« Freakonomics Radio

66. Show and Yell

2012-03-14 | 🔗
Is booing an act of verbal vandalism or the last true expression of democracy? And: when you drive a Prius, are you guilty of “conspicuous conservation”?
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Cameron when he was leader of the opposition is trying to get elected. You wanted to convince people that he was a carrying guy and he installed a little windmill on his house. That's TIM Harvard he's an economist and author who lives in Oxford. England, now it turns out, wind power can be pretty effective. But you need a really really big windmill at a really windy location to be efficient, these laws windmills, especially in an urban environment where you don't get a consistent flow of wind. They generate new credibly small amounts of energy really really ineffective. Indeed, as a fantastic example from the british physicists David Mc High who points to building top windmills in Japan that We have little electric motors in them to keep them spinning around cause Otherwise they will really stupid on top of the building and not actually moving these men actually cost energy I'm happy
from eight a M american public media and w, and my see this is great, Alex Radio today. Why owning a priest could mean you care more about your image, stand the environment and is building herbal vandalism or the last your expression of democracy. Here's your house, Stephen, you will know that David Cameron did get elected prime minister, the UK and where there is little windmill, had anything to do with it, tough to say, but while it may not always be easy being green these days, it certainly attractive, rooftop, windmills, those I am not a plastic bag, reusable shopping bags and a certain make of autumn
there are richer jail yeah, it's a hybrid, my just just sit back and be a part of destroying the earth anymore. For you, thanks that's from a tv show South Park poking fund, as some people get a little bit sanctimonious when they start driving hybrid cars. In this episode, the car is called a pious a little bit like previous. Maybe the message is clear: helping the planet is nice, but being teen helping the planet is really nice now. This might not sound like something that economists study, but there's this idea that they call signalling theory, here's Robin Hansen.
George Mason University signalling theory is another way of talking about showing off her trying to present your best face. It's all about what we do to look good, or at least not to look bad So some dozen more generally signalling is about managing your image. It's about keeping in mind that other people will be watching you and interpreted. So it's not so much about showing off your ability to to be smart or to be well dressed or athletic. It could be about showing your concern to showing your loyalty, showing your attention, no offense to you or your fellow I miss, but why are you guys looking at this issue? Seems they don't? You have other more economics seemed problems to be solving. Why have you guys gotten involved in this, and maybe even good, at figuring out signalling, there's a big world of interesting things to look at and managing our appearance is actually a lot of what we humans do
trying to understand business trying to understand jobs, school even medicine. If you don't realize that people are trying to manage their image, you miss out on a lot of what's going on around. So here is our question. For today, for people mean green. How much value do they place on being seen? Leaning, green? My name is Steve Sexton. I am a Phd student at you, see Berkeley studying our cultural and resource economics. I'm Allison Sexton, I'm a Phd student at the University of Minnesota, studying health information economics, so I'm a little suspicious. Some share last name you related to each other. Perhaps we Are. We also share the womb, that's right, Alison,
Steve, Sexton, twins and they're both budding economists, because what there parents do yeah. Economists owes very exciting. As you might imagine, all of our friends couldn't wait to come over for dinner with us. We like to show that we have a family plan to become a one family, consulting firm kind of like the Partridge family for Economics Allison. Next and worked briefly for the Federal Reserve Bank in Minneapolis, Steve Sexton has somewhat less sudden. Are you happy? Yes, in addition, due on trying to finish my phd here at Berkeley, also training for the London Olympics as a track? How good are you like and you say, training for the Olympics. That means there is reasonable expectation that you might actually be there Yes, I was. I ended twenty ten as the third American and the olympic points rankings when we get to take three people so that by no means by no means- and I made it yet- but I must have a shot at it as economists, the sex,
I know all about signalling theory, particularly the behaviour known as conspicuous consumption, Thurston Babylon, quaint that phrase more than a hundred years ago, more and more Americans were growing rich and it became important to show off that wealth. Today there is still plenty of conspicuous consumption, but the sextants noted a trend that updates the old model that is not showing off your flashy car flashy jewellery, but showing off your environmental, bona fides by say driving a car. That's plainly: a hybrid psychologists have defined competitive, altruism, a sort of keeping up the Joneses type concept but applied to pro social behaviour or efforts to make society better I'm so I will be competing with my neighbors to donate to a charity, for instance, or to reduce energy conservation or environmental impacts or, as this
since call it conspicuous conservation right because conspicuous consumption. They are investing in product, They provide the same functionality is cheaper alternative, There are flash year just because a cost more or what have you, and so that can be wasteful and leave nobody better off, but in this case, with conspicuous conservation, because the costly effort that individual undertaking is providing benefits to society, this rat race could actually be a good thing and talk to me. For gentlemen, about how the idea came about, was it as you pulled into a whole foods parking lot and saw that you know half the cars were prices or pre I? How did it happen? While I think that part of it did come from Steve who lives in Berkeley and he did notice a lot of prices on the road,
