« Freakonomics Radio

235. Who Needs Handwriting?

2016-02-10 | 🔗

The digital age is making pen and paper seem obsolete. But what are we giving up if we give up on handwriting?

This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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If you'd like to listen to free economic radio without ads the place to do that? Is sticker premium five dollars a month and you can get. free month trial by going to stick your premium dot com and use a promo code freak, you also get access to all our bonus. Episodes and you'll be supporting our show to that sticker premium. Dot, com, promo code, freak thanks, Let's pretend I tell you something, and I want you to write it down. What do you do? Do you reach for a pen and paper? Do you type it into your computer? Your phone you may be use your phone to make an audio recording that your phone can then automatically transcribing the text. What are we talking?
not anymore. When we talk about writing something down. Is that is outdated, saying that you're gonna dial a phone number which a lot of people still saving their phones having a dials for a long time is handwriting, a technology that served its purpose until something better came along or is it an essential part of who we are how we process information, how we think that is a question of the day here for economics, radio, when we ask you are listeners to tell us what you think about handwriting. It was immediately clear that there's no consent, Writing by hand is expressive and personal and connects the part of my brain, That is creative and is seeking. The answer still take note all day. Long, therefore screenshots because
software is very visual these days, so welcome to the future. I dont miss the pen in the paper. I still prefer cursive, since it helps me remember things and is a distraction. Free form of note taking. I dont see why handwriting should mandatory and scale anymore. I have to write, breathing down every note that I'd taken class I hand ray I type in far faster than I can write, and I find when I write my hands, can't keep up with how fast I think, I'm guessing that you identify with at least one of these people. Maybe You love every curly letters it pours out your pen or maybe you're, still scarred by your childhood handwriting failures, as some of us are in Today we will get into the science of handwriting what we found. Our studies is that laptop note takers did significantly worse than students who took notes longhand, but is the Oh handwriting movement, the sun
her position of a kind get some dramatic. Music here. Is it the sinister position of big pencil and big and when you read studies about how cursive helps you become smarter, looked to see who funds, those and we visit a shop in New York with a very specific product lines. Nathan. those rare pencils, antique pencils, novelty, pencils, pestle accessories, books about pencils, really beautiful, sharpened, I'm fine,
from W and Y see studios. This is freakin. Comics radio broadcasts explores the hidden side of everything. Here's your host Stevens Abner! How much has our written communication been changing the? U S, service tells us that American centrist, over twenty billion first class pieces of mail a year, which sounds like a lot, but just a decade ago, we sent well over twice as many roughly forty six billion. What about emails That number went from zero just a few decades ago, two two hundred and five billion a day globally, according to a study done by an online litter printing outfit called doc. Male one in three respondents had not written anything substantial by hand in the previous six
Our schools, meanwhile, have been reassessing how kids are taught to write. The common core is us of standards and curriculum guidelines. For U S, schools that's been adopted by more than forty states. It still advocates learning to print, but it doesn't even mention cursive to some people. This is an abomination counties. You are teaching curse of writing and counties who are nine, and that was unbelievable to me that we would graduate students who could never read a founding doctrine,
in two thousand fourteen Tennessee state legislator Sheila, but introduced a bill requiring all elementary schools in her state to teach cursive. I have right here the declaration of independence and thankful that can read that I have a bill of rights and I can read TAT and I forgot to educate our students that they deserve a right to know. What's in there passed, they need to know the traditions and the founding documents of this country, and then to be able to read those now, but argument may strike you as fairly narrow. We dont all learn Hebrew in order to read the Bible. So do we really need to learn cursive just to read the declaration independence, but she is right that the handle
