« Freakonomics Radio

226. Food + Science = Victory!

2015-11-04 | 🔗
A kitchen wizard and a nutrition detective talk about the perfect hamburger, getting the most out of garlic, and why you should use vodka in just about everything.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
This podcast dynamically inserts audio advertisements of varying lengths for each download. As a result, the transcription time indexes may be inaccurate.
If you'd like to listen to free economic radio without ads the place to do that, is sticker premium five dollars a month and you can get- free month trial. By going to stick your premium dot com and use a promo code freak, you also get access to all our bonus. Episodes and you'll be supporting our show to that sticker premium: dot, com, promo code, freak thanks. So what does it say concede that there are so many conventional wisdom about something as basic as cooking food, which we ve been doing for thousands of years. That are, if not wrong, at least kind of misguided. Isn't that sort of strange? It is strange, but you know what I think is precisely because we ve been doing it for so long and because everybody does it s, sort of an essential point, of everyday life that you, I think, is one of the things that rarely gets a sort of a second thought. Today we're gonna, give a lot of second thoughts to what we eat and how we eat it
is Candy Lopez, Alt, I'm the managing colony directorate, serious each dot com, and I write about the science of food. The science of food does not sound kind of unnatural. I think a lot of people think of science as the opposite of tradition, are the opposite of natural and real. It's not you know. Science is just a method right. It is a method about thinking about the world and you can be, For many different ends are right and I'm on board about you. you like to know whether the secret of New York, that really is the water will be this Vienna finding was at that the water makes almost no difference compared to their variables in the dough. Would you like to know how free comics radio listeners do things in the kitchen. If we can pick it up a chopsticks than that means, it's completely cut on the inside, and would you like to know the true nutritional value of one of America's favorite vegetables, veterinarians. Don't even recommend
is rabbit food, from w and my see this is for economics, radio, the package that explores the hidden side of everything, here's your house Stephen Debonair. His full name is J Candy Lopez. Hyphen ought. The J is for James is given first name he's gone by Kennedy, but he didn't want to totally lose. The James ought is his last name. His father is of german dissent is, other is japanese. That's where the candy comes from in the Lopez is the last name of Kennedys wife, she's colombian. When she Can you got married? They both became Lopez out so Jake Genji Lopez. Alt has just published a big beautiful doorstep of a book. Some, as a thousand pages
many big, it's called the food lab better home cooking through signs. The first line, I was never meant to be a food guy like from them scientists to my father is a microbiologist and my grandfather's inorganic chemist. I had a very science and math heavy childhood- I was one of those kids would wake up. thirty in the morning to go and watch MR wizard Nickelodeon. I'm we all want to illustrate evaporation. Gonna go from a liquid to a gas, you watch what happens: What stolen my favorite shows an honestly, I think, not a conceptual everything I learned about basic science, all the way through college. I learned from that show really you're, not Joe, I'm not joking, I'm not joking is so. You were way into. Science is a kid: were you into food as a kid no, I mean you know my family liked eating but enough I was one of those kids who
like I, you know I hated fish until I was probably in my early twenties, and you know when I went to college, I had no idea how to cook what would be a tip go family Sunday night meal. Let's say why so my mom is japanese. She moved to the U S when she was a teenager and so her food was it. She did all the cooking at home? For the most part, my dad would occasionally cook especial meal. You know when he felt like cooking. He would cook a lot of mexican or chinese food and those are always nice nights, but my mom cooked in art are daily food. It was all a sort of a mixed between japanese food and Betty Crocker nineteen seventies, staples alot of the recipes in the food lab nod toward those seventy staples, but are improved upon through science. Ok, so I'm about to make an assumption Tom. If the assumption is rate or totally wrong. As a kid, you were signs absurd You went to MIT and in the beginning, studied biology. You come from a family of scientists, so my
Something is that all of that got kind of baked into you to some degree and this kind of appreciation for these familiarity with the scientific but a man when you fell in love with food and king that you naturally kind of parlour The scientific method into the cooking methods that at all, true or not yet that's that's very accurate, remarkably accurate, I found when I was working in restaurants that I did have the sort of natural curiosity about why things work. He first found his way into the kitchen during college. It happened by accident and also important life lesson here. I lying the summer after my sophomore year, I decided I wanted to take the summer off from any kind of academic work, because I was gonna get burned out on biology. So I decided to go. Job as a waiter communist, walked around Boston trying to find a job as a waiter, and nobody wanted to hire me and then, when I wanted restaurants I walked into. They said they didn't have any way to positions available, but one of their prep cooks didn't show