didn't notice a whole lot of other hybrid cars, such as honey civics, and wondered why there's been surveys of previous owners asking them why they by the press and far more common? They answer that it says something about them, then mention the fuel efficiency of it. So I see was actually bag visiting me last year for Easter and we were talking about this idea of signalling your ear environmental concerns by driving a press and how we could create an economic model to test for it and see if that signal exists. So the Sexton twins were looking to measure the signal sent out by people who drive hybrid cars by their count. There were twenty four different hybrids on the market, but the previous was a market hog, the runaway winner with a whopping forty, eight percent of the hybrid market,
why the Hunter civic hybrid looks like a regular honda? Civic, the fort escape hybrid looks like afford escape, except that these I have a small badge on them. That indicates their type is a hybrid, but the stifling of the car as identical, whether it's a hybrid version of the model or the can No DR version of the model, but Toyota previous, doesn't look like any other toy Yoda or any other car period, and so our hypothesis is that if the previous looked like a toy Camry or a toilet that wouldn't be as popular as it is, and so what we set out to do in this paper is to test that empirically. Ok. So how do you do that, for
where the sections would end up. Writing is called conspicuous conservation, the previous effect and willingness to pay for environmental bona fides. The first step pick a different hybrid car to act as a control against the previous, that's comparably price to the pond, a civic, hybrid and so throughout. For thinking about this project we kind of use the junta. Civic high It is our control for the previous. It doesn't have that unique signal, but its otherwise very similar, not a perfect control, but its very similar to the priests, except that it doesn't have a unique design. Ok, similar price, similar fuel efficiency, but different design. So what's the press is unique design worth as a signal the outside world, that you are burning, less fuel and everyone else. So few.
Neighbors care about the environment than sending that signal can be very valuable but it sent. But if your neighbors don't care about the environment, then why do you care to send a signal to them that you care about the end? and so you can think about whether you'd rather drive a priest in Berkeley or in Crawford Texas, for example, keep in mind that before this accidents came up with this idea. South Park was all over. We feel that your new cars changing you. Yes, it certainly is worth thinking about what people encounter starting to take offence at your actions, we feel like you're, starting to become alienated from some of your friends. Well, I totally agree Kyle, you do yes, a lot of people in town just aren't ready to drive hybrid cars, ok, good, and that's why I talk it over with your mother and we ve decided to mow land
we need to be where everyone is motivated and progressive. Like us start getting your things pack boys, the Brok Lofty badly, is moving then read since now. In other words, if you're a green leaning person, the signal of It might be more valuable if you live in a green, leaning neighbourhood than if you live in a place where environmentalism isn't such a big deal. The Saxons wanted to know. If a this were true and beads. If so, just how valuable is the previous signal? Soap we set out to gather some data on hybrid car sales in different places they choose Colorado in Washington to states with a lot of political diversity and they got hold of vehicle registration data in voting records? The vehicle data told them what cards
being bought where and the voting record stood as a proxy for how green each part of the state was the idea being that greener communities vote more democratic than republican. When the sextants looked at the numbers, they found that hybrids, indeed sold disproportionately well in the green or zip codes in folder in Seattle, for instance, but was true for all hype. What about behind the civic hybrid the sextants control we didn't have to if the market share for hundreds of its also increased in greener, zip codes, he found no statistical effect and, in fact, in a few of the regressions, we found a negative effect, but the previous those green zip codes. And through our econometric model were able to determine what share of the press is. Market share is due to. Unique styling, the previous signal or the conspicuous conservation effect and
using other studies that have determined how responsive vehicle demand is to prices were able to basically trace out man curve and estimate the willingness to pay for that single attribute of the process. That is how much people are willing to pay just to signal that they are green rate. So how big is the effect? How big is conspicuous conservation effect than in these places? So for Colorado we measure that accounts for about between twenty one and thirty three percent of the market share, and and why soon ten, we measure that it accounts for about ten to seventeen percent of the market share. So this translates into a willingness to pay in Colorado for of between about a thousand dollars and four thousand dollars and then Washington, a willingness to pay between five hundred and thirteen hundred dollars. This needs a bit of clarification. The more
it share numbers, the sextants are talking about. That's not how much of the market, the press has its, how much additional market share, the previous has because of its unique hybrid look, and that willingness to pay figure there? Talking about that doesn't mean people actually pay that much more for the priests they don't willingness to pay is just a economists speak for how much the priest effect is worth the people in terms of feeling good about themselves being seen by others in a positive light things like that. What do you know about how intentional the priest design was in terms of setting itself apart as an obvious hybrid and, in other words, did Toyota understand conspicuous conservation well before you
guys even ever thought to look into it. I think there is evidence that Toyota understood conspicuous conservation before before we did they. They instructed their car designers to make the previous unique and said that they didn't care what it looked like so long as it looked different it suggested they did expected. They could count on this conspicuous conservation effect, to drive sales or that's right. I mean the design of everything about previous re. Everybody understands that the car is both efficient and it has a unique designed to stand out. Nothing else looks like it on the road Doug Coleman, a toy Yoda marketing manager. Do you see a pre? If you know what it is? You know it stands for hybrid and there's really know their cars that stands for hybrid, so having something, that's unique is really important to our buyers.
