective.
genes and that of people and his mill. You had more children than the traits that were associated with his family and with the upper class intelligence discipline could proliferate. So he advocated what would eventually become known as positive eugenics. So his ideas,
work their way across the Atlantic and they inspire man named Charles Davenport. Only Davenport didn't want to just encourage upper class women to reproduce he wanted to supplement. Goldens positive
eugenics, with what would become known as negative eugenics. Negative eugenics is preventing the unfit from reproducing so in nineteen ten Davenport founded the eugenics Record Office, any hired a bunch of field workers.
went out into the countryside and into immigrant neighborhoods to collect pedigrees from people, and these
workers wanted to know. For instance, if anyone had an alcoholic uncle or promiscuous daughter, or they had six fingers or toes, they believed just
It's gotten did that these social conditions, like poverty, were genetically inherited,
wanted to convince law makers that there was a pervasive problem. So they used this data, which was
course terribly unscientific to persuade state legislatures to pay
sterilization laws and to restrict
migration and prevent
interracial, mixing authorities were very fearful about the future of the white raised and they thought that the White race was going to
be polluted by all these undesirables, and that thing
did to protect its purity and so part of that project of protecting the purity of the white race.
was purging, the weakest members, the so called white trash, and so in that project of guaranteeing white supremacy a lot of whites, those who are disabled who were thought to be permits, Q S, those who were poor, became color,
Victims, California, enacted its for sterilization law in one thousand nine hundred and nine one of the first in the nation and buy one thousand nine hundred and twenty one more than two thousand two hundred people have been sterilized in cal.
Cornea, mostly in prisons and institutions. At the time California accounted for eighty percent of all sterilization cases in the country. Other states begin
enacting their own laws allowing involuntary sterilization, but some of them were being challenged.
And found to be unconstitutional in New Jersey and I were, for example,
voluntary sterilization was said to be cruel and unusual punishment, in violation of equal protection and due process
you Genesis wanted to find a way to get sterilization on more solid legal footing. So they found a test case that ended up going. All the way to the Supreme Court of Virginia woman named carry buck had become pregnant when she was sixteen years old. After a relative of her foster, parents raped her. She gave birth to a daughter in nineteen. Twenty four and her foster parents committed her to a state institution where full opium tubes were removed. Under the states, new sterilization law carry had been deemed feeble minded in part because she was an unwed mother and therefore considered promiscuous and with carry bar
they planned to take her case as far as they could to codify eugenics into law so before they sterilised her. They arranged to tap her become a test case. Her attorney was in Cahoots with the directors of the institution where she
was to be sterilised, which was the Virginia Stay colony for epileptics and feeble minded, and so
Oh sure enough, because her attorney was working not to her benefit. The case did go all the way to the Supreme Court, where the Supreme Court ruled that the state of Virginia did have the right to forcibly sterilize her and in the process
stop that case people argued that carries mother was a moron and carries daughter
There was a moron and the justice in their case famously wrote three generations of imbeciles. That's enough. The justice was Oliver Wendell HOMES, he also route. It is better for all the world if, instead of waiting to execute, degenerate offspring for crime or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continue.
Their kind with his ruling? The? U S Supreme Court reaffirmed the legality of involuntary sterilization of women who, like an had, been deemed feeble minded. It was a huge victory for eugenics. Seventeen states, revised or enacted sterile
patient laws over the next four years. Not only were states passing these laws, but churches and popular culture were spreading the message of responsible breeding alot of liberal protestant ministers.
preached sermons on eugenic state fares head these contests, which they would subject people to the same inspection that livestock underwent
Contestants would win ribbons for these creamy complexion.
Leslie. Arched knows is there are basically being measured for their whiteness, but their developed. This scientific criticism
and people pointed out that you know. Maybe poverty isn't an inherited tree just like blue eyes or brown hair. They begin to say that the inheritance of positive and negative treats is a lot more complicated than you genesis pretend, and then the Nazi Party begins to
King global attention for its programmes now in the early nineteenth thirties, the party of course, was still in its infancy and the full horror up their programmes. Hadn't been carried out, but
the Nazis past the Nuremberg laws which forbade marriage between
shoes and non Jews, and also selected children per
DARE illustration and Americans really bristled at what was going on in Europe and some began to wonder, you know if it was so wise to be making decisions about entire classes of people in nineteen thirty six, when an Cooper, Hewett fought back, it was an enormous new story and you Genesis were following closely
At first they tried to distance themselves from the case. They realised that this mother daughter, spat, might cast a negative light on sterility
programmes, and they were especially afraid that sympathy for an might translate
in two negative sentiment or scrutiny towards laws.
