Garrett Reisman is a former NASA Astronaut. He is currently a Professor of Astronautical Engineering at USC and a Senior Advisor at SpaceX.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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industry leader and professionally did, causing family memories if a memory is the diary that you carry let legacy box be the fresh ink ha. So started. Preserving your past today, good a legacy box, dot com, Slash Rogan, to get forty percent off your first order, save your time and memories go to legacy box. Dotcom, Slash, Rogan, to save forty percent off my guests day is an astronaut he is a former employ at space acts he's a professor just of million die with a fascinating story, and I really enjoyed talking to him. Please give it up for Garrett, Rice man,
The will gain. Experience welcome potential donors. Member will appreciate data about me, as is also see the bunch of videos online of talking about space and near your dream, being an astronaut as young man and what what is like just to see the earth from above and be. You lived up, therefore like what ninety five days, ninety five days was actually is kind of a bummer. To be honest, I did because you know, previous you that video maybe bear the thing is: if you stay for a hundred days, they give you a patch right. I'm a day. Ninety, five and the space shuttle discovery shows up to bring me home and Mark Kelly was a commander because Garrett's time to hop in and come home and I'm like man, I just need five foot. Two get up here. We do they go around a few more times or somethin
seems like ninety five days should be enough land give the man a patch how much does a patch costs which the long as anybody stayed up there, the law This dumb for an American with Scott Kelly's nearly a year in spaces longest and in a row basically but it is a russian state up there for longer than a year and he has a all time record how indeed, when they come But what is ninety days like coming back because of talk to people gone there when they come back they're bound since our love, the equilibrium so yeah viewing it kind of risk. Economists have and in numerous system is, what's affected the most in this as well, was noticeable when you first get back after the first thing. I noticed it we back up is how heavy things were again. So I took off my home. Those holding it in my hand, and it felt like us home Go to the? U S: s! Limits set my camera, we're gonna brush my
either we like to arduous disease, body severely weakened in ninety five days, all back in the day, when I was going there so that mission. Might my long term mission was back in two thousand eight and back. Then we were still losing bone density and muscle mass as we're going up did along about us about one percent of bone every month says about three percent low. They dont anymore, they dont anymore, because we found out we do. We came up a better counter measures to prevent that one of the countermeasures basically workin out and resisted exercise that that does it for you, which we knew back when I was going, but the problems we had at a hint Had this machine that was kind of a affair, generation of but low load machine, and it could do large, reps but but low load. So you're doing like a lotta remsen. Let would at low weight and in that help. But but what helps it turns out? We didn't. We found this out kind of by happenstance.
But it turns out that high load, low rips works much better we get this new machine that you could really cranked up to eleven and the guy now that that are workin out on that thing or coming home, no bustle, muscle or or bone loss it off. Wow. That's that's because who wits canadian gentlemen that we had on yes, Chris Outfield, when, when it matter Hatfield came back, he believed he said it took him a whole year to recover yeah I mean that was still like a nearly still but kind of an early days. A heap me, I don't know which machine he used. Ie Papa did use a new one, but overall it does take to get everything back to get your full vestibular system back your sense of balance all your bone, your muscle, backed a baseline. It took me a year to get all that back to its kind lagree having from a major sports injury and ask me so strange-
your body just wants to shrivel up when Europe there, because there's no gravity. Yet it's really interesting kinship. It's an adaptation and that in the bodies is credible so it is doing, is its realizing hey. You know, I don't have to carry more weight anymore. So why do we need this big bulky skeleton while sake you become a kind of like a fish where you're you're, just your shedding all the bone density because you don't have to use your body realises. I don't need it. It's like a fish and war. You know that have fish are very slender, owns interesting way to look at it like a fish yeah well, and we find it by working out and how often have to work out every day every day, every day how off Alex much time days. This schedule two hours, no you're, not on the machine for two hours. It's also prebendary gettin changed in in a clean it up afterwards, but so you workin out good our everyday lives later sweat and space. It's weird
What is it even notice, an egg in the beginning? You don't even realize it, but it's all building up and even without If you have no hair to soak it up, just build up like this thin film of water on your head, like a coating of water I don't even notice it doesn't run down and an answer. Cause your name again and in fact it's crazy and everyone thought so it just kind of floats off your body yeah. It's like a dog shaken itself in Ireland that just goes everywhere. So, if you have, your army encourages gauche in though, though the sweater go flying, you know your criminal. Be too happy whether we do this elaborate yeah. Why? How? that is a video of people doing that and space there's gotta, be should we shall make videos. Some is gonna, have done that. But so are you basically do I compound movements like dead lives in squads and things on those lines. Yeah functional fitness kind of stuff, where by any focus, answer,
seriously. The bone loss comes mostly from your legs because you're not loading, so this ability, our bones need a stimulus to regenerate it happens to us. Every day says you walk is go upstairs that load dead. The bones feel the compressive load is tony bone. Hey makes a more may take that away, and a bone stops make more and that's the problem. People sailor cases, like I calcium pills, but not a mineral deficiency is alone- is no low. That's interesting, the body a tap so quickly that ninety days has it and if you didn't do anything for ninety days at all, you'd been real trouble right. Yeah, that's was really kind of freaky state thinking about like what, if we don't fight this because all these adaptation should go through are not a problem when you're in space is only promise, you want to come home right right
losing their bone, even like not using your vestibular organs anymore, you semicircular canals your odorless organs, you're, not making use of those your bounds. You just got purely individual, but that doesn't issues and make a kind of sick you get. Canada is like being air sicker seasick, but what your body adapts your fine. So the question is: what would we become if we didn't find it? But if we just went with it and stayed up their water bloom, would you become you become added that the place I think in science? Can it gets it the most correct, as if you watch the the expanse here, where such a now I heard it's really good, shall never got a new it, though its good and and they get it right because they show people at these builders and live in partial gravity like their whole lives and they have much slip more slender bones and like they catch this Ike terrorists guy and they want to torture, em and all they do, is they make em stand up in gravity in an earth and at its incredible