The sextants, convinced that the toilet a priest represents the height of conspicuous conservation, went looking for other example of one of the more common ones that we see here in California. Is people putting solar panels up on their house and in fact there is a number of cited cases where people will put solar panels on a shade. The sight of their house, because it's the street side, so people will be able to see it now. Do you think Lou consultants installer says to them? This is not going to really do as much as if you'd put it on the Sunnyside, your house, you think those conversations happen. We know that they do. I haven't been at at those conversations, but do understand those conversations go onto the expert advice. Here's. How to maximize the benefit from solar panels and homeowner say well. No, I actually want did on that side of the house.
It's a side where my neighbours will see that I have so well on the street side of the house right. And again and again we don't judge. We don't judge that that's fine! We don't take a position on that, but if, if that kind of an effect is occurring than it has locations for both firms that might want a market. These types of products, as well as for that might want to maximize the benefit from investment and in those types of products. Could it be that people are engaging in conspicuous conservation instead of doing less visible, but more pragmatic things like you know that I'm instead of putting solar panels on the shady side of my house, I could better insulate my walls and doors which would actually be very effective but nobody's going to see it. So is that kind of the problem that you're trying to I am sure that the conventional wisdom among energy economists at the low hanging fruit, the easiest way to achieve energy conservation, is through those in conspicuous investments that you talked about
and boosting the insulation in the home window, ceiling, treatment, energy, efficient appliances and so forth that those are the most cost effective ways to reduce energy consumption, but of course none of those can be seen by one's neighbours unless are brought into the house, but this really not visible from the street side. But if you consider that there's a high concentration of greens in the Bay area, where its foggy most of the sun, the sun, doesn't even really come out much higher in Berkeley. In fact, that's why I trying it out at Berkeley every summer that I can but Son does shine on on the rooftops of all the Republicans or the or the for lack of a better term. Browns that live in the central valley. They get a lot of sun during the summer, but there can be less inclined to install the rooftops solar panels on their homes. So we might like to imagine a creative programme whereby your Berkeley Green, who doesn't get very much sun in the sun. Could pay to install rooftop solar on the home of a Bakersfield Brown and therefore again, maximize, the effectiveness of those conservation dollars
it more energy conservation, Argus Energy Production, in this case out of the solar panels. The problem with this, of course, is that then, that Berkeley Green is unable to demonstrate to their neighbour that they're making this investment in conservation will. Then you just have to be able to buy a big billboard in your yard. That says my solar panels are on a Republicans House and Bakersfield and then I would be happy to do so. So the answer is no and an actual. An important characteristic of the press is that this unique design, but it's not flashy and toiled has successfully marketed the uniqueness of it, as furthering environmental benefits as enhancing its environmental benefits? It looks the way it does to maximize aerodynamics, so let's do it
different from having you know, even in oh, you could imagine a bumper sticker for Sierra Club or something like that on your car. That would be somewhat visible, but that's just kind of screaming. Hey look at me. Look at how green I am, whereas the priest isn't a billboard, it's just a green car. What are the implications of your research than for palsied? You want to encourage or incentivize more inconspicuously concert. Since you know that the conspicuous stuff will take care of itself so right now the government has subsidies for a number of different types of conservation acts, some conspicuous in some in conspicuous, but our results would suggest that perhaps government policy should focus in conspicuous such as window ceilings and air fans, and that perhaps we can provide privately the conspicuous conservation efforts, in other words, the conspicuous stuff like that,
This will take care of itself because in a way it offers its own reward, you're, trying to enhance your reputation or attain some kind of status. By undertaking these personally costly actions that better, but others and what s interesting about these conceptions of altruism, both competitive, altruism and reputational motivation for altruism as other, fundamentally selfish, and so they they are consistent with traditional neoclassical economics, they aren't fundamentally altruism in the purest sense. What are you guys drive I have for most of my graduate school career and before I was without fear, call I just this Christmas gotta me down. Toyota Camry from my mom. Not a hybrid. It was before hybrids, I drive out here for