that morning and if I could hold the knife that I could have a job as a cook so I lied and see. I know I know how to use a knife, and I and I'd like literally had I dont forget ever cut anything with the chefs knife in my life before he was hooked, So yet, from the moment I stepped into the kitchen, I was like this is the life for me, this is great. He did graduate from MIT. I switch majors to architecture so I finish with a degree in architecture, structural engineering, but then he spent the next eight years working in a bunch of different Boston, restaurants, that restaurant job was a wanted. Mongolian girl take places. I was a knight of the round girl. I would do things like flip shrimp. Behind my back,
stuff, like that from there to like sort of big chain restaurant Mexican play it. It's a plays work. My way the chain is started working full time and you get a job at one of the Europe that the nicest restaurants in town Arbour, Lynch was my first really great- shall work that at her restaurant number nine Park enjoy stirs and a butcher shop doings recruiters can orangery, who also has a number of really good Boston, restaurant, modern restaurant at his place and as a modern, sustaining bar, but his Lopez all rights in the food lab. I discovered that in many cases, even in the best restaurants in the world. The methods that traditional cooking knowledge teaches us are not only outdated but occasionally flat out wrong. This was, of course, his I ain't background talking. You know why we cooking in this way would be better to cook it. This way, you know why are we doing this and that something that it is actually not
very easy to work with when you're in a restaurant, because it's such a fast pace environment, you don't really have time desert it ass those questions or investigate them or answer them so so that that was also one of the reasons why I felt in this desire to get out of restaurants and go go into writing because I thought it would give me more time to actually think about. things and answer these questions that have been building up for so many years. His first writing job was it cooks illustrated magazine, so they have a big kitchen in Berkeley Massachusetts mean so that it has a thirty ovens. Twenty five burners, it's you know big test kitchen, and I mean that was pretty much perfect for me because at the end of them they saw magazines by doing just that very same thing, with new asking questions and spending the money and the time to answer them. First, it cooks illustrated leader at serious, eats Lopez all began to refine and methodology, the first of his all research. So what I'll do I'll go and look up the you know, look too many sources, as I can for the history of the dish. Many different recipes to see how different people are making it many starts to reinvent a recipe at least rethink it. I try and find areas where I think it might be
Problems for home cooks are areas where think it could be improved efficiency. Often this means taking a step backward, not thinking just in terms of ingredients and texture and flavour, but scientific basics. Lake temperature, there's a difference between temperature and energy and that's a concept that I think a lot of. You will have a difficult I'm rubbing their heads around, but did the really quick and he waited demonstrated. Is that if you think about a pot of water, that's boiling the temperature of that waters too. Twelve degrees, Fahrenheit a hundred degrees celsius, and Stick your hand in their you're gonna burn your hand. At the same time, You can have an oven at two hundred and twelve degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, and you can stick your hand in there for like a minute, and you won't. You know, you'll barely feel it'll feel hot, but you're not going to burn yourself and the way that this could bear itself out in cooking is for instant. Been used to cooking your pizzas on a baking stone. You know which a lot of people have in their ovens stone is not particularly dense compared to save solid metal there. Now things called baking steals which are solid,
steal that you he'd up in your oven and they transfer energy tier pizza much much faster than a stone can either there are the same temperature, so you know have a steel at four hundred and fifty degrees and a stone at like five hundred fifty degrees and the pizza has placed on the steel will actually cook faster than the one that's placed on the stone. Tell me something I don't know a bout, the geometry of food. You refer to that a few times in your book. Why is it important? How should I think about it differently? The geometry food? It is important because you know one of the big things is surface area devalue, yet ratio. I like to think about it this way where, if you're, looking at the edge of a piece of general, says chicken ants and say you're looking at it from about two feet away and you you try and trace the outline of that journalists and you say you are right- the primitive that piece of chicken is two inches and then you a little bit closer, and you see you know what like. I was just tracing a very rough outline if I actually go in and filling these little crags. Ok, now it's more like too and a quarter inches and if you look even closer you'll see now it may be more like two and a half inches and This is a phenomenon that people a geologist see what