painful form and while yeah, that would probably be what would happen take a long time to get everything back. If you went from earth gravity to the space station and you lived there for a year and didn't do anything about it and then came back to earth. We basically be like it would be hard to crawl right yeah, you it yet year, you all earlier. If you don't try to fight it, Youtube distiller stuff would come back, probably about the same rate, but will you would be really hurting with your muscle atrophy and your bone you. You would lose a lot easier Skelton if you're up there for a year and did nothing- and you would also your you all your muscles that you dont use like in your legs and your pastoral muscle. So new lower back you not using anymore, so they were just like waste away to nothing. You'll, be ok, your arms. Could you doing everything you everything you do with your arms? That's how you move as they get around is by pulling and pushing
but you don't, Europe does no walkin, there's no stairs. There's nothing. Does it affect the way you think it all the out that some people describe kind of an initial with short term memory, the colleagues based brain. A small group of people that would understand we are talking about their got sprays, brain brow. I got that do so. Is it something that then I never really noticed it. But them, I don't know, how much of that is real and how much is left like, like you're freaking out cuz you're in space right. So it's distracting, and maybe you forget, like what that number was you're supposed to remember, but look if you're really in a minute sustaining and you're all excited and and and a new kind of can't remember some his phone numbers. Can I can that? Ok, so it's just
I would imagine that just being up there breathing, let recirculated airs gotta, be odd, rent, yeah and it might stink. But I don't know because the other thing that happens, this big fluid shift. So right now we have a lot of blood pulling up in our legs and arm our heart. Its most important job, of course, is to feed the brain oxygenated blood and then, when you take the gravity vector the picture, the hearts and too much up to the brain and the stuff doesnt collect in our legs anymore and in all shoots up here and you get to shift of all the blood volume to your upper body in the Hague. It's all puffed up well yeah, like might so my first night and space, I went to sleep which is kind of hard to ducas urine space. You don't wanna, go to sleep right and on the first night. I woke up in the middle of the night
I could have sworn standing on my head doing ahead, stand or handstand, unlike. Why am I a standing on my head? In my sleep, this is strange right and then I look at the windows of the earth and, like all other trading in space. So all the blood was this weekend. Pulling in your head is, if you like, by gravity boots or something if it feels exactly like that. Why now and then after day to you get used, And it doesn't bother you any more, but you feel congested cause. You still have all this volume up here, so you sent to smell in your sense of taste. Are all dead and it's kind of like yeah, it's kind of like when you have a cold and in your sense of smell in your sense of taste, are like not as strong. So it's like that all the time as we take it with we cover? We have every hot sauce known of humankind upon. The space data like Saracen, we gotta, you know Louisiana cage on fire saws and oak. Whenever we gather huh
stockpile of it, because you you poor, then on everything seeing at some taste, because otherwise everything tat really bland out now. What are you eating up their terrible, What is it? Freeze? Dried foods mostly or you don't go for that Who does not like a fool and holiday up? It's like they say, get basically two choices, you have the America, food, which is essentially memories like military freeze, dried irradiated, you know infinite shelf life kind of stuff. And, and then the russian food is also based on their military relations, but from submarines in Russia. Food actually tastes better by the problem is one of presentation because it comes in Cannes. So you get these these
cans and even though it tastes good you open that came up and look at it is. I got, looks like tough there's like congealed in both cases, other it tastes better but it s like so unappetizing when he opened it can happen now. Is this not does what would happen if you brought fresh things up there with the EU? Would they be at the same rate that they would rob America, oh yeah, don't the thing is we haven't refrigeration, we didn't when I was there, they there to have a small refrigerator now, so you so have anything that needs to be refrigerated, but you would usually like for the first couple days we take a bag of fresh food and we took like sandwiches and and and fruits and vegetables and stuff, and then that's the last time you going to have it after that. It's all going to be just the stuff. In the packets that you add water to know when the first day you actually got up was that the first time you had ever been in space
I first mission yeah the firstly as first I'm in space, so your first view of the earth from above there, Is that like well? Well, I didn't see it right away. I was in the amid DEC downstairs the shuttle and his own one window down there and its in the corner So it's in the hatch and it's like the size of a dinner plate, and I was up there yet a lot of work to do as soon as you get up there, so I'm working like crazy and after about thirty minutes, I see this pale blue glow coming from that window and I'm like that's the earth. You know I should have a look at that and I was super excited for this. You know So I wanted to be ready. So I pause, I close my eyes. I meditated and I'll call whatever you want. I just got ready and when I felt like I was ready. I floated up to that window and I opened up my eyes and I gazed out for the very first time at the earth,
space and what that felt like is is really really hard to describe in words, but I had to pick one word to describe it as feeling. At that moment it would be mad really if it is mere just men, avenues are right, it was pretty had allow earth colours a blues and greens right, but man We ve all seen pictures of the earth from space. Ok, I mean we get like hd video coming down from space. Now where's just spectacular, you could see stuff in a video that you can't even see with your own eyes like the aurora and all that and have surely John Glad, and am I Gary Gagarin had no idea what to expect, and so, when they looked out, new saw the earthy freaked out, you know and it, and it was amazing and it was beautiful. It was it was underwhelming. I guess my expectations are so high, like I felt
there should be like some heavenly choir and that we shall hold hand saying the and the most people that have done it. They talk about this realization that you like this industry The realisation that were all on this thing together and that all these boundaries of civilisations and cultures, and countries and continents are all nonsense. Really just on one thing together, yet they call that the overview effect and a lot of guys to come back and talk about that, and they really feel it. They talk about a world without borders, and you know- and it's a beautiful sentiment- and I and I don't I don't want to- That, in any way, back like really a war without what would expect to see speculative damage, they dotted lines between cuts. It's like you know. I guess you do you
inescapable when you look down and you see the planet and he realized that were all in the same boat. You know, but at that dinner strike me as it is a sudden realisation it because I think it's because I knew that before I went the you shouldn't have to go in strap into a rocket. And blast often look at Dareth another, basically we're all human beings. I think I may I think, things that unite us are so much stronger and more important than it than a crazy little things that divide us like race or sex, or nationality or power six or whatever, and in it you Eddie, did the day we have this one home and immoral. Stuck here in it together. So I had that strong knowledge before I went, and maybe that's what I look down my get there. It is ok, I get it, but It wasn't like all of a sudden like that. The shade was put back in there is like suddenly a new realisation of