the when it went way. When I knew I got myself in trouble, there, you're you're, a Phd student did, were you selling cracked. Fears between Africa is true. Farming very profitable. In fact, Oh, I was for to get a number of scholarships. I'm in my undergraduate studies and my parents essentially turned over what was left of my college fund to me, and I blew it on a car and my first year grad school awesome, it's not a hybrid correct. No, it is not. I drive a Miata Miata Sports Car, that's Robin Hansen! Again, our signalling economist. I think it's it's easy to pick on, say the conspicuous consumption of of conservationists image and say well. These people are driving a previous because they're trying to seem one way, but
course all the other cars are trying to seem some other way to re. What are you trying to signal to the world when you drive your miata well fun. I'm spontaneous idle, wine whizzing around- maybe I'm a little aggressive, sometimes I'd like to get places fast. I like the wind and my hair- is that all true thickets yeah, roughly true, I'm I'm happy to admit a lot of what I do is to manage my image. You mentioned your Miata Robin. I wonder what are some other if we, if we could climb deep inside the Control Summit Centre for Robin Hansen's, brain and his signalling activity? What else do we see what some other signally activity? The EU engaging economies like to point out, there's almost no chance that your vote is gonna determine an election salt LE things. Economists like due to show off that there are clever economists to not vote and assayed everybody, hey, I'm smarter than all the rest. You see, I understand
that by voting it's not gonna make any difference anyway, and we do a little that too often say you might not Tipp at a restaurant, because you say you know, I'm never coming back to this restaurant again, and so economists often do things like that. They sort of thing through the strategy and they go out of their way. To may be a little room little thoughtless and in the usual language does show hey. I understand the strategy of us and I got to admit I do that. Sometimes I tippit restaurants, I tell you that, but still do vote sometime, Are you more likely to vote in local elections than a national election, or vice versa? Probably more likely to vote in a national election, but that's also a common via an essential innocence, local elections matter more for your lies, local will also. Your vote is much more likely to influence and outcome, and so why do you got the opposite? Then, because, like most other people voting in an actual election,
She talked about it, but I sit around and talk with your friends and colleagues. You tend to talk about national politics, and so the voting is a way to help me talk about it in the brag about your inside. Do me a favor, don't go hating on Robin Hanson, just because he votes for his sake and not at a civic duty and don't go hating on the sextons just because they pointed out that you might drive a Prius four reasons that aren't a hundred percent altruistic. Who among us is immune to vanity even a venerable news organization, like the BBC. Remember our economist author friend TIM Hartford. He also hosts radio show its recorded at Bush House. One of the BBC main buildings in London and in the lobby of this office. They there was it an OECD display screen
striving how much energy was being generated by solar cells on the roof of this building? So tell us how many Solar panels are up there on the roof. The Bush house, like I don't oh, but it can't be that many because it's it's a central London building, there's just not much room angel seem to me like a really weird place to two points, renewable energy sources and in the middle of a city on it? building in a very cold climate, which was lot of light. You stick these votes, we'll take cells on a very expensive, what's the game and of course, The game is absolutely obvious. The gain is that you can put this big tote board in your lobby, and all the visiting politicians and dignitaries of all descriptions. They all come to the lobby and they all see this tote board and they all think themselves. While BBC cares about climate change, it's good to see
yeah coming up. A little less show little or yell. We leave conspicuous conservation behind and deconstruct the blue is it verbal vandalism or perhaps the last true expression of democracy and peace? this enormous keyboard, analysing and speedy wonder as you something you know do as a poor man. Yes, two please
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I want you to reduce yourself by saying your name and what you do first term and render former governor of Pennsylvania former mayor of Philadelphia former one- and you know what we're here to talk about today right right now we ve all heard some of us avert at least at Philadelphia is actually the capital of sport. Going away? Fans are incredibly passionate there, the best and most support fans in the World they will boost lack of ever they will move opposing players, booby caused by the empires, and as the boot Santa Claus. The Santa Claus thing actually did happen on December fifteenth nineteen sixty three Philadelphia Eagles football game, it helps cement the belief that Philadelphia is the town that booze the most the best.