coastlines that the further away. You are smoother, they seamen and the shorter they are, but it's important because with a food like fried chicken, you want it to be really really Crispin, the more surface area you have, the more so a little nooks and crannies you have, the crisper is going to feel in your mouth, the better sauces going to cling to it and I'm all those things. So you know crispy foods. You want them to be really crackly and have a very high surface area, the volume ratio is there any instant I'm sure there are where more surface area is not better yeah, I mean if you say cook, like I'm a prime repressed for ample more or even like a tenderloin stake. You wanted actually to be in his compact is either a spherical or cylindrical issue possible because I'm minimizes surface area to two volume ratio and that's important because for everything that the more servers are. You have the more it's gonna dry out, while its cooking, because there's just more surface where moisture to escape from and the less evenly is gonna
so that that's why you're cooking like a tenderloin steak or or your roasting, a whole tenderloin or primary. You generally want to tie it up a little bit so that it retains that nice cylindrical shape and that you know that's about more than just aesthetics. It actually uses the surface area and thus helps Appertained juices more evenly better. The underlying component of the food lab methodology is the same underline component of most bench. Science, experimentation for something like general, so, for example, my big goal from the very beginning was to get the chicken to be as crusty. incredibly as possible and to make sure that it developed across that would stay crispy even after you toss it in this sort of gloomy sauce, So so a lot of my testing for that recipe was with the various types of breeding and and frying methods. And how do you really sort of enhanced that Christmas? Can you name a few reach the spreading and methods? If you answer based
You know that there is like. I tried dipping in cornstarch, I tried to begin a cornstarch slurry, followed by dry cornstarch. I tried using various mixes of cornstarch and wheat flour potato starch instead of tapioca starch I tried doing a sort of a sudden style brining the chicken in asian players, with a little bit of butter milk to tender eyes it. I tried using his verses, no eggs. Many different things like that that the final recipe I ended up with uses some vodka in the matter which is on, which is a guarantee fund of vodka for battering. Yes, I am I mean it's. I use it in a few different things. Usually you use it when you want to develop crispness, but also maintain lightness, because you know well help moisten a batter or a dough, but it doesn't develop gluten the way that water does so it so it stays nice and light. It doesn't get tough and the other thing. The bug it does is it evaporates much faster than water does is more volatile and water. So when you, when you put food, that's been duped into about her maid
vodka into hot oil, that sort of like a really violently bubbles away very quickly, so that sort of lightens up the coding and it makes it much crisper gotcha it's a which of those coatings ended up winning leave. I did a mixture of vodka cornstarch, and little bit of wheat flour, along with some so often, and so the chicken gets kind at dipped in that wet better and then tossed it in try starch mixture, I'm just curious how I guess rigorous your experiments are, would they pass muster in science led, for instance, sometimes if, if there really like us, or a deep question about cooking that people are very conflicted on that. I will actually do you know a really well controlled. The experiment double blind. So, for example, I gum one of the they did a number of years ago, was to answer the question whether New York Pizza is really good because of the water right yeah and people say it is an
People use it as an excuse, a lot for why they can't make good pits outside of New York. So for that, when I actually, I did a full double bind experiment where I got water, starting with perfectly distilled and then up to the various levels of of dissolve solids inside the water in New York in New York has a high level. I assume of dissolved sound, pretty high, pretty high, yet not the highest but pretty high. So I think I had It's different water samples, ranging from very high to nothing and them into numbered bottles, and then I had an assistant mope, my wife rearranged them we're gonna bottles, and then I passed the bottles. to a pizza chef in New York? So I didn't know was in the numbered bottles hidden knows in the numbered bottles. I also double the cup the map as as a controlled. I'm to make sure that our testing panel was on points and then and then I had a bunch of people, a mix of sort of amateurs and also sort of professional food writers come anticipate. as blind what we do is we end up finding was at the water. It makes almost no different compared to other variables in the dough.