life is there one place. Does the spot on the space station to get the view we really get a big window desertion. Huge window called Kubler that wasn't there my first mission, but it was there. My second mission nights. I got to see at the second way out of the window yeah let's get the song, How do you add a window space station? You just get there in it's your dad and the whole module had had this Cooper just like it as accurate there, though, you look into that's exactly it. So this bears pre tight. It's like it's a dome, and so you get a full three sixty view and it spectacular wow and we tell the guys don't get to do a spacewalk that this view is just as good as doing spacewalk. But it's not it's not it's none, but don't turn because it makes them feel but they're gonna, listen,
What is the spacewalk life man? First, I tell you that the likely Let me doing spacewalk was like slim to none. I, when I first got their detailed it when you're intervened, to become an ash not to go talk to us, the other astronauts, and so I went in there and we have this presentation space walking and esteem like to be the the ultimate experience just an incredible thing, and I wanted to do it bad oh. I went I'm talkin to this. One ashine is pre tall guy. Does you can't tell from the pockets of on five four a case like not like a real towering individual low vertically challenged. I guess, and I'm talking to the real tall anna- and I said you know just heard about the spacewalk sounds awesome. I want
living in California. I've been doing some raw climb in some scuba diving. Maybe they make me a good candidate to do a spacewalk and ass tall ass. She looked at me. I grant me, I he laughed in my face. He said what are you forfeit work a rude. I now make my first thought was, you know I thought ashes. Be polite, and this guy, like was not being nice, but he is He is actually has been brutally honest in. I was kind of tough love news like listen. The suit is one size fits all you're gay. In that thing is go swallow you up and you knockabout ways that do anything you can be useless, says an impossible forget about says kind of pissed off, but but I wasn't gonna disguised out me right. So I get there. I got a job and a good now
my first training exercise which is in this huge pool. We got in Houston and it's like a hundred feet wide two hundred feet long forty feet deep, and will you fit like most of the space station in there and you get a crane comes by they put into suit which ways you know something like a hundred seventy five pounds and stuff with the in and then in addition, You you're in it to your picture cabinet plebeian, a water new float around and kindly being up in space and as I would train so get down. There is my fur very first exercise and I could tell in the first five minutes of this training exercise that big tall ass, not that laughed in my face was right. I was not. I was Phelan. How is that was not done? Well, I was screwing others like it, just wasn't going well, why are they make a one size fits all suit, the things they have the ability
to alter the arms and the legs a little bit and they have three different sized upper torsos. There's a there's, a medium, a large and extra large, but that said it's limited in in because it cost a lot of money to make different sizes. So there's only the gloves, I can tell her cuz, that's the most important thing, but I'm getting my butt kicked. You know, and I and I got it- needs improvement, which is a NASA nice way of saying you failed right, but I wasn't ready to give up. I went and and you're gonna need help. So I talk to the people that make the suit and they did some of those things. There lay the short and the arms they fix it up a little bit for me, and then I talked to Detroit. Nurse, and we said okay here, we gotta think outside the box here. If it give you the standard procedure, you're going at a disadvantage, but maybe we change your boss
they positions. Instead of going straight on to the works, I may we come at the works from the size. It get. What reach that way and we are working at it and we get better and better and the end of the story is that I got two events. I got the highest possible qualification to do the most complicated space works. We do not do in three different space walks course. My career and big tall guy. They laughed in my face in and get to do any good for talking shit. Sir, look at you other yeah. That's me now. What is our feeling like? because it's gotta, fill insane when you strapped to a space station. That's floating around and you're you're, just hanging by a court we all know tat? You do have that safety,
that you say there an end that you know it. They could prepare you for everything, except for the visual. So when you like, or in the pool your staring at the poor wall, when you get up there and you see the whole earth below you, some people go out there and get like a sense of Fear falling negotiate. If you let go you're, not going anywhere right. This base stations booming seventeen thousand five hundred miles an hour, but so are you. Kennedy doing a wink wing walking on an airplane but with no heir to blow you off the wing. So when you look at the space station is rock solid, but you have down and some people get to fear falling in and then hold on real tight, which is a terrible, terrible mistake, because we called space walking but you're, not walking you you doing everything with your arms seeking where your arms exists So if your climate and get like Canada totally thrashed in your forms and it now, you that claw hand and useless
You can do that and he got like seven and a half hours ago and that's bad so so you're out there for seven and a half hours, wizard P, Deborah diaper poop as well try to avoid that best. As as a scientist, I had experiment right, of course, So during a training exercise, I waited till the very end. Just in case you know, and I let one go before they pull me out. The pool Wendy and I resolved never ever to do. That again is our number one in number, two overdue boy number one is no big deal out. What save that project out? If I could have told you I was going to happen discusses and you do it in a pool. Do you not doing it in actual space base? to be one of the rare people. It's actually pooped in space would be very interesting. That's it that's
you know we keep all these records. I don't know was got that record. It's not me diaper love, so you just have to let it go when you're up there So what is it? What are you doing when you're out there? So you do in seven and a half hours with work, you're you're basically doing maintenance, so it's kind of being a mechanical technician. The way I describe it, but the suit is so hard. It restricts everything you do. Good has blown up to about four pounds per square inch, and so even just closing your fists takes work because it did. This suits like a balloon and once a day like this, and so just closing your fingers. Is it takes effort and over seven and a half hours it gets really fatiguing in moving arms. Everything is an end in the soup. Can only move that. You can't do this right. You can do this, maybe so your or your ability to raise up your shoulders is really limited. So you're trying to do all this work, but you're working inside his suit, and I described as like it's like.
A change of oil in your car, while wearing a medieval suit of armor. It's hard what? What kind of maintenance you doing on the outside of the spaceship our clean, the windows get the bugs oftener like an hour, I urge that this another and this particular space. What were assembling a robot that we took up there, but we did other things like we put a new antenna on top of the space station. We H swapped at a bunch of batteries that were getting old, the nearest Africa, that's fastening, so you have to you have to have some. Real understanding of mechanical things as well, get a mean. The pudding stuff together, Yanks You are really helps to have some kind of mechanical aptitude. I mean a lot of us like working on our cars or building things our garage, hobbyist, Kenneth stuff. We actually started right out.