The worst there is one last game of the year was right before Christmas, it was in Franklin Feel, are all stadium. The eagles and want to games that years of fans were just pissed off in general? and the regular Santa Claus. They're going to use for this have time show that sick so they went under the stands. The fine guys and Santa Claus suits and see if they volunteer and they only they found was Descrie looking dirty suit. Guy He was the worst looking Santa Claus I ever saw and they map on this lead. I guess most paid him. Some Carter them around and everyone myself included through snowballs sand.
Ronnie looking Santa got dragged down from the stands at night was named Frank Alito. He was a native philadelphian. You know how you could tell because here's what illegal told the Philadelphia Daily NEWS after he got booed and pelted by snowballs, he said quote: I'd have done exactly the same thing. If I wasn't on the field no keep in mind. Philadelphia is not just any city. Edwin Del knows that if you wanted to get philosophical here for a minute. You could say you know. Philadelphia was the cradle of the political part of the revolutionary, then, if we didn't have a bunch of dissenters, we will never country right now to start with Germany Miss Paine was the very first blue bird, it is his pamphlets and remarkably evacuated
launching a suddenly nation in mourning the borders I'm Stephen doubled from New York. Thomas pains very nice to meet you. I hope Europe. Be wary of. The loyalists up there in New York at this time of year? The loyalists are much of a threat and well that's very good. In fact, I met up with a Thomas pain impersonator in Philadelphia. I like to write in taverns, so just like people right, Starbucks today he would sit down in a tavern I'd, say it's a coffee chain, unknown future. Every house icy in Thomas Pains time there was a tradition brought over from Europe called audience. Sovereignty audiences were expected to react to interact his eyes boots
his sister he's like a snake, and you got a number of people doing it can can carry quite away. This was nothing new, of course. Here's Richard Butch, the sociologist, it right the university from the ancient Greeks through the Elizabethan Shakespearean era in to the nineteenth century, there early nineteenth century, in the? U s. What we find is that in all those areas, as well as in non western areas. What you find as they audiences actually worked, were typically fairly active, but today, Booing lives on in sports in some places at least, but overall there's been a real decline in booing mean, come on. Tell me the truth. Don't you sometimes have the urge?
the theatre. Maybe during a meeting with your thick headed boss, I'm very conflicted about going. On the one hand, I think it a kind of verbal vandalism, and I'm always kind of annoyed when people boo around me. On the other hand, if crack of one of the last true expressions of democracy, that's Robert lip site, he's a writer spend a lot of we're coming sports for the New York Times, especially the racial and social and political angles of sport. Unlike most of his peers. He didn't come to this as a
ban is memoir is called an accidental sportswriter he's also an opera buff. I saw the last few performances of Parvati a couple of years ago. Before he died, the voice was gone and with the voice gone, it was also really hard to now. Forgive the fact that he was He was of the school that was known as part and please try hefty opera singer who just stand there and not a lot of acting,
now a lot of acting, not a lot of moving Stephen losers. Clark embark in any. He would do that. But in these final performances it was even beyond the of the bark the bark was gone in. The parking was almost ludicrous in the final scene where he was to die. Member and task was to die at a firing squad. He he was shot twenty times the need to support himself very slowly. He took me as- and I remember thinking this is beyond sorry for our hero, being pathetic in the sky should not be doing this if there was any justice, people would do. If I had any car tat, we get up and Bobo, of course, I'd say two seconds a year.