and yet I mean that you know that one, it's it's a sort of silly premise, but you know, but it, but it was a pretty rigorously hay and someone who lives in Europe needs pizza. I dont think that that will happen us at all. I think that's exactly what science is for. It strikes me that everything we're talking about so far is geared toward cooking for taste, which makes perfect sense is eating, is incredibly pleasurable. Different being necessary, but then there's a school of thought small, but growing. That says that one reason that we ve got into such like nutritional trouble is because we have had the lungs ready to eat for taste and that we stopped eating kind of foreign nutrition. I'm just curious what your thoughts are there, because I love, I mean your book as unapologetically about deliciousness and and when you write about Super creamy, cheesy, O Groton potatoes. It's like we're going, it's a whole model,
it's like as much crime is. We can is much better than I am, and I love your celebration of that. On the other hand, you are doing this in an era when there's a lot more focus on nutrition. I'm just curious how you kind of balance that, while I'm one of these people who really thinks that it's all you know it's all about, moderation and from the way my book is written, you might think that I eat steak and potato. Her name, but the reality is actually really far from that. So if I'm gonna eat a hamburger, I want that to be the best damn hamburger I can make right. So that's where they This idea that you know, like a monitoring perfect these foods, these comfort classics that people that people love that you now shouldn't necessarily you'd every day, but you know when then you want them to be really great. So, on a day to day basis, you know my have a nice day, mostly vegetarian, we alot official at sea food. We both exercise, so you know, I think, on food can be delicious pigmented, It should also be sustaining at the end and in Europe It's not really worth that extra serving of birds We're extra serving of of three potato casserole coming up after the break? We go deep
into the delicious verses nutritious debate, even a lot of the fruits in bed. We are not very Good. For Us- and you all know whose fault it is its America's fault, what happened is all of these great food cultures of the countries that we came from got lost when we came here, but first a couple more. Tricks: here's candy Lopez Alt on scrambled eggs, the one big thing that, with what scrambled eggs, if you soldier eggs, while the rock a pinch of salt in the eggs, while the rob beat him up and let them sit for about fifteen minutes ago, actually retain moisture a lot better than if you were to just took them straight and seldom at the beginning. He can also help out with your piper S. If you use vodka in place of some of the water in your pie, crust, it doesn't make the pie boozy you end up with the dough that is much like here and much lighter. We also asked you for economics, radio listeners to tell us your kitchen tricks and hacks insuperable.