thing is on the wall for handwriting and least recursive back in two thousand six, when the essay t exam introduced new hand, written essay question, only fifteen percent of the students wrote their answers in cursive. Some schools do want to preserve the tradition of cursive, even if it's not utilitarian. One district in Ohio, I was moved the instruction of course, of into the art department, so there does seem to be massive decline in handwriting, specially cursive handwriting. Does it matter my there be some hidden costs were thinking about, there's some very solid research. It's called the handwriting of fact, and that is students who have more legible. Handwriting do score better. On test- and this will be true of high stakes tests as well- that's an true back. She is the author of a forthcoming book, called the history and uncertain future of handwriting. I was a professor doubling college
My focus was on the history of writing and writing technologies. So true back says, the handwriting effect research shows a correlation between good handwriting and good test scores. Not only is there definitely more qualitative perception amongst teachers that that kids with better handwriting or smarter, but it's also been Europe then in research studies and an end. It does continued to those tests that are very important in our scored. You know anonymously. You argued that we kind of connect penmanship to character and really: learning and learning ability right right. We Americans of the last hundred hundred fifty years, connect penmanship with individuality with our sense of self and we also have a I shared memory of being taught. Penmanship is a very crucial part of our early schooling days
very unique that where I can't think of many other things at so many Americans would share as common memory they're alive today. Hearing true back, you might think she's an advocate for continuing to teach cursive and for stressing good penmanship, but you would be wrong. So in two thousand eight you wrote an article four good magazine called stop teaching handwriting talk about that for a moment why you wrote the article and whether that was the beginning of something for you or the at all, or I assume that the end right right, that's a good question. I'd say it was it was really the middle the impulse to write it came from watching my son, who was then I think in second grade struggle quite a bit in school because he had poor handwriting and I was very aware that in my son's adult life, handwriting was going to be a very small percentage of what
we needed to do, and yet he was having to stay and every single day for recess of second grade, because he got his jeez backwards, whether that, due to his feelings about school and feelings about learning. Generally, it was really detrimental e, really fun who is bad at school? I mean I ended up actually transferring him to a private school, and this was a lot of the reason why and they said, oh, he school damaged, and it also worked on him, Cognitive LISA, that he started to believe it. He didn't have any good ideas, because the difficulty of technically be able to make a letter was transferred to a difficulty expressing himself. So you wrote this article that was influenced by your sons, trouble in school learning writing. But you made a broader argument that what may argument was that elementary schools were putting too much emphasis on penmanship in their curriculum and that it should be emphasised. Given changes,
in technology and the idea that it was going to be preparing kids for the future was more questionable. So what was the response like to your article? Eight just went viral and comments were extraordinarily nasty and negative. A lot of it was, you know, survived the bad mother if I really cared, I would spend more time teaching my son how to write correctly or things like that and that I didn't understand the importance of education and knowledge. And then there was a lot of you know: what's next rug and have computer chips and our head sorts of in a slippery slope. Logic comments: ok, a couple of things, first of all I personally see nothing wrong with having computer chips in our hands on. It can't be hacked to easily to saying that for the record number two as attached
as some people may be, to the notion that handwriting is a vital thing to teach our children that attachment isn't as old as you might think. If we just talk about the United States were really only talking about since may be eighteen. Ninety that you have this idea that all kids learn these things. It was not true before then, I would say at the beginning of the nineteenth century, you You have the beginning. More public schools or penmanship was taught so it was always part of the american education Now there were as many Americans being educated and then, In the middle of the nineteenth century. You have the first sort of franchise penmanship franchise, where Platt Rogers Spencer develops a script. That is, he believes, is religiously infuse.