Probably a scenario where, according to the the the rules and ready nations and morals of public performance at this guy should have been gray and and you're saying he wasn't it wiser, You didn't you were there. You have the opportunity, I confess had you bought your ticket. Her was freebie now we're a very expensive subscribers. Let me say this: I've known Bob website for quite a while, and I like em, allow things great writer, but the fact is he's a grump grouch if he will boost something as bad as Pavarotti convertible is willing to companies, so they come out on stage and I go. Terry teach out is a theatre clinic for the Wall Street Journal,
It was in New York City ballet a number of years ago, not not under the present regime, when the orchestra was in a terrible state of disrepair and they performed a very difficult score by Igor Striven ski to a ballet by George bound chain and they butchered it and I was furious and at the end I boot the only time I have ever done in my life, I think I was the only person in the theater who was doing it, and I doubt if anybody knew why I was doing it to be perfectly honest with you, but I felt a lot better for having done it. It should be said that teacher was at the ballet as a civilian that might not as a critic. I've never heard a single issue on Broadway. As long as I've been reviewing, which is going on nine years
How on earth can that be? I often wonder myself and the conclusion. I've come to other than some vague theory about how Americans are just basically nice people which may or may not be true is that tickets on Broadway cost an enormous amount in so people feel I think, obliged to vest themselves in the performance in a way that they might not if the ticket costs half as much if you're putting out a hundred and twenty five dollars for your seat, you want your show too. Good, and I think that there may be some Milton bias. There then inclines you to enjoy what you see right. There is a phenomenon that psychologists an economist talk about the endowment effect when something is yours, and when you have attached value to it, you you you inflate the value of it because it exists.
Right and in when you are in doing a performance with assuming that you bringing a date three hundred dollars or more a pop, not including the incidental costs of travel of having dinner of all the things that go into a night at the theatre, you're talking about a fairly substantial investment in number- and that makes sense. But let's let's entertain and all scenario. Let's pretend that there was a lot of Boeing on Broadway. Then we might say: well it's because the tickets are so expensive and when you pay that much you expect that the product will be satisfactory to you and it's not
and yet it doesn't happen. So so maybe it's not about the money. Well, I can. I can see a case for arguing that demand characteristics of the situation or shaping the way people respond on Broadway, except that people boo in Opera House is dark and I've heard it. I've heard people absolutely tearing their hair and screaming with dislike, usually over productions. I've never heard an individual performer booed at the met. What they boo is the production of a standard opera that is extremely eccentric in some way that is not to their liking, see think at route. We should have more booing. I would be encouraged if I heard at once in a while. I would not want the kind of a full scale incivility that is common in Italian,
opera houses. I don't want to see people throwing tomatoes and I actually suggested as a kind of thought experiment when I called the silent boo, which would be you would install in your lobby a pair of of plexiglas bins into which people dropped their programmes as they left unmarked. Cheers in the other mark cheers so that they could register their reaction to what they had seen in an immediate invisible way without having to bow with. If you know, they feel, as I think many Americans feel that booing is a fundamentally rude. None civil thing to do, but obviously, if they dont like a show, they like to express it in some way, and that would be a visible way and a fairly cheap one too
now I see the merit of that idea, but, on the other hand, there's nothing remotely visceral about. I mean is that kind of the point of the blue is it reflects the audiences visceral reaction to and investment in the performer and that's a different kind of thing than checking a box on a kind of you know. Customer satisfaction survey right well. There now bear in mind that there is a big difference between checking a boxer customer survey and storming into the lobby and flinging programme into the jeers, been in full view of a hundred Edna. How I think it's conceive warrant if somebody were to do it, I think that people would in fact see that as an outlet for expressing their feelings about the performance and also one that would not just be cathartic but might well supply useful information to the producers of the show. That said, I agree with you about going. I think there's something really natural about, though,
You know sometimes, when I say really awful show, even though I didn't spending money and you're getting paid designing furies as a dynamic is exactly the opposite, and yet it still frustrating. While I paid with time I paid with part of my life that I can never get back, I take people too shows because they always two proceeds and sometimes on the way out I'll, say another two hours closer to the great I've never been booed, but I think that a bad thing, because I think, in order to get food, people actually have to have high expectations. But you did Steve, let my free economics friend and co author he's an economist at the University of Chicago and gimme once ever had high expectations about me
bother you want to do that me? What you think about baseballs? Never that the number nine hear the sharks I poop as two hundred and twenty who gets food, I mean everyone knows, he's terrible, it's a guy like red dad or or or David Ortiz, whose whose very bonds guy who spoke to be good and in disappoint you who end up getting food. I get what Levitt saying if you ve made the big time if your professional flip booze gonna come with the territory, if you aren't getting food, bellied haven't gotten where you wanna go nobody Boozer bad clown and kids birthday Do you think they dont boot amateurs? Do then we visited the legendary APOLLO Theatre in Harlem for Amateur Night race elephants, Gerald Billy
today the Jackson, five all played amateur Nike, the police can be pretty unforgiving. On the future stars who got booed genes, Brown and Luther Vondra, an amateur night, the M c in urges the audience members to vote with their throats what city tonight Cp Lisi is wearing, ran soup retirement at work here for nearly twenty five years. I've been here for me he's the executioner, the guy that performers do not want to see. It is my job. Read the stage of any unwanted acts, in other words, well, ok using
the song yadda yadda, yadda yadda yadda yadda ban stifling a totally different from the one you singing and I come out tapping tell him to get off the stage and they don't even know what's happening because so much is going on there still singing their song and then they kind of get the idea. I'm getting backstage dancers are running through their acts. Singers, warming up, here's Ellis gauge: I am of years old I'll, be singing eight, no mountain high enough. Now, if you mean They call me no matter you no matter how saw draw worry baby just cause
my name don't after it was didn't, get outta mostly because he was really really good, but even if you weren't, you would have been spared at the APOLLO you're not supposed to boot kid. This next guy He wasn't a kid
In Gaza images nobody wants to boot? those data bank and enable over?