One leader in the eugenics movement in California was, as regards me, the
President and founder of what was called the Human Betterment Foundation, he wrote
meritorious arguing that an case didn't
anything to do with California sterilization laws which only concerned sterilization in public institutions, but at the same time have the size is. There is no law against sterilization in private practice and that many people actually regard sterilization in private practice as the next phase of the eugenics movement. So it's kind of doing a bit of a Tuesday.
a saying, oh dont. Let this mother daughter, spat color your view of genetics and also maybe this case signals a new path for eugenics and so because he publishes that peace. He caught the attention of the doctors attorney the doctors who had sterilised am their attorney road to as regards knee and asked him in his collar,
to consult on their defence strategy and they do initially refused because again they they wanted to distant sterilization from this tabloid case, but they eventually agree the advice of lawyers not to bother making an argument that Marian was a good mother trying to act in her child's best interest. In fact, the Genesis thought it might not be a bad thing
if the jury thought Marian was a bad mother because they thought the fact of Mary and being a poor mother actually proved ends unfitness. So they say
grew up in this terrible domestic environment and
as a result, she's going to make a terrible mother herself, almost
immediately after ended, announced her lawsuit. Her mother left California, for New Jersey, but
She did have to respond to the charges, and so she files and asked the David which states her
since sport sterilizing Anne, and she claims that,
and this feeble minded that she's addicted to masturbation and has been since three years of age that she refused to be educated, that she had this
reference for men in uniform, which meant working class man and she tells US
and tried to run away with the chauffeur she claims that an wrote, love letters to the chauffeur
and that she intercepted these letters, although she said that she had to destroy them, so she couldn't produce them as evidence
and so you know she's she's, appealing to these. These fears that people had in order to you, no gain sympathy for her choice to sterilised an how did and start to build her case,
and her mother. While she retaliated to Marion's claims by saying it wasn't me, it was my mother who had this riotous life and she said
dead. How her mother had an addiction to alcohol and gambling and she'd squandered and
inheritance money at all of these casinos across the world, and so her strategy was to say it's, my mother, who was a bad mother, and I think this really explains why the case riveted the public, because from the
first, we have to win and who are each accusing the other of being unfit for motherhood. Newspapers covering the case almost always mentioned that ants mother had been married. Five times,
They would prefer to her with all her married names at once in a huge hyphenated list, they called an the duped girl and the sterile heiress. Both women were characterized as liking sex too much one newspaper called the case
daughter, verses, mother drum we'll be right back superstructure.
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consumer access, dot. Org number thirty. Thirty, an Cooper Hewetts mother was still in New Jersey when she heard that there is a warrant for her
arrest in California for her Roland sterilizing, her daughter, she checked into a hotel
under a fake name, accompanied by a nurse and said she was very ill police couldn't find her for weeks,
There were rumours circulating about where she might be one person
claimed he saw her in London when they finally did find her. She was in a hospital. They learned the tube and brought in a week before after taking a large amount of sleeping pills. When she was asked about it and said,
I'm sorry, of course my would be sorry to learn that anyone I knew at attempted suicide, but there is no use pretty
in a relationship that doesn't exist. I think that they were communicating to each other through the press and an knew that her mother
reading about her, and so she wanted to show that she was happy. She was independent. She didn't need her mother anymore, and one way that she tried to show this was by not dying her hair.
so her mother, who her whole life had said. You know you're, so ugly, used to make her die her hair, this platinum blonde and an refused to die her hair and she made sure to be photographed with her dark hair,
as a way of showing her mother that she was now independent from her. She didn't need her. She was her
woman and mother stayed in the hospital for months. Are lawyers reported that you'd be unable to make the trip across the country for a trial, so the San Francisco district attorney decided to go ahead and try the two doctors, the trial, began on August 14th, one thousand nine hundred and thirty six. The jury was made up of nine men and, as newspapers reported quote, three childless women. On the first day, the defense called an apple
and such was being manipulated than to accusing her mother and the doctors manipulated by her lawyer and by her mothers first husband, who they argued, were after an inheritance. They also suggested that the law suit was an attempt to kill her mother
creating so much emotional shock that Marian would die and an inheritance would get even bigger an responded. The defendants, Lloyd.
Was perfectly correct. In stating there has been a conspiracy. These failed, however, to correctly identify the conspirators. The court adjourned over the weekend, newspapers reported that the defence plan to emphasise the mental test and had taken one of the questions on the test asked her to name the colours of the american flag.
said red, white and blue, but she was given a score of zero on the question because, according to the test, why was not a color one? Quart resumed ands lawyer pointed out that the doctor
perform. The surgery had initially denied that he done anything.
There then remove an appendix and only later admitted that they'd sterilised her in response. The defence again accused ends lawyer of manipulating his client in an effort to get at her inheritance on the third day of the trial, the defence argue
that the doctors couldn't have committed a crime, because the laws in California did not prohibit sterilization and they had written authorization from an guardian, her mother, on the fourth day the judge dismiss the case. He ruled that no crime has been committed. He said
If the laws in California lead to situations which are seemingly unjust, the remedy is with the legislature and not the courts. I have a picture of an that. I think about a lot and soon after she's learned that the judge has thrown out the charge.
Is and, according to the information on the back of the picture, I imagine reporter
like clamouring for her attention, and she just sort of, looks over her shoulder and she has the saddest expression on her face
our tears in her eyes- and she just wants to like flee. But there still ready to capture her pain and to profit.