We'll make it become more moral and more christian and in tune with nature, and it really sweeps the nation and everyone starts adopting that script he would be replaced by Palmer was more familiar to us. Now, who's polar method comes around at the late nineteenth century. and it is to be a more masculine and industrial script for the more industrial age and then not be comes really the one way that every American is taught their scripts until the second half of this of the twentyth century? What sort of fragments I see an when did penmanship her hand, writing, become associated with intelligence and virtue its associated with virtue all the way through and the virtue shifts as the culture does, and it certainly a sign of being upstanding. to have proper penmanship. It was not always thus. Writing was for most of human history, primarily utilitarian. The earliest hands
uniform appeal. Five or six thousand years ago. Often it would be like a receipt. I just gave you five sheep here. I am just confirmed that virus five sheep people would use a Silas and they would make marks and decisions on the wet clay, and that was really the first reading and what is uniform? Look like to us. Does it look more like kind of shorthand than shaped letters that we would recognize? letters right. So it's a writing system that uses it looks like, you know with a golden Graham, Maybe it's a terrible, I'll go Indonesia? Yes, there is a great pitcher of Kenya. Form is often done, a very small pieces of clay and the script, is tiny, and so, if you look at it, it can actually look a little bit like a golden. Graham is just little line, you're saying,
golden Graham would be like the size of one, these little clay tablets. Some of them are very Small and the script is really small. Smaller than what you have on a penny or dime smaller than that tangential. But we agree that golden grams are among the best cereals or are they grey, now that I think about eating them. As little clay tablets, I'm really in favour but for the most part it seems that most of the early writing systems outward develop. Some of them were developed independently were created for accounting purposes. It is real very unromantic answer to anyone who thinks you no great literature in writing. They were to record those sheep sales which tells us what about what say the teaching of that scripting or maybe the practice with their only a few sky. I'm so did it or do you think it was just so universally taught that it was. I dental it was restricted, but it was far less restricted than it would be an Egypt where almost
Somebody was allowed to learn how to write, but to me it it it under goods idea that handwriting is not enough. We away to express some inner part of yourself. The notion that handwriting is connected to our individual expression is a very twenty central idea, so the significance of handwriting has changed over the centuries, but so too has the technology from clay to parchment, to paper two screens from stylistic will to Penn to keyboard and again stylist, as Anne Trubek sees it. Moving from handwriting to keyboarding is a good thing, if only because it doesn't penalize people with poor fine motor skills are other issues, make a hard to write with a pen and paper.
There is a truly democratizing, in fact, to having students moved to keyboards, rather than putting so much effort into handwriting were freed up to concentrate on what matters most the words and the ideas but some studies, show that the act of handwriting is better for the brain, then keyboard, and also that we accept, more ideas when writing by hand hey, my name is PAM Mueller. I just finished my Phd in social psychology at Princeton. Mueller was a teaching us. then in an introductory psychology class. Usually I would bring my laptop to class to take notes in case students had questions later, but one day, I'd forgotten it, and I took notes in a notebook, and I thought got so much more out of the lecture that day than I had out of any other lecture, I told him that, after class him being Daniel Oppenheimer, the professor teaching class a few days later, He had a similar experience at a faculty meeting where he was typing notes realized. He.
written everything down, but had no idea what anyone was saying so since we had these peril, Intuitions? We thought we should test them scientifically, Mueller and Oppenheimer, directed a series of experiments at Princeton, and you see a way. For instance, they would ask a bunch of students to watch a TED talk. notes on it and then later answer some test questions, we gave them ten question tests that had both factual questions and can sure questions, but before watching the TED talk, the students would be split into two groups, one. It was instructed to take notes on a laptop the other by hand what we found. was that for factual questions, there was no difference between laptop and longhand note tickers. They did equally well. However, conceptual questions. The longhand takers did significantly better about half us
under deviation better. The laptop note takers were able to write down much more information at fifty percent more, but the information didn't serve them as well, and this appeared to be due to the fact that the laptop note takers took more verbatim notes, signalling that they were pressing the content less than those long had no takers, No, I would that be. Mueller argument is that, because handwriting is slower, your forced to decide as you go what's worth writing down in this gets your brain engaged in processing the information as you go ends when you process something more deeply, it's more likely to stick. There is also the possibility that taking notes by hand is just harder. There is such things:
a desirable difficulty? Having a little bit of difficulty when you're trying to learn, something is actually beneficial and long had no taking might be just that for us, but maybe it wasn't the laptops per se that were the problem. Maybe it's how we tend to use laptops, so we wanted to see if we could get laptop Notetaker soon, not take verbatim notes. They consent A variety of ideas like taping people's hands together are slowing down their keyboard, so they could only type as fast as they could longhand right or you know making them wear gloves. But ultimately we went with the simplest, which was to give them an explicit instruction not to take verbatim notes telling them that verbatim Newt taking lead
poor performance and to really trying to do this. They re did the experiment, but once again the people who took notes by hand did better and what happened to the laptop note takers, who were told that typing verbatim notes would hurt them. They took pretty much exactly as many verbatim notes as the uninstructed laptop students, so it seems like that's, going to be a very difficult tendency to break processing the information as you go. What we call encoding is not the only value of note, taking there's, also the external storage, That is creating a record for future reference. So if you have a chance to review your notes, which didn't happen in Mueller and Oppenheimer's first two studies, wouldn't it be better to have a more complete set of notes, so in city three we brought scenes incident
showed them lectures, and then we brought the students back in the lab a week later, and some of them were given ten minutes to study their notes before we gave them the test. I'm another boost this was not given this opportunity- just sort of replicate- the the previous design- ok, so now you're thinking. Finally, the laptop note takers will prevail. but now for the students who got to study their notes. The long hindered you're still did better, and in this case they did better on both factual and conceptual questions. So that was a huge surprise for us, but it seems that if students didn't process the content as it was being presented just looking back at notes later was not a good enough refresh for their memory. It so processing it while its being present,
It seems much more effective than writing all down and thinking I'll just think about this later you're, not a technophobe. She doesn't expect or want laptops, to go away. My co author and I do believe that if we could get people to use their laptops more like they are currently writing longhand they would benefit, but how to accomplish that. I think that it might take some sort of more mechanical intervention like a note taking up that only allows you to rights ex words per minute or something. Either that or more training from a younger age about the best ways to use technology like elapse up in the classroom. Or is it worth thinking about a different kind of note, taking entirely stolen by hand?
much faster and more efficient and standard longhand coming up for economics, radio, the typical person writing and cursive, probably rights be a shade, over thirty words, a minute. so my average speed is, let's say, a hundred with diplomatic, twenty words a minute plus we ve got something exciting plan for April. It is self improvement month at, for example, trading. Would you like to get better at playing a musical instrument, or maybe a sport about just winning life or may be finding the best way to beat your friends and family at games a whole month of self improvement? For economic style coming up in April, when we started work on this episode, I had no idea that people would be
to rapid in their defence for hatred of handwriting, but I probably should have been so surprised if you write books as I do. Whenever you do bookstore reading and you get to the q and a session at the end, someone always asks. So what are you rate with gives pen paper pencil? A computer, typewriter and ice laugh off the question, but I dont anymore I've come around because when something's going on in your brain- and you want to transfer it to another medium. The means of doing that is important. Here is economics, radio listener named MIKE Miller. I find that idea. Early use hand writing for starting creative projects or writing creatively. Just for the fact that a pen on paper allows you a lot more freedom to write and also computers tend to have a lot of distractions associated with them such as pop up windows and different formatting styles. Ok, for what it's worth, I do
just about all my writing on a computer. I do sometimes use pen and paper for outlining and for making to do lists, which I do several times a day and I print I hated cursive when I was a kid and I hate it now, but all the real composing I do happens on a computer. However, after I write something whether to book chapter or Scriptura lecture, I always print it out and then do a very vigorous edit on paper with a pen- and I was maybe
about reading is writing, but for whatever reason, it's easier for me to trim and to reorganize material. On paper with a pen, I appreciate the different people have different preferences. My own kids, one of them reads books almost exclusively on an e reader, but prefers to write with pen and paper. In my other kid he reads only real paper books, but everything he writes is on a computer. So I get the divide, especially when it comes to preferences, but when it comes to utility to the need to write down information for whatever reason when it be nice- if there was hybrid something faster than handwriting and more organic and keyboard, and when I go rattler, I'm taking notes in shorthand people always tell me about my mother, wrote short ever my grandmother, wrote short all that's Dennis earlier