As I was leaving NASA, which is back in twenty ten. We served like kind of an informal program where we're at going over. He said his feathers garages and doing car repair stuff just to get more hands on experience with that kind of thing So when will save you have to do and in turn up there? Is that something your train for on earth in the pool? And then you go up there and do it during several days. Absolutely everything we do was choreographed down to live, exactly working to put what what handrail I'm put my tool box on. I mean everything is all figured out in advance. But nowadays and sometimes on space station? Even when I was there when things break, you don't have the luxury of training If we can do a shuttle mission, we doing a really complex face. Walk will do everything we're going to in space at least ten times in the pool first, but these days you don't have that luxury, something breaks and you you breathe it you talk about it, you you have some power points and then you're out the door and it got to go. Do
so how much briefing and how many powerpoints the training that goes on prior to one is unscheduled. Dvds is typically a new order of those days worth of activity. All told Are these powerpoints pre loaded onto the space station and get or they have to be made up to you? It depends on exactly what you're what you do, and so we identify I like the most likely and most serious things that could go wrong and we practise those in a pool, and we have all those procedures suit case before we ever go, but has sometimes you get a surprise. You know sometimes something breaks. You weren't expecting the break or breaks in a certain way or does a complication that you are planning on and then you get to improvise. Wow. That's can be crazy. In and you probably doing things that other people on the space station, maybe having done so that no one there tell you had, did it's no big deal? You haven't you even if you do something
that you rehearse ten times, and you think you got it all figured out. You still get surprise when actually get up there, the big one that I remembers on my second spacewalk work connecting this dish antenna and had gone on top of this big boom like a big pedestal, and there was a connector that had it an electrical connector and we had that like an hour. So to connect the thing and without it connected it was again. Any power or data to that antenna and it could get too cold and his gazillion dollar antenna could be a worthless hunker junk. If you take too long, you're on the clock because when it was in the shadow was plugged in it was getting its heaters were on and now you get a plug it back in and get the heat is back on in a certain amount of time. And so we're ok, we plan this. We train this. We get up there and a clinic there's won't go together like I unfit, and these two pieces of equipment sat next to each other. For, like a year Florida in like a warehouse, nobody without well- oh maybe major
oh no yeah we gotta get them fit and we're like crap. You know what we do so we're shoving and what shoving so hard. We push out a sim so hard that the guys inside the space station said they could have filled the space station shaking like that's how hardware. And then we see little middle shavings come off and whether they can get interconnectors like that's bad. So we stopped and and then- and then this is a kind of my my big here a moment I can improve these they'd like Brad Pitt saves them. Solar system and stuff. You know this is my thing. It's not that exciting, but I thought I had this idea said he. The we are basically having was at the female side was too small and mouse. I was too big for it to fit together. So I said to the one in my car: Mason side said: hey how long till the sun comes up could you know it takes ninety minutes ago around the earth and every forty five minutes, a son,
See that come in upper going down so Campi that long and it does actually about ten minutes because were behind the earth and it was dark and an attempt is a sum- was gonna come up and make perfect. So I took the the female side. Arms upside took the I took the male side and I held it in my glove. Ok and I put it behind the structure way ended. The sun was going to become a from here, so I put it in the shadow and I waited for the son come up and it hit the female side and data. But your difference. If you're in the centre and the shade is, I can be up to like six hundred degrees, Fahrenheit difference so little. On hidden in warm up, and I took the mouse quickly Adam, I my my insulated hand. Away from the shadow slit in my right it while- and I was it said, day stages, to do this, just understanding how things change according to temperature. Here there are spanish, while there
Annabelle as my thing to be able people manufactured it now we're so happy. We have video You get an end that we're we're gonna work, give each other high fines and the sooner we don't they as the that's a great victory, that there really is a figure that out a lot of people have been stuck up there. How the fuck did no one try it before they went up there. I don't know, maybe they did and it just like. Maybe they weren't, but it got up to space new experiences, different temperatures at the expanded differently. I don't know for sure, but I'm not pointing any fingers, but it didn't work. And but we saw that then that's the kind of thing that you can't like until we have a higher something they can really learn. We you can't code, that's the real benefit that human sprang to the equation being ever do to be able to adapt, to succeed and expect otherwise that thing would have been junk yet for robots donut years new stock is gonna, keep pushing is not an end in itself.
Program. It now that feeling that you were talking about of looking out the window. Where was kind of man and then the difference between that and space walked. Is that way Get this real sense of being in space above the earth. The spacewalk? You can't yeah? It's it! That's breathtaking because you have this helmet does like a giant fishbowl and you're after, while you can forget that its there and you're just like, as you know, the old superpower, Christopher Wren, he's a flying around the earth and he just making is unaware whatever you it's like that, because you forget, they vivid have gone scuba, diving and you get to the point where you just can t forget. You have the mask on I've. Never scuba, diving snuggled. If, if you spend a lot of time down there, you can get to the point, we cannot forget that you're dead you're in it this alien environment and becomes like you become one with it and that's just a wonderful time. Will you ve done
water exploration is well. What have you done there? I live for two weeks in the bottom of the sea out Jesus it where it out where it out just talk. Just you saying two weeks, the bottom of the ocean. How deep is exactly twenty thousand millimetres under the sea is about sixty feet which works out to be about one sixty feet, that's uh, yeah that doesn't freed me too much. I thought you gonna select miles. No, our parliament knows that sixty feet, but but the courting was we stay there for weeks. Don't know, if your normal, if you normally scuba diving and you go down sixty feet, you have sixty minutes and then you got to come back up or you or you get too much nitrogen in your blood and you're going to get bent right. So so we if he, but it is not a problem. If you just stay the promise, then if you stay, you build up all bullet nitrogen in your blood. Now you can't go back up,
so like. If you run out of air or you loose Your body or something you can't go to the surface cause within a couple hours you'll be dead, while saying to stay down there and we use key diving techniques and that we did a lot of training for to be safe and we have done in tanks, redundant, manifold, redundant regulators and we get had vows that we can flip around. So we can always make sure we can get air without ever having that in an emergency ever having to come up because coming up is not an option. So how do you eventually get out. Is a freaky thing: it takes about a day and what you do as you take, so we were living in this habitat and it was kind of like a submarine bottom. The ocean, but and have a motor so just like stuck on a floor like a big like a big cylinder, and it had a whole cut in the side here and in the only thing is keeping the ocean out. Was the air pressure inside woe? Can I taking a carbon footprint over putting an end
bathtub better in the air and you just scuba diving down in any swim swim into that thing, then, if then, which a pop up in that whole, it's like you're in a swimming pool inside the habitat and then you to step out into the habitat Whoa is obviously the movie the abyss, yes site, that beside the crackers and movement. I think it was a guy- was a navy ceiling there. You guess I like crazy from the guests legs like or they called it, the deep dementia southern so fake, the others think at him. So this process of getting back to surface level how these have takes a day. We have to do so. It is your close up that whole and you, first, the habitat into a pressure chamber, and we do so very very slowly bring the pressure back to sea level. So you decrease the pressure and you slowly is it as if you're slowly, slowly going up in the water
And in over, as you do a gradually that the nitrogen slowly comes out of your blood and you can feel it can't tingles while over the course of a data, why you try to lie still in your bank and just like read a book or something, but you feel at this tingling and am after about it. That they get you always back to sea level. Slowly said the nitrogen. What you know it is it's like if you take a kind of soda and shaken up. If you open your item, the tap quickly at Vienna, TAT really slowly any link, slowly come out, you don't get all the bubbles right, as is its as him effect. Ah, that's that's a great mountain yeah! What's freak year being the bottom of the ocean or being up in space up and spaces. More surreal causes the floating the earth at the window. The views are better but being down. There is pretty well too.