Merci, alright, something we ve heard from the people who do the booming. But what do you do when you get the boom? The fans loved me? love. It got the fans off my back and it got the media economics radio explores the hidden side of everything sponsoring the friggin comics podcast. Could help nearly a million less there's a week discover your business email us at sponsorship. Be when Y see DOT, Org and Gatt
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An eight p M american public media. This is free economics, radio, here's your host, Stevens Abner are so it see you shouldn't boot kids, but it is ok to pursue in the name of Jesus. Those are some of the rules of booing at the APOLLO Ed Randal, the former governor of Pennsylvania, he's got a lotta thinking about the dews and don't of Boeing is well. He once wrote a newspaper column with the headline randalls rules for booing. I wonder if we could walk. Through them quickly. You may be give me an example of each one sure you write that good natured booing is always allowed. X, Y Elijah, good, natured, brewing, like say Buddha popular politician, I remember once I get elected as mare with eighty one percent of the vote next night. I went to a seventy six years game they need. Still you introduce me, and I got bird was good natured, I would say probably
Ninety percent of the people in there in the stands voted for me, but that was good nature boy, I so you re doing a politician is all acceptable Allworthy whereby we did our vision, Who then, why now Whitefield? Why is that? Is it cause they're trying to grab somebody else's glory there? Why any politician, adventures in a field dispersed the boot because politics in sports don't mix, In fact, sports is in some ways the antithesis of politics because winning and losing decided on the fear. Matthau you know how much money arrays or things like that and part mission should generally stay away. I wrote another com where I said the two things: a politician fears the Mostar agent, from the FBI is here to see you and secondly, we like you to throw the first opening day you ve had that experience a few times. Are you thrown out your share first balls and doesn't go well. Does it
because while I throughout the first ball at the opening of her, for its new stadium, and I gave the state who me gave half of the money, I still get a good and this It was beautiful. So now what? How can you possibly account for the fact that you got, food. It was in Harrisburg. Great, were nine million dollars of state money came their way, help by you? What's the excuse or what the reason that the fans deserve in your mind, even though you, there, Generally: politicians don't belong sports and I only make an exception when the team absolutely bags me I got a lotta games and I probably there Erin governor has been the biggest sports fan. Maybe in the history of the column,
I got a lotta gains, but I try. I sit in the stands, but I will not be introduced. I tell teams and I dont want to be on camera either that doesn't seem fair. Does it ran Del gets booed stadium that he helped fun, but if you're politician you gotta learn to live, with the you gotta know what to do with I'm still claim in another profession sociology. You see, I claim and once wrote a paper about booing and applause and political speeches analyze more than forty hours of material, including some presidential is IRAN. Talking to Iraq about peace, you, judge on the record on this, it's coming out of Afghanistan. How does it look and of programmes? he called phone a year. Someone of these marvellous Boston adjectives apparent about Angola, now have a chance now, several Bostonians, don't like it
but the rest of the country will understand. Now we have it that was George Bush, the elder Michael Dukakis, to be in nineteen. Eighty eight. We don't actually here Dukakis there to talk to me about this one. Yes, I thought it was an excellent example of the way a speaker can respond to a booming response when it happens, Bush how to come back for the booming that turned out to be quite effective. So he's talking about foreign policy and in the ass. If his remarks in an embedded indirect way, he makes it derisive remark about Bostonians and that gets people in the audience to begin to Oh, he said several Bostonians, don't like it, but the rest of the country will understand This is a way, a method. If you will for dealing with doing when it occurs and the method easy thing is to marginalize the borders, that is to characterize the people in the room who are doing the boy s not representing the majority.