a journalist in Hawaii recovers. Business travel is also a shorthand aficionado I do walking talking interviews specially for like nature stories that sort of thing, so he certainly can type you're on your laptop them and also I find the even impact it is in general, a laptop comes between noon and the person you're talking to so only it was looking or a better way of taking fast, accurate, handwritten notes, cursive notes faster than printing wasn't nearly fast enough when it comes to speed. Cursive is only about ten percent faster than printing. That's because cursive letters are often more complicated than print letters. They only speed advantage. Is that you're not picking up your pen as your go, only taught himself shorthand from an old textbook he found in I used bookstore, it taught the Gregg method. That's one
the front and two at the end. Greg was one of many shorthand systems as long as there been people taking down notes of their but the other visitor or the king, or or through whatever they have had to write in some cash and so there are literally thousands of versions of shorthand eventually There were some winners. You ended up with a few, let's call him popular system, so there was a bit more sort him and Gregg Short him. These two shorthand giants pretty much did beat up the world economic, the portuguese and Spanish divvied up the world, the two systems, bit, men were in great competition because these were network just systems. Writing these were big corporations and they were fighting it out for publishing rights
tools and certification program. That sort of thing which makes it sound as a short hand, was big business and for a time it was every high school in America used to teach Gregg and certainly every business school, but you went to and all universities would have bread courses. That was a major career path for women, of course, because backward women had such limited career options, they were often steered onto a secretarial track and in the pre computing age shorthand was secretarial skill, the typical person writing and cursive, probably rights, maybe a shade over thirty word the minute, I would say my average speed limits. A hundred and fifteen hundred twenty words a minute now, let's considerably faster than most people type. So how does it work? How does a short answer to my Greg are we to write so fast? I should point out that maybe the most obvious be gained in short hands that its phonetic, you don't write
letters that aren't there. Did you don't hear? Oh thank God. It no wasted letters. What else letters and Gregg Artist much simpler than the letters in the roman alphabet, which is what most of us use where, if you take a b, for example, even if you're right and cursive a b is an upward stroke and downward stroke, a little loop at the bottom and a little ligature to connect the next letter. So, let's two three four strokes right. When a letter and Gregg it's a simple downward stroke of a curve open to the right, then there is what are called blends. Not only do pick up your pen between letters in a word but frequently you but put together words and phrases These are very common phrases that we use constantly and because we know let them go together constantly. We can write that, although one fluid string strokes for example, that the expression it will be in Gregg has written in three quick, strokes, you don't pick up your pen thoughts as fast as writing. The letter each, for example, Gregg also uses
then called short forms, which is a form of abuse, creation. I guess you could say where, for a very common words, you can often write them with a single stroke. So if your light, the letter are, for example, by itself, it can be the word. Our oh, you are the word. Our actual you are, or the word are, a r E. All this efficiency adds up to huge speed gains. So if your goal is to write down a lot of information accurately Shorthand seem to be a great system when you think about it. Isn't it a little nuts that the handwriting we all learn in school, whether its printing or cursive, is based on ancient letters? requires so many strokes. Why didn't we all just learn short end instead, and maybe it's not too late, so what you say is that everybody learn shorthand instead of the alphabet. That's an true back. The handwriting scholar I think. If you're talking about maximum efficiency
Then then, maybe you're right an end. Your stumping me here. Yes, I have at least one vote for me. idea. May I know these shorthand Emmy it to me. It's vaccinating and I love it because it's a you know, it's sort of subculture of language in writing, but I'd never thought about. It could have just been I ve been the new alphabet. Alas, we went instead in the opposite direction. Rather than taking over the world shorthand was. marginalized, it still learned in some places in Britain, for instance, many journalists still routinely use it, but for the most part the shorthand boom is long gone Dennis earlier, tells us that not a single american Highschool still teaches the Gregg System, what killed it off modernism, various forms, this demography, machine, dick to phone and, of course, a personal
computer Abbas no longer needed a secretary to take his rapid fire dictation and tape it up later now he could put down his brilliant ideas all by himself on his desk. Top pc Leah, tells a story in a wonderful Atlantic. Peace called how to rate two hundred and twenty five words a minute with pen, so think that only a would also be in favour of short hen, triumphal ism, but he's not the problem. Is it because it was designed for speed people as they become faster, their writing becomes less less legible to other people and more and more legible, only to themselves, and even for those of us who understand Gregg pretty well, I can take half an hour to figure out five minutes worth Somebody short hair and there's another way in which shorthand maybe less valuable longhand. When you really fast at shorthand you're getting into verbatim territory, which means the encoding value of handwriting.