Emma once we're done this experiment, where I had my crew mate and had an Ultra SAM and within this parliament in experiments of their these dogs in Houston. Looking at the screen, but there is a delay: ask us a finer, kidney and like searching around four. Guinea and then I'll, look up, look the window, and I see a six foot hammerhead shark right out the window and we have a guy in the water I was an I a giant have by far and and all the other ducks and user frigate. A thing like in a moment. Did you see her liver explode on the screen or something? And I quote, has a patient, has a better like patients, fine What hammerhead talking here, that's gotta, be really we're right, your ear in that thing in their world for how long two weeks. So that the weirdest animal, that you saw, the hammerhead, the guy,
I think I saw was one that it has taken. A dump is to store The way you do this again number one you just penal, ok, but if you have to go over to you, go into the pool, could you he's gonna? You know a flutter and your poor right. That's course like Eddie Shack in order. So what you do, is you go it? Do you not take a tank? You just take your masking your fence. He go down naked ye when we had a mixed gender Crusoe worsen trunks, but you know, and you need go down and the swim aeronauts, like maybe ten fifteen feet, is not that far and theirs it. What we call the gazebo, which is just a little dome for their has Aaron side no, you out and middle the Atlantic Ocean like with no take no in your sixty feet down at night. You can't see a thing you're alive, in the ocean. But you can see this little gazebo you
we too, that you pop in and get air This avows, you lead in some fresh air, and you hold on and you just take off, he trunks newsletter rip, but the problem is the fish get accustomed to this Jesus yeah, so they go there knowing that you're gonna poop as soon you drop in the water at night. It's like the dinner bell. Gone off is like School yeah, yeah causes! Woe until you feel them like. Yeah Pecking at the back door, the worst or the angelfish Cosette shaping, get like right up in their coy. So you take your fin. Often you, like Wakeham, Christ. It set a bad enough, but like. But as you are doing that and you're in the pitch black Atlantic Ocean, sixty feet down no scuba tat night at night, with the sound of the ocean like like lap and against the dome annual
calm down and this endless black. You know just a black void and you're thinking about every single scary Ocean movie like Jaws, you know the mayor, whatever the abyss, although scary movies right think about all the things that could be down there can't help it go with your head, so it's kind of freaky and then you finish, you put your mask back on and I took a big breath and I went down and I opened my eyes and in my mask in the darkness, with my flashlight saw like right in front May this huge eyeball like but the size had enough of a bit of a saucer. You know like this big staring unblinking right at me and I freaked ETA just tore off for them for the poor and the moon pool in the
habitat I jumped in their surface scream and screaming, and my crew come running the guy like I've, been bit by a shark or something and I'm my jive finish, and there is also the Goliath Gruber I've seen those things before their enormous size of a cow, its hundreds and hundreds of pounds. Oh, my god scared eleven Halloween yet those things could literally eat a person. It am is big enough. That's for sure, and so was this decided. It scared again they. So where were you in the Atlantic how far away you from like floor and yeah we're just off the coast of key logo? Ok, that's sand They live down their yeah. That's an enormous fisherman, huge I've seen videos are people catching them off a boat and seems real agree that yeah they go. There's it's like a giant large mouth bass.
That's what it's like. I give you go back fishing there so similar to bass. In the way they look here now. Imagine I Jesus Christ, you that manually, I died with that thing in the middle of the dark Atlantic and scuba tank they're delicious to it. But, like I don't know if they taste as good as regular grouper. I have yeah. I was a get so you get it happened. He was a good fight at the mouth and I think Lord Ten other quick story about then there. So I went out for a night dive once and I spent the beautiful thing about saturation diving like this. Is: u can do basically infinite time bottom time you do not limited to like sixty minutes. You stand there for six hours, no whatever so as I do, and as night dive, and I found his pewter full shrimp and was just spectacularly gorgeously transfers
you could see through it. You see it's organs, move like internal organs like doing a thing, ass stared at its for at least like an hour just helmet light on it and just sat there and stared at it, and it was really beautiful. I come back inside the habitat, I'm can Hungary and the best space food we got is cocktail. Is this as and I put that thing off the shelf Mccoy? Doubtless good! Don't like can't do you can't do it? It is good news and I wonder if they were eaten, people seems like they could for that data you really feel bad. I forbid, while group are bad my group or sandwiches Gary, because I think it would learn. I would be ok with that. It is good news if they were eaten. People seems like could mean they swallow giant, fish seems if you're not a large person, they just Sukhi right in that didn't it,
say now, if this happens, make mangaboo more Frida. I feel like I've read that group have bitten people before, but probably try them out because they get hung out you that Big EU programme to eat so much, yet it but fair for those guys and So when you down there and you do not swimming you're using a red breather note, using tangles, regular scuba tanks and what is that patsy these tanks, like how long can you stay down swimming around, for we have to end can isolate immigration. One of em springs a leak, but you don't have them more time than a standard scuba take, but we have is refills since all around the floor with high pressure hoses. So we have these quick disconnects on our system. They can plug in and fill it right back up, and then you get go for you know another couple hours so when you swim to go, take a poor. You have to do that. You have to wear the tanker. Just hold your breath
Just hold your breath. Algebraist Una gonna far have our young fifteen feet or so in total pitch black, There is a light on the gazebo, but that's all see that light out there and you know if you get to their that's, where you pull on the good Lord wow, that's gonna, be so strange, wasn't lighting it back from now on our part fulfil read, it seems that you would be real similar dating back from space yeah it is. It is the thing about it. What makes us such a great training exercise psychologically is, if you had to get to a hospital it takes about the same time from that habitat as a wood from the space station. In both cases it takes about a day. Imma space station you got to get in the soil. Use got to put your space suit on you got to detach Osoyoos from the space station. You got a separate from the space station. Go, do a deorbit burn. You got a land that helicopters got to come, get you, but I'm all that's done. Good day, and the soil is a russian craft yeah. So we have to use
russian craft to get back from space station right now we have the euro gotta go and come back how we're deserve it's, not cool. Why happened right so it is not good. None of us are happy about this, but what happened was too shuttles the shuttle me to say this is a magnificent flying machine? I mean what's really remarkable, if you go down to the California size and when you look at endeavour, we designed a thing in the seventies like it doesn't have a microwave. I escaped from conventional collection of it wow? So it's like ancient technology that the flight computers on that thing, your your apple watch could run circles around them. I mean it's like nothing there, they're, so primitive, but but it did, It took off like a rocket landed like an airplane, you had, you could carry people, you carry the Hubble space, telescope and trunk. You can do a spacewalk from his
has a robot arm that you see there there's endeavour. So that's my flight ashes. That's as this one, twenty three in the middle of the robot that we put together while but am but anyway the it's an incredible machine and will never design angel I get maybe ever again something anytime soon. So, despite its technological, an incredible ness for lack of a better word, it had a couple key limitations. One was it's not that safe in us. We lost two of EM challenger in Colombia and we could talk about that. I knew a new because Colombian. That ATLAS really really a rough and in the second. He was a super expensive because it took so much maintenance, even though it was reusable or most of it was it took so much maintenance took a standing army to keep running we're spinning, I think three or four billion dollars a year.