From it. The assistant district attorney August foreigner
said. The San Francisco district attorney's office would appeal the decision
He said it is a terrible
blow to the Youth of California. Now any parent can have any child unsexed for any reason this
case said the damn bad precedent, and you can quote me on that. Damn I imagine that this loss
and would have kind, have been a boon for sterilization doctors at the time it absolutely was, and it
at this moment when it was on life support because of the scientific criticism that was beginning
two dark the movement and because of the increasing
Here's that eugenics was like what the Nazis word
bring over in Europe
and so, after an case attend
shifted from genetic defects to domestic ones,
Will you Genesis had already been suffering as
result of shoddy science of heredity and aunts case really provided the opportunity for them to shift focus from proving genetic defect to proving bad home life. So this really opens the door for who
can be called unfit for motherhood and, as a result, people began to target more women of color for sterilization, because
especially in California. There were a lot of women of Mexican descend pretended to have,
a larger families, often because of their catholic faith. You know they didn't use birth control because of their religion,
and so officials in California perceived these women to be feeble minded because their quote hyper breeders and they produce low quality children, and so in this case,
something as simple as family size, becomes justification for sterilization ands case also help.
to move sterilization from public institutions to private practice in private practice, relay sort of takes over the job that these asylum said done for the first few decades of this
cherry, so you have people bringing in their wives
Others too have the procedure done more often
it would be social workers who target people and ink,
California, you know social workers would find
women and say you know you have five
children therefore you're over sexist. So in some cases women,
No we're going to institutions to be sterilised, but often if, if it wasn't private practice, it could be
without their knowledge, and so in the south, especially their became a term called Mississippi Appendectomy, which referred
The frequency with which you know a woman would go into a public hospital for sums,
abdominal procedure and come home without a uterus. It really became a pervasive fear that women tat there
and so a lot of these sterilizations that are taking place go unrecorded.
Then that's because they're, not in an asylum where there's better record keeping and its also because doctors or not
recording them as involuntary they would. You know, maybe approach a woman,
Who is under the influence of pain, medication and ask you know: does she want to be sterilised, and so a woman obviously cannot give consent under them?
conditions, and so you know a lot of them- just warrant being recorded
After the case against an Cooper Hewetts doctors was dismissed. The San Francisco district attorney still thought they had a case against ants mother, but only if an agreed to testify an refused and part of that was probably because an was tired of the attention. But I also think that she had sympathy for her mother.
because of the way that her mother had been trashed in the newspapers per year. Just like she had in her mother,
at all her dirty laundry air, just like she had and was doing here.
When eyes in the same way that she was
bout ants testimony. The prosecutor was forced to drop the charges Marian State on the EAST coast,
and never returned California and married soon after the trial. But the marriage didn't work out.
She received ten thousand letters in the months after her lawsuit many of their marriage proposals. Her lawyer said Anne told him to throw them into the furnace
she told her reporter. When I do Mary, it will be for love and not to someone who proposes before they even know me when the reporter asked what love meant to her an replied. My idea of love is this mutual understanding, admiration and affection. She ended up marrying five men, just like him
and it was during her second or third marriage that she received.
News that her mother was trying to contact her. So the operator said that her mother had called in
You wanted to make amends and
and really wrestled with whether or not she was going to call her mother back and she didn't call her mother back before she learned that her mother had died of a stroke over on the EAST coast, mere hint Cooper, Hewett died alone in a small apartment and was photographed getting off the airplane to attend the funeral. She died her hair blonde again, photographers ain't o snapped pictures a purse,
was one of the few people at the burial crying for her mother. In a way, her mother was still the closest person in her life in a way in the fact that they were both on trial
for the same thing being on?
for motherhood bonded them in a way that the
it never been bonded before an Cooper, Hewett event,
We moved to Mexico, where she lived with her husband, Frank Nicholson,
also known as Rodya Roy in nineteen. Fifty five frankness
then wrote in a letter. We live on a ranch.
Fifteen minute drives the Monterrey Orange Groves do all right and happy and died of cancer the next year,
she was forty one
forced sterilizations continued after an Stan
and after they eventually became illegal. The victims were
Primarily women of color
sixtys and seventys sterilization procedures are reported to have been performed on one in four native american women
without their knowledge are concerned and more recently store
some women being sterilised while incarcerated or detained have appeared in September of twenty twenty, a nurse working
in an ice detention centre in Georgia filed a whistle blower complained claiming
detainees were undergoing unnecessary Ghana, Claude
because surgeries more than forty women submitted written testimonies describing abuse.
The whistle blower said the rat
the women got up from general Anastasia they'd, ask
I did. I have the surgery
criminal, is created by Lord Sport,
And me needy Wilson is our senior producer, Susanna Robertson
Producer engineering by Russ, Henry Audio, makes by John Events, Evans Michael reveal and raw buyers. A fine of finally to Julian Alexander creates original illustrations.
Chop pursued, you can see them at this is criminal dot com or we have t shirts and hats and water bottles to Audrey Clear Farley's book about an Cooper Hewett is called the unfit heiress.
the tragic life and scandalous sterilization of Cooper, human.
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Transcript generated on 2021-05-22.