But rather as a narrow self interested slice. So he made determine episode of Boeing into a supportive episode of upon right. He turned the booze back The book was a boomerang. I guess That's right in our attempt to understand the issue, you ve got one more story to tell you and if you ask me this one is the story of the ultimate boomerang.
My name is John Master. I am a sporting goods store owner at this time. Oh mom business in Kosovo, with a baseball and that's basically what other Johnny the master is being a little bit humble. He left out the part about playing major league baseball for twelve seasons, mostly for the San Francisco giants. Now he was hardly the best baseball player that ever lived. In fact, he was a short stop with a career batting average of about two twenty, the very kind of player that Steve Levitt talked about, who usually isn't targeted for booing, I'm just an ordinary person but of live in an extraordinary laughin. That's all because baseball during this long career years with the giants. There comes a time I believe in nineteen, seventy nine when the giant
fans are in San Francisco or in. I guess a sour mood. The team is not doing as much winning as they like in the end, they got particularly unhappy with you and that led to a situation. Can you walk me through Sure. As you say, the time wasn't play real. Where I was in plain real while and booing started, I guess out became the whipping posted per se. If, if you want to call it an escalated and start again worse, each each game, even when I just bought my head Ella dug out, it would be blue or hers. Nature and what's it feel like from the athletes perspective, to be booed like that, I assume that you're trying hard ran it. I think that everybody knows there is a difference between booing, for when someone you know doesn't put out effort and when they and when they make a mistake, there's a big difference in those two things. So what I could have ever
it may fur for a lack of effort or lack of hustle. But an athlete wants to please his home crowd more than anything in the world and its a crushing. It's a bad thing that hurts so bad. When your own plans blue. I want my fans to be pleased with what I'm do, because they are the ones that pay my salary they're, the ones it come in, and cheer ass on they're, the ones that care about is the most god we as some diehard giant science, I'm still a giant fan and heart and how we will by now. Why was it you? Why were you the guy that they started to boot? People, or I don't know say fickle wants it. Something like I get started this kind of snowballs and that that month
Yes, I've made a few hours at the wrong time and again said a few things in the newspapers about probably should set at that time. Being a young idiot, the key, and what kind of things that you said in the newspaper Johnny Aware had hydro, probably just keep it to myself Was it about baseball or was it kind off topic? It was off topic. It was more about some political signs that we're going on a sandwich. That that never works. Well. Does it know it's a I'm, a very conservative person and that's more than one more of the most liberal places, a tourism in the world and some other things? I didn't say I M to hurt anybody, but I said, and to try to make people think this is shameful this guy. This wasn't about. Homosexuality may be was it. It was ok, so so San Francisco, and you say something that could be interpreted as a conservative
view on homosexual. That's not gonna, go very well and blaming the booze escalated. This went on for weeks, the master was pretty, happy about it and finally, one they lying in bed with his wife. She had idea for how he ought to handle the booze. The next day I went out and talk to our equipment manager. I said me a jersey up with my number on and put instead of my name will my asked us to put both on the back of an it hung in my locker for a couple of weeks, and I finally got enough nerve to put it on and where it annex game, but I only got aware for the top here for the first Annie after the game. There's a ladder. Norma in front of my locker up my general manager, family, five hundred dollars for being out a uniform, but here's, here's the whole thing!
about the fans loved it the media love. It got the fans off my back It got the media off. My back. You decided to wear the Jersey. I guess when you decide to make the Jersey are you trying to say we just trying to make fun of yourself for you trying to acknowledge it. You heard the booze. Are you trying to do the fans back? What was the kind of message you think I was trying to give the fans away. Instead, bowing gyro master that whenever they say they were gonna blue that they were actually cheer. Because I was now man my new name, but I had a good I will do don't get me wrong, and here we are still talking about it. Thirty years later, but here tears, I guess what brings it all back to reality. Last year I played, I was with the Elk UNAIDS. I'm sure you ve heard of rage action.
Reggie was on that time. I was last year he played also, but we were up in Seattle and I went down early for breakfast one morning. I was I myself am that's down, I got rate order. Reggie walk Danny's, hastened by certain words ass, an already come on Sudan. I will eat breakfast and he came over said that we, chit chat and a little bit he looked over at my ease. I hear you get Buedir one, so I said ready out there and he looked at me across that Taiwan is about cases. Let me tell you so he said people don't blue nobody's why he told me that I don't know, but he made me feel like a million
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Transcript generated on 2021-03-16.