The programme and and there's no way if we want to build something that could be more cost effective or safer. There is no we were going to get a plus up from Congress, would like an additional four billion dollars a year to go. Do that don't really to make it happen. Was it stop find the shuttle? So he we took a very painful decision and we said: ok, we're gonna retired these things, so we can make something new and we know that this can be. A gap period were not can have anything. It's gonna suck, but the Good NEWS is, it is indeed it did. The great timing about this conversation right now is that gap ends this year will yeah twenty twenty is when that painful period is put the rest and what would happen we can have a space extract space Ex dragon, yet a great name yeah. I love it yeah we can have a value ship anomaly dragon we can have the Boeing STAR Liner and
and then we have to other private companies will be launching people this year that it's incredible, these four companies all trying to put humans into space with private companies here and the schedule there are just aligning so is our looks like it all will happen and twenty twenty there. They ve done some people civilian trips up in the space right They have an that's all happened because by paying the Russians, that's what does arise here. Why, as their equipment, so much better? it's not. The is the only game in town when we must we retired shuttles. There is nothing else available. I would be like hey how well you know, maintaining these things yeah. Would he do? I tell me, tell me: what's your maintenance schedule, it's been a little scary lately. Could dive has amiss after I like what were we had a launch goes squarely where the rocket didn't work rate and handed that punch off in a cage
the American on that? Unfortunately, he was fine, he wants Aveline eject yeah fuck, that's what they wanted. Like do: fine. So during launch yeah. So your launching this is not yet when it. Whenever has these beside boosters and one of them got stuck. Come off right? There is starting to spend at a control and punched him. Oh my god, how far? How far up are they when they punch up to what we say, punch outer punch up, punch out out abort, you say abort, but In that case, I do not know the exact out into their fairly high there. Probably I think they were still in the atmosphere, some guessing it. I'm guessing something like forty did: seventy kilometers a person, and so they punch out and abort, and then are you in like a capsule equity in Munich?
on internet point on this kind, like a normal landing. If you survive the the giant, you know yank. I think they were pond subdue. Like five or six jeez, I think when they went to separate or maybe even more or that system when they pulled off and then and in that point you're falling in the capital and in the parents come out and from that point on his like a normal landing, the jeez gotta be crazy right. I've done dumb a flight with a blue angels once and I think we went, seven have cheese or something that was not that bad. But it's so weird yeah see that consciousness. Closing, unlike an elevator dory, see, the blackness of the song is a soda strangling, is very weird so that, like in space like to get ejected or it s, actually not space in the atmosphere,
and do you have to climb into that thing before you can abort or you had already does no time it it it's it's a rocket and in case it's a rocket and the top it pulls the capsule away from the booster awhile, just like we did with APOLLO in Germany. Now on Dragon and also a star liner. We ve got much more advanced systems that are built into the into the castle and so they they there they push instead of having a tower up on top of that policy way. They have two inches and here that that push and fly away and the nice thing about that, is that the tower he? Actually, if you dont need you have, did you have to throw away of the agenda but that's kind of like needing to use your rejection seat every single time we go for flight because, if he'd for some reason
it doesn't jettison your debt. You can't get the parachutes out with that thing, stuck up on top. That's like a failure mode that if you put the engines down here, you don't have to worry about that. Plus you carry it with you the whole time. So you could use those powerful engines to really get quickly away from the booster, like the Falcon nine. If it's having a bad day, you can If it's blowing up here honey bad day, what does it look like? Can you pull up the space? ex. What's it dragon what the crew Dragon Preux Dragon well airship that looks like something from the future. That's the IMF, the tests we just did as an artist drawing of it. But this is the final big test we had to do before. We actually put people inside. And we did that successfully just a couple weeks ago. So it it was, we am lit up. Those does eject engines, there, that's an actual shot. That's insane look at that
it looks like a UFO as crazy and a rocket went kablooey not that we blew it up, but it started once it's separated the rocket start tumbling out of control and what committed giant fireball as a normal or expected. We can't thought that would happen. You were right, our plan on using it again and there it is so there there did separated from the booster wound, and the Buddha Kaboom, but the rocket, but it was of a thicker if I'm right, if it was that one point, five kilometers away when, when the rock and and it was fine now, when you guys do these test flights, do do they have to anticipate where the stuff is going to land like where the they mean you have all this giant metal with fire and
so like, as your launching you have to take into consideration that what the trajectory as well that's explosion the insects, complete successful, abort test, launch of Dragon Crew, capsule wow yeah, so they have to think about where, the east into the Atlantic, and that way you can go due east, which are generally what you want to do when you launch or economic turn, a limit, north or south, a negative fly over anybody's house or Disneyland or anything, and if something goes wrong in the old,
happen any time, so you always that's where we always launch out of the ocean, and that's why keep can arrows were Cape Canaveral is because, if you look at a map of Florida, that's the cape is where afforded jets out as a promise, a jets out to the east into the Atlantic. In that way, you can go due EAST, which generally what you want to do when you launch, or you can eternal over north or south, a negative fly over anybody's house or Disneyland or anything, and if something goes wrong. In the old days like on the shuttle, we have had explosives on the tank and they were these dudes. These rain safety control offers officers. It was sit with a big red button bodies. If they see you go and add a control in your hand back towards lan boom. Oh my god, what a responsibility they We used to go by before lunch and meet those guys. We're going to die northernmost psycho shown pictures. Our family benefits, don't get edgy bro I'll get it you did that trigger so give it has given a pity
It seems like a crazy way to handle it that the junk has to fall on the ocean yeah. Well, now there actions in the Chinese don't necessarily honour that they actually, the Chinese have dropped nasty burning, boosters on knows it sparsely populated, but they still have dropped these things on my village. And stuff boy there a little less really concerned about this kind of thing in China dammit but in the U S we always so we launch and the reason it usually went to launch to the east. Is you take it These are the earth's rotation to give you like a slingshot effect. If you go to the east, the earth is rotten. In this way, cancelling shatter into orbit our going with the rotation? as we also be as close to the equator, if it can, because if every at the North pole you launch EAST is not can help here, the lower your turgid equator, Morbus slingshot. You get now, did they to figure out over time
where those things were dropping did they ever makes mistakes and I'll think is it. We ve had rock, is blood on the pad and do a bunch of damage, but once are up out, I don't agree ever in the: U S anyway had that problem, because we always have been play to blow it up. If it's there two red lines and if it passes the red line, you push the button. Now it's all done at Thomas Lee, so you have GPS monitors on board that the self destruct, if it season, is going to pass on to nobody but the button anymore. It's all automatic bow wow and boosters that fall into the ocean. Do they have them documented like where their landing, so they, where these things are scattered out throughout the ocean. They knew approximately one halting was probably the most famous booster that landed than the bomb, the ocean was APOLLO. Eleven, the Saturn five
and it was just sitting there. Yours, a fish, habitat, awhile and Jeff bases, with his own, dug out of his own pocket, mounted an expedition and went and got him got those engine. That's when you know you're a bawler yeah throw some money at Poland, the rocket boozes from APOLLO eleven, our ocean, oh shit, crazy. Like I do this, we again maybe watch a movie or now never get. Those look at that. Why? How Diego powerful Jeff basis in a hard part, was found in them. Right ones and they got damages. Are the serial number there like yeah? Look at the image, find the right ones. There's a bunch down there, either as a bunch of sacrifice wow and they found the right ones. Look at that that's nuts and perfectly preserved and then, when did he do this? What has noted that pushed buzz and Neil and a mighty too
wow, that's madness. What a crazy image! There's lending in China are thus them hitting the ground already. Why not again be very quick? I started wherever the explosion was relevant. Issues falling from the sky. It on impact with the ground, so these people just children and a job Sugar metals falls from this God. Oh my god, that's crazy! No epithets hyperbolic fuels. That's like you, don't be Britain that stuff! That's Toxic Laguna just landed on people died like whoops. Sorry, that's that's a b. I see the great clad or be I'll Farsi you driving at what is in that cloud, is hydrogen.