I'm running this chain on twenty five years old, colonel live in New York, but I grew up in Taiwan a coronary track that I learned growing up with that when the boiling enable contests whether or not its fully cooked, I trying to pick it up with chopsticks, I'm animal stall from Mobile, stirred up I've been told by my mom when prepared you come back to a cut of both ends of it and to rub it on the previously caught part. No somehow removed the bitterness hi. This is Tiffany in Cooper, Tino, California might baking tip. Is that, contrary to what Martha Stewart always said you do not need makes your salt and your bacon soda into your flower in a inseparable before you added to the rest of your batter, This is David lines out of Denver, Colorado and the canaries secret. I learned from my wife who is korean is to always so grace before you cook it once used. Our do
in this way there is no going back. Not much, is known about when humans began to cook food. Although cooking is widely thought to have started long before agriculture, the earliest archaeological evidence of men's controlling fire and possibly cooking dates. Roughly a million years ago, but the harboured anthropologist Richard Rang M argues that started nearly a million years before that he also argues that cooking is what made us human, that it allowed our prehistoric answer due to spend less time and energy chewing gum of foods and that that energy could be directed towards growing the human brain. But that's not the only reason. She cooking it releases nutrients in raw foods and often makes a more potent and easier to digest. There's some foods
kill and broccoli are two of them that we absorb more of their. Answer fighting ingredients if we eat them raw, but most fruits and vegetables benefit from light cooking, either thirteen may mean for olive oil at low temperature or lightly steam, less cooks and most people cook them. But this light steaming or this this gentle saute breaks down so walls, which makes more than nutrients available to us, so we'll get three or four times more nutrients from could care than from a raw one. When we entered see to someone. My name is John Robinson and I'm an investigative journalist and she spent most of her car. you're studying nutrition and food, unlike Kennedy Lopez Alt Joe Robinson, was destined for her career path.
and it really came down to this amazing grandmother that I had who had a sense about food and wholesomeness like a nineteen, ten She and a group of women were critical of the agricultural Department for saying that we should be eating white bread instead of whole wheat, bread and the sinking of the time it was the site. Foodscience of the time was that all of that fiber and the brand in the germ we're just roughage that we couldn't digest well, so it wasn't good for us and this crew. Also lobbied that Coca COLA shouldn't be sold. Her grandmother very much Who is the way the family ate so more than other kids whole green. We ate knots and seeds and brewers hissed and lots of fruits and vegetables. So grew up with that as being normal. As a kid growing up in Washington State, partly
two coma and partly in the Puget Sound Wilderness, Joe Robinson, would sometimes spend her allowance on wonder, bread She was the only one in school, the sandwich on homemade wheat, bread as an adult. She tries to sort out nutritional myths from reality. My job is to go into the scientific journals find. What I think is important for human health. Packaging, in a way that people can first of all, understand its importance and then find what to do with what? What am I gonna pick in this grocery store when we get a picnic farmers markets? So really it take someone of like myself to translate science to action steps robinsons latest book is called eating on the wild sides. Fascinating almost every page tells you something you dont know about food, especially fruits in bed and herbs, and a lot of it goes back to that split between delicious
Tricia's where we humans are programmed and have always been programmed to prefer food that is high, carbohydrate starches and sugar and oil, because those kinds of nutrients were very poor in the wilderness and we had to be motivated with these feel good brain chemicals to go out and get them, and so on. Over time we just kept picking sweeter fatter richer softer, thus fibres food. ever knowing what we're doing- and it is only only now do we have the technology and the slowly emulating wisdom to know
how we should transform our food supply to make an optimum for human health in Robinsons View America has been guilty here than others. I dont think Americans are stupid when it comes to food, nutrition and health. But what happened is all of these great food cultures of the countries that we came from got lost one week, here and everything became homogenized, and then we became leaders in industrial agriculture, which has nothing to do with nutrition, has to do with volume and with flavour. So the vast majority of food crops in this country, were growing them because their highly productive or disease resistant. Those are the two criteria that farmers use an egg. the troll schools years to determine what varieties we're gonna eat there, not looking at food value, so other countries throughout the world, tend to have more nutritious diet than we do, and then we