may disappear. I can't look back in my mind and see my shorthand notes and effective. The way you ve become really fast, at short in, is not to think at all here you're. Ideally, one of the rules of short here, so that, as someone is speaking, your hand is moving without you thinking about it, and so that there's no real processing going on there and you have to stop we once in a while an interim remember to do to drive the intelligence. when you're doing your interview? Ok, so there may be no perfect solution to a task like note taking and of course, different people have different preferences, but here's one more thing to consider in a world where we all type more and hand rate less, our school systems still spend a lot of time. Teaching young children to perfect their handwriting, wouldn't that time be better spent on something else. Right in true back again emanate. I would say that if you perceive aliment tragic
she was preparing students for education, knowledge, citizenship. Then there's too much time spent on it. It it won't prepare them. It does not set them up for what will happen to them beyond third grade really by high school on many things are typed, so it does prepare them for more school, but not much beyond, How do you see the future of handwriting playing out? It will continue to diminish in our everyday lives as people going about our business and as workers as it has already It will become more of an art form in both education and outside of traditional curriculum and be seen more as a fine motor skill and then also you know, will have that panache of of retro cooled and on the short. Future like typewriters do now? So I have to say-
I am running a pen company. I do not like your message. Yes, yes, I would, I would think so. So short pens is the message of the short pens, and when you read studies about how cursive helps you become smarter, looked to see who funds. Those tell me While there are some very powerful companies that make their money off of penmanship and cook and they also fund research studies. Some research, like PAM rulers, work on laptop versus hand. Written note taking is independent, but it is true that the value of handwriting is often trumpeted by companies who stand to gain from keeping handwriting.
schools and elsewhere. Zeiner blausser, at top publisher of handwriting curriculum materials, has sponsored conferences and studies. At argue. For the importance of handwriting and cursive, the big pen company launched a public education campaign to save handwriting. It's called fight for your right. W are I t, and then there are those who defend handwriting, especially cursive, on the grounds that it is just a part of who we are a lot of p oh- really connect it to these ideas, about being an educated citizen and in its hard for them to conceive that you would not consider being able to master printing cursive as a requirement for becoming an educator. citizen of the United States is very interesting to me to see the rhetoric they use its often connected to other values like saying the pledge of allegiance in schools or having school uniforms in a curse of becomes a sort of Mars
her of traditional values, but I mean, even if you hate hands, meaning in the teaching thereof. You can probably identify with that sentiment right I mean there are certain things that we cling to, whether as Americans are huge, deserve whatever moderns that we do only because they connect us to pass that is if not better or richer in some way is at least our past. So can you who identify with that link to tradition, and at least empathize with it. I completely understand it if there is less printing and curses, its undeniable that there is a loss. But if you look at the history of writing- and you look at the history of technology, there is always loss with change. There was huge losses on the printing press was developed. There were huge losses when right. was invented, Socrates, he really worried about what writing would do to civilization, because I imagine winner,
we re now, if you could never look anything so few women or a culture never look anything up and you memory is vast. Your ability rhetoric all things in your head as it were, is, is much larger than those who live in illiterate called. it's another wonderful example of how we lose something: when we shift from one writing, techno G to another, we have lost those, gazing, mines of oral cultures, but we have gained something really significant, which is writing in history and all the things come with that. So my point is really yeah. It's sad! It's a loss, but loss is part of change and and things will change any will be ok. There are some people, however, who act as if nothing has changed at all.
the morning? How are you good pencils and events? Stephen Caroline, Mr Mitchell, How do you do? My name is Caroline Weaver, an iron seat of a pencil enterprise, which is a pencil they shop on the lower side of Manhattan, new pencils, the council's Anti pencils, novelty, pencils, pencil accessories, really beautiful, sharp winners books about pencils. So who comes here We have a lot of journalists to still do things. The old fashioned way a lot of architects who like to do their initial drawings in pencil, a lot of pencil enthusiast people who, just like analog tool a lot of students. We got a lot of kids in after school like around three hundred and thirty who come in because they've discovered a pencil here that is way cooler than the ones I have at school and it's kind of fun novelty for them.