So its anti? Oh, am image my mental hygiene and nitrogen dioxide it some stuff. Do you want a drink? I had fallen from the sky. Oh my god! That's crazy! It fell in a small village charters and give a fuck just let it go it. It is a mean that that does villagers who get pregnant lucky because it is pretty sparsely populated, so you're just plain yards, but it we when we went to that with ass, be terrible. Further breeding in their health death. That stuff was gonna linger I gotta get as their drinking water I'm in the quantities of that are probably not could be like as catastrophic either the bigger risk is getting blown up by it, but it still not good. So one is in China that here the same sort of oil- the duty to do so when, when Europe
part of these expeditions and you know you're irregular, you're one of very few people than ever gets two experiences. These kind of things do you feel like a responsibility to try to relate this information to people like yeah, it is part of our job. So when we're when I was that now so they would send us out to do these pr events and we go to schools, and I would go back to Jersey, worm from and go visit all the school systems and target. As you from My parents are from Newark and I grew up in pursuit. My too I heard about ten percent near Northerners, principally as I grew went, oppressiveness go while and so you go back and tried, inspire kids to pursue this consent, clothing, don't, do it right? I, oh, I was just in Israel last week. I just got back two nights ago. Actually so
every year on the anniversary of the Columbia tragedy, they have a space, weaken Israel with ever Homuncio stem education events and this, so technical conference and enters a memorial for the first is rarely astronaut. There was on Colombia Alonso get to know his family really well, and I go back there every year and we had the memorial last Friday and so yeah obstacle and- and I tried it- I think I met every school kid in Israel and get an get, get just try to gimmicks, a debate about the future about a bright future. You know well, who is one one? There is my brother subs. I saw video. We talked about how you doing your childhood, your photo on your wall of looking at the earth from the moon, the photograph that was taken and that that's what set the seed or
at the scene in your head, yeah right. I also I also go out and do a lot of you know, public appearances and and de motivational speaking kind of stuff, and I talk about the importance of both inspiration and determination. So I found out when I was a kid that they were never taken now, not only fighter pause but also like engineers and scientists to bash, not because I was was totally super Stoke by that the whole concept of going into space but at a mom dislike scared scared, typical, typical jewish mom. Like I told her once, I wanted to join the air force and shoot in like a public restaurant and should start freaking out like stars. Like soliciting opinions from the parents what you said to this and in other areas, so I never thought I knew that like being a test, I was not going to happen so that being an astronaut wasn't gonna happen, but then I found out that you could do it. You can be an engineer and and be national and then like that was my eureka,
when I was inspired but to be determined. I got that photo and I put it over my desk and was like that was my like. That was the beacon you know that was the goal and I kept working and in time I was having a difficult time I looked up at that thing is, I know one thing and hang that in the astronaut office in the Johnson Space Center, and I still have that there must have been surreal the moment when you were on that space, walk thinking about your childhood and think about being inspired by those images death how there is like polish, actually that's true. I mean you we are an astronaut mean. How many are there? There's there. I think has been around five hundred people have been to space ever that's nuts. Press out for not a lot and now with Spacex. What is your role was Spacex, so I left now send twenty eleven and I went down met with you,
and I said, hey I really like what you're doing here. Can I help and what can I any gimme a job? So I went I left ass. I came here and I worked there for seven years, did a bunch of different things: eventual became our door or space operations, so my team was response. Small Ford operating mission control, its base actions controlling. We have another dragging capital that we use for cargo to take cargo, and we do not for a long time up to the space station and back, and so we would, a mission control by Russia were designing and did the crew. When it we showed you, so we were come over the procedures and all the rules of how we're gonna use that thing and and and meaning of NASA's requirements and helping to provide input to the guys, designing the displays in the suits in the controls in the seats and all the stuff you need for people, and that was that was me. I did that for quite a quite a long time It's on this. What what's happening now with space travel where its transferring into the public sector, but a private sector? Rather, instead of being some,
in that the government handles now it's private companies. Is that a good thing? It's a great thing doesn't yeah because First of all is not quite a black and white the media are portrayed as commercial space and, like the private companies have taken over the truth is at least for the human orbital spaceflight. They were doing it. Spacex net Boeing is doing with with their vehicle its apart at a public private pie, nor Ship NASA's working very closely with both those companies and we're working together, and in a way, it's not really that different from the way. It's always been. You know like now you didn't have a NASA factory that built the sudden five rocket is built here by like Mcdonnell Douglas and North American Rockwell, built the if I'm a rent north american, but about the command module on and the lunar land was built by Grumman. So this, while private companies, their contractors
but to still private companies and on what's happening. Now is just a slight change to the relationship between us and the private companies where necessary, not micromanaging, quite as much as they used to their saying. Ok, here's our top level requirements. We want you to get four people up and down to the space station. It's a bit of it. Simplification is actually the requirements dogmas like their thousands of requirements, but there, but they don't go down and tell you how to meet each requirement. They leave it up to you so now. Space acts as a lot more room to innovate, then, like North American Rockwell did when when they built the vehicles back during APOLLO, so that that- and the other thing is different- is that the funding the Wade NASA's pan?