sort of breeding out all signs of bitterness, because food manufacturers knew that about twenty. I percent of the population does not like better some even low amount. So don't how can create something that twenty five percent of their potential sellers are gonna avoid Oh just this, taking away the bitterest took away a lot of the antioxidants to all of those trends continue, so we very bland low, Antioxidant soft diet consider, for instance, one of the most popular vegetables in America. Well, only people in this country eat ice for Gladys. In fact, half the people country- have never eaten anything either than iceberg. Let us now, let me clarify its on that half the people have never eaten anything other than iceberg. Let us, but no other. Let us now. Why is that? It's a very productive letter
many many tons of ladders per acre and its also a very mild tasting, let us and as a culture we are pretty bitter adverse and we like the fact that iceberg lattices, like kind of a watery crunch and does have a lot of flavour. So it's everywhere so maybe iceberg isn't one of those classy salad, greens, arugula, Mozilla or even just a romaine, but hey still a vegetable right, which means it still got got a nutritional value right. Iceberg Gladys has fewer new train, than any other, let us in the store. In fact veterinarian, don't even recommended is rabbit for making this there's not enough nutrients to support their health, a rabbit to think productively about our nutritional present,
future Robinson began. By looking to the past, I began to compare the There were eating today with the law EL diet that sustained us for about ninety eight percent of our evolution, and it was so very clear that over time We have greatly diminished the nutrient content of our animal products and are all of everything that we grow. For example, the any accident content of wild plants varies from two to four hundred times greater than that domesticated counterpart, so we eat today Robinson believes powerfully in the value of antioxidants, though the word anti accident can tell a lot of the story. It's against oxidation. An oxidation is justice. Chemical process
swear a molecule grabs, an electron from another molecule which sets up this chain reaction, which can cause all kinds of destruction in every cell. Nobody as Robinson rights plants can't fight their enemies or hide from them, so they protect them by producing an arsenal of chemical compounds that protect them from insects, disease, harsh, whether in sunlight and many of those compounds function for us when we eat them as antioxidants. The problem is, that, as a result of many years of breeding, food for taste and productivity We created a menu of modern fruits and vegetables that aren't necessarily good force. There are some fruits in particular that may be bad for our health and that's why something in a lot of people just can't believe, but there's this interesting study where some italian researchers chuck p.
Men actually overweight men who were at high risk for heart disease and they decided to add or fruit a day to their diet. Thinking that that would reduce their risk though they chose apples, you know an apple a day keeps the doktor away. So these overweight men prone to heart disease, divided into two groups. one continue their normal that when at their normal diet, plus a goal. delicious apple a day and at the end of the study, those men who were eating the golden Delicious apple had high. levels of trade glycerine, which are an independent predictor of heart disease and the worst kind of cholesterol and the problem with this particular variety of app it's a very high and fruit sugars and is low, in antioxidants than many other varieties. So the health benefits in
variety or low. The sugar is high, so you may think that eating any fruit or vegetable is good for you, but that is certainly not true, because the fruits and it was a most people. Pick in this country are extremely low in any accidents, and that includes thing slight melons and sweet core white, sweet corn and white potato as and bananas iceberg Gladys there at the bottom of the total. When it comes to food values. So, what's a solution, we need to find out what science is now telling us about the best varieties of fruits and vegetables to eat, and this is complex. science and its not widely adopted at this time, you know I find the USDA saying more of the cabin trembling, as it has glucose Scintillate Senate, which are cancer fighting organism
So we really need to go outside of mainstream nutrition and agriculture to fine. What's best for our health. That's the mission Joe Robinsons on she advocates seeking out the lists we less homogenized version, whatever you already eating. So the best thing that you can be eating in terms of true lattices we'd be read, leaf or dark green leaf, Ladysmith readily lattice, far superior to the others, a Grannie Smith or honey. Chris battle is better than a golden Delicious. Although heirloom varieties is Robinson, rights are generally much better than supermarket phrase. The very popular russet Burbank potato has allowed a nutrients, but also very highly seeming index.