And we we have a lot of people these days who our colleague refers are hand. Letters, museum, muttering, has become a really popular thing, and I hope that maybe that trend will help bring back handwriting. So you are super pro handwriting is out of this. I'll just primarily or no I think it comes mostly from personal experience that that's just the way that my brain works at if I don't physically write it down. If I can't see it visually on something As a pole than I I just dont process. At the same time, I really very short: I believe that handwriting and learning handwriting and schools really really crucial therein. So many studies and the importance of it and how writing by hand especially when you're learning to read it stimulates brain and kind of allows those things to be easier. They save a lot of people also say that it helps you. Better to have been writing physically and especially cursive and curse of his very quickly disappear from schools, and don't like that, I don't like that.
Oh! No! I'm not saying this is necessarily a hundred percent true, but what would you if I told you that studies that highlight the value of handwriting for cognitive growth, etc are funded by lake pen companies, I would be ok with. That is the least somebody's doing. Ok, so Caroline Wieber is not interested in debating the value of handwriting, which is her prerogative in yours as well. If you'd like but let me say this about Caroline Weaver. She knows more about pencils, then will I bet she knows more about- so then you know about anything certain for then I know about anything which got us to thinking about a very famous essay famous, at least in the world of Economics called I pencil. What's that you ve never read I pencil well too,
get on with my story, is interesting. You ve never even heard of it it is really beautifully written assessing. Well, you have a tree, store, because next week and economics radio we revisit I pencil and see if it's earth shattering message still applies today. You realise there isn't a sin a person in the world who really understand how to make a pencil from scratch from the raw materials also learn more from Caroline Weaver and others than you ever thought. There was to learn about pencils. That is a variety of classic none. what you hear going around in There- are belgian stones off the coast of Belgium. May pulverizer graphite you play into a taco bell, find and that's where your cousin to come smooth. That's next time on Freakonomics radio, I'm Steven Dubner thanks for listening
friggin, I'm a radio is produced by W and my c studios and W productions. This episode was produced by Alison Hockenberry with help from the guard fatality. Our staff also includes urban dungeon Jake, how it merit Jacob Christopher Worth. Gregg results be Kashmir, highly Bitch and Caroline.
Thanks to everyone who sent in audio recordings of your handwriting stories, we got way more than we can use. Unfortunately, the voices you did hear belong to Tom Alan Heather, Draper jet Hannah Asher is Brucker, make Miller Deborah Phillips and Michael Ricard. You can find all our previous episodes at for economics dot com. You can also subscribe to this progress on Itunes or wherever you get your Punkahs hither, Stephen dubbing again, one more thing. If you liked the episode you just heard You think you're like something else in the friggin hammocks radio network. Look for this interview on the new podcast people. I mostly admire with host Steve Leather lemme. Guess today sue bird. She collects championships she's for W Nba championships, five euro, the best
championships to end she ate championships for International basketball, federation, world cups and four olympic Gold medal. I would I think that, in order to be the player you are, you would have to be a person who acted gets better under pressure rather than worth, while. Obviously, there are people, who are known for hitting big shots, her known for playing well in big games that exists for sure, but I think we kind of frame it there Why it's not that you're gonna make nine out of ten. It's that you might make three at ten somebody else is making zero it's at, whose most successful it's like who's. The most successful the least successful. That is people mostly admire. You can find it on your favorite podcast app subscribe now, so that you don't miss single episode.
Hey there, Stephen dubbing again, one more thing. If you like for economics, radio, I think you'll also like the latest episode of people, I mostly admire the podcast hosted by my free economic, spreading co, author, Steve Level here's what it sounds like a guest today, Sue Bird, she collects championships she's for W Nba championships, five euro, the best about championships too, and see a championships for International Basketball Federation, world cups and four olympic gold medals. I'd love to talk about the economic. The professional basketball, so the average player in the NBA made eight point three million dollars into the nineteen and in the W Nba, the average with eighty thousand is frustrating just now. I think. Actually, if you look at
twenty twenty, our minimum is now higher, but we all but in the same amount of work. So is it a heart swallow, knowing that somebody else's work is being rewarded at times by I live in reality. I understand business and economics. Some people look at us as like charity. The goal will help them out like an it in a terrible. What sense? Not unlike this business, investment way. Everything do look at us as an investment immediately its talked about how we don't make money, and it's like fifty years, about the NBA did either, but people are willing to make that investment get behind it and growing its people I most we admire you can find it on your favorite podcast, APP,
Transcript generated on 2021-01-29.