its firm, fixed price. You know these. Are they the space shuttle when we build an aircraft carrier, its its costs plus contracting, which has been terribly abused and in has been horrible for the? U S, taxpayer it. What it says to the company is you: can it could cause at whatever cost? That's what will pay an effect? Will give you a profit
the percentage of the cost so like your an eight year incentive as accompanies liked made it causes hygiene cancel your profit as high as components. Ridiculous says, not call an end, but they had to do it that way. It died during world war. Two as when the started because, like nobody, knew how much was gonna cost to build a p. Fifty one Mustang consume did one before so they came up with this mechanism, but now it's kind of an abuse now we're using it to do things that we ve done before and then the third things at that the companies only intellectual property. So what that means is like Rockwell would they built a space shuttle currently build a new space shuttle like build like spatial enterprise or something and NGO sell tickets on it? They were elected. But we can. So we can we're going to build this dragon, we're going to take Bob making a Doug Curley to friends of mine or could be the first astronauts to ride it to the space station, and once we meet our NASA Nasa
a number and customer their painted the bill. So once they are satisfied, we can end I'll make another one and sell tickets and take me to private individuals. So really that's the key difference, and I really think the twenty slash twenty we're going to look back at twenty Slash twenty, as it does a year that everything changed really yeah, because. The all those dreams, a science fiction alike, being able to take your vacations around the rings of Saturn and, like all the like private space stations, all that kind of stuff tat we grew up open, would happen when we were older. I think it's really finally starting cause. This is this is the beginning of that infrastructure that, at that private sector, commercial infrastructure and and an ability to actually get it done, we're always talking about
how wrong they got the future, unlike space. Ninety nine, nine, however, that television job like this was an idea, but all those shows like even I think, blade runner was like now right. Didn't we discuss this like last year, twenty nineteen like we of STAR Trek future, I mean I really I'm line was determined this totally wrong by. I think that the overall overall direction is is right. In a lot of and we will get there, I really do believe that if we don't end up killing each other or have some horrible catastrophe like asteroid, hit us we're going to end up living in space and have that kind of STAR Trek. Future. I mean, I really think, that's our destiny as long as we don't screw it up man. How far out We looking at STAR Trek, so
she might take a while do we get lay warp drive in other years and we gotta find his dilithium quick has tackled a competent she's predicting an elegant. How far do you think we are like if you had a of a wide timeline like literally being able to go to another planet. You know I was going to Mars is something we could do now in in a decade. If we really really really want Eli, keep saying that I think is right. I mean it's, it's not a question of technology The big missing piece, I think, in an understanding about what tat would be like it is fact of radiation on it and the human body. Engineering solutions we can come up with for that message. For the prolonged journey, the cigar six month journey, what you start talking about was so Now look on the space station. I took a bigger radiation hit than I would have if I stayed at home, but much of it,
you know they demanded. Does I took was not that much. It's like. I got a tenth of a sovereign or something I mean it's. I was privileged receiver, even if you take one safer than your increasing your chance of getting cancer depending on your age and gender, about a couple additional percent. Can you mitigate that with supplements like, as I die in the tank something along those lines that there's some maybe ETA accidents, but I think that that's that's not a panacea is not going to fix this problem. That could help, maybe they say, take iodine
Tablets right if you're exposed to radiation is not like something that they recommend yeah for like for the nuclear reactors are now and in all that, but I think that protects. It protects the function of some one under the organs. Carry member by snuck in itself does not solve this problem, but you can shield yourself with anything. Has hydrogen- and it is a pretty good shield, so waters great, like one thousand space station, I've put a big water jug around my head, really. I just couldn't, hurt and end in, like liquid, hydrogen or even plastic. That's made this derived from hydrogen is, is pretty good shielding? Okay, so you can have like conceivably a light plastic suit that you wear could she'll do from a land? The radiation on the way to Mars is actually a company in Israel. That word is Timmy witnesses. Gonna fly. These vessels are not to try to shield the people you can also put in the hall and- or you can have
just a storm shelter, because this basically once what, when we're in this stage, were above all the atmosphere but we're still below the magnetic field of the earth, so I still get. We still enjoy lot of protection from radiation. Once you go out of that, and you go to the moon or De Mars, then you basically hanging out there you're you're, not you no longer protected by that and see you're gonna take either GC our galactic cosmic rays. Mission, which is us everywhere out their towns. Terrible sounds bed and cheesy are galactic cosmic radiation. That sounds really bad desert. That desert ions up to up to iron! That's a heavy irons that there aren't that many of them, but when they hit you they can do allotted damage- have a lot of energy there dirt accelerated to like near relativistic, speeds like near the speed of light, and then
and then there's a solar than you. Gotta worry about solar flares s, p, solar proton events and those dont come down. Those are very like unpredictable and while there little but predictable lessons but activity, but but they come every once around their giants, spikes day less a couple hours to a couple days and they could totally friar there even worse down it fuck. So conceivably, we could send people to Mars and halfway there they get cooked yeah to have a say month window or you have to just rolled the dice. Well, so what you can- You gave a storm shelter right away, put like a lot in this shielding and then, if you could detect it does the desk the juicy. Are there all the time, but the solar events you, but you can detect them, come in and you have enough warning time you get. Bunny into the storms. How much time you have you seen when you first start seeing some of the
proton radiation. Then you start yet you have like an hour or so you get time in that thing on foot the eight minutes. From now its common, and you say, hugger down their programme and other water biology. Can why independent on how big the objection is, How long is gonna last year it could be a different magnitudes, indifferent directive could just kill you, even if you have the children, the elderly and the. If it's a really huge one, in it. We need really have any capability of defending from it when we did APOLLO and there was between two APOLLO missions- there's one these big ones are poor and we just got lucky that it was in between. So that seems crazy What a naughty raw the dice yeah but again, is theirs and we keep get smarter about it, and and and- and I think you know for like great
We can send you to Mars and bring her back and an probabilistic speaking. You Polly like an additional four five percent chance of developing cancer of your lifetime, which is not like a death sentence. You by little it's a little uncomfortable yeah yeah, but we're getting better and anything about. It is two things about it. One would keep getting better technologies better shielding. We can actually come up with which they propose ways you do active shielding with magnet. You can create your own magnetic field around the ship and an answer, has been STAR Trek with a guy force, the force field, our shields or whatever. So it really is a ways it. Maybe we could do that. There is also the other thing that we don't know we notice more benign and maybe a sharper than pencil say yet acceptable would have people come back, smarter. What