front, red and blue flesh. Potatoes are much better, although harder to find in this family, vegetable, sweet, potatoes or yams are the healthier choice. Berries are great, but again the wilder, the better. Is really nothing better for our health and wild berries. Wild berries tend to have from the ten times more help enhancing fighting nutrients than our domesticated varieties. Choosing the better varieties of the food we eat. It's when we, I do This heat me now eat me now, because why plants Harvest said we think that their dead they're, not there actually living until we eat cook them and all the same they're alive there burnt. Up their own antioxidants to protect the fact that their still inhaling oxygen, but they're not producing more antioxidants,
You can't do that when your harvested, so you need to eat them the day you buy them or the next day. Ideally, so these are some things that you want to eat meat now, spinach asparagus, broccoli. Artichokes, Kale, green onions, mushrooms, parsley and cherries, and, if you do that, you make two three five ten times more antioxidants any. If you push you the back of the fridge, bitter and remember find them for a week or two later now. You might infer robinsons eat me now, a rule to also mean eat me raw, but she says the raw food movement is misguided, is a call to find science to support the idea that we're healthier
eating raw produce than lightly cooked produce? Where does the raw food idea come from? One of the claims is that if you cook thing she destroy plant enzymes and that's true- and so the thinking as well. We need these plant enzymes in order to digest our food. They're gonna make us healthier but plant times are not created for our health care for the plant health. What about canned vegetables? must be less nutritious than fresh right in most Cases yes, but with tomatoes can't, those, are actually better for us than a fresh organic golly Harvest, heirloom tomato, because the I'm nutrient into matters which is proving to be supportive of heart, health scud, like oh pain, and when like a pain is heated. It is transformed into a form
We find easier to absorb and the best source of like a pain in the entire store is tomato paste and new people. Don't like to hear that. How could that be? But in fact, I ain't supports it. In scouring. The scientific literature on what we eat and how we prepare Joe Robinson is come up with her own list of,
gin tricks. Now, unlike Genji Lopez, alt work, which is meant to optimize taste, hers is meant to optimize nutrition. Garlic, for instance, a lot of us cook with garlic for flavour, but also because of its reported healing properties, but he can destroy those properties. There is, however, a simple trick to prevent this after crushing chopping, the garlic you let it sit, release ten minutes before cooking in that allows its health promoting compound Alison to form, as for the best way, to cook most vegetables. If you wanna optimized their nutrition, many people, I surprised to hear let's steaming. That's rose in the microwave is probably the best way to preserve nutrients, because you want to destroy some of those enzymes that are getting preventing accidents as quickly as you can, and you want to cook the food for
The short amount of time is possible. So the microwave will do that for you, and so you just put it in microwave, steamer and cook it for just a couple of minutes and it's done if you're happy with the way you're cooking in your happy with the food than there's no real, need to change it. That's clingy Lopez Alt again, but if you can if slightly better or more efficient or tastes better. By doing something. A little bit different and someone else's willing to go and do the work to figure out what that different thing is, and then I don't see real why you wouldn't want to change so in this regard. Lopez, Alt and Joe Robinson are in precisely the same camp using science to improve what we eat and how we eat it. Ever you fall on the spectrum of Delicious versus nutritious. Now, please we were all looking for some seen balance of the two. If you think about it, food,
probably the single most important input that we control in terms of helping our bodies in minds function. So, of course, we should try to optimize its contribution to that end. On the other hand, life is short and eating is a delight. I have a very sort of like deliciousness, first approach to it. If I'm gonna eat a hamburger I want that to be the best damn hamburger I can make okay. So how does candy Lopez all make the best? Damn hamburg now is actually got a variety of burger recipes in his book, but the recipe as with anything is the easy part. The hard part is getting the science right in this case it begins with the salt, So what salt, as when it interacts with meat? Is it it'll initially pull out liquid from the meat through as Moses, on which we all learn that in middle school, science are minimal, liquid and then that salt will sort of dissolving that liquid and then what happens as it forms a sort of super concentrated brine,
and that brine will actually dissolves some of the muscle proteins particular protocol Myerson. So this can affect meat in a couple of, is so particularly with ground me. Soldier ground me and you work the salt into it. It'll dissolve this protein mice in and then once that protein is dissolved, it'll cross, linked to form this protein network. That makes them you, Sir, to tighter and helps it retain you're better, but at the same time it is really drastically alters the texture so and any sauce maker will actually know this. That you'll soldier meet probably a Dane advanced and the next day. You'll grind it and and needed altogether, like you make go- and in fact it is very much like you're making dough, because your creating the sort of protein network that traps everything else in and that's what gives a sausage assorted, nice springy, bouncy Jews, texture. But on the other hand, if you do this to hamburgers, you end up with burgers at our tough and robbery You know so Silver Hamburger, would recommend only salting, the very outside of the Berger after you formed it, and I
We recently, my colleague and I we made a series of videos and his part one of these videos you're talking about burgers and about this very effect, and we we rented a m a baseball, pitching machine power, gonna fling both of these against the target using the Patty pulse here and see what that would throw hamburgers at the wall at forty five miles per hour number one, and so we tried it with identical parties, one of them salted on the inside, once all the only on the outside, and then we shall hold. in slow motion right, meets, link, Cochrane, ready and you'll see that that salted hammer a kind of bounces off the wall like a rubber ball. They get the cracks a little bit, but it basically just bounces off whereas the Berger that has solved only on the outside kind of splattered- and you know it some. then you can even tasting you can very easily visiting your mouth. I guess I remain with salted. Meat will be tough and one made with salt. Only in the outside will be tender and juicy, which is the way I want my burger to be
I really want you job, I have to say, is: hits a pretty good job frequent, I'm its radio is produced by W and my c and doubly productions. Today's episode was produced by her but Gunnar. Our staff also includes Christopher Worth: Gregg resolve Ski Jake, how it merit Jacob Caroline English, Alison Hockenberry in Kashmir, high level,
We also had help from Angus Chin on this episode. If you want more for economics, radio, you can subscribe to our progress on Itunes or go to free economic dot. Com do you'll, find our entire podcast archive and lots of other stuff, including a blog posts, called how to make the perfect cup of coffee. He there Stephen dubbing again one more thing. If you liked the episode you just heard We thank you like something else in the friggin hammocks radio network. Look for this interview on the new podcast people. I mostly admire with host Steve, let it but my guest today Sue bird. She collects championships. She's for double and be eighty of Egypt's five Euro League best about championships.
To end C h, championships for international basketball, federation, world cups and four olympic Gold medal. I would I think that, in order to be the player you are, you would have to be a person who acted gets better under pressure rather than worth. While. Obviously there are people who are known for hitting big shots are known for playing well in big games that exists for sure, but I think we kind of frame it there. why it's not that you're gonna make nine out of ten. It's that you might make three at ten. Somebody else is making zero it's at, whose most successful. It's like who's, the most successful the least successful that is, people, mostly admire. You can find it on your favorite podcast app subscribe now, so that you don't miss single episode
hey there Stephen dubbing again, one more thing if you like for economics, radio, I think you'll also like the latest episode of people, I mostly admire the podcast hosted by my free economic, spreading co, author, Steve Level, here's what it sounds like a guest today Sue Bird, she collects championships she's for W Nba championships, five euro, the best about championships too, and see a championships for International Basketball Federation, world cups and four olympic gold medals. I'd love to talk about the economic professional basketball, so the average player in the NBA made eight point three million dollars in that nineteen and. in the W Nba the average with eighty thousand is frustrating just now. I think. Actually, if you look at
twenty twenty, our minimum is now higher, but we all but in the same amount of work. So is it a heart, swallow knowing that somebody else's work is being rewarded at times by I live in reality. I understand business and economics. Some people look at us as like charity. The goal will help them out like an it in a terrible what sense? Not unlike this business, investment way. Everything do look at us as an investment immediately its talked about how we don't make money and it's like fifty years about the NBA did either, but people are willing to make that investment get behind it and growing its people. I most we admire. You can find it on your favorite podcast app.
Transcript generated on 2021-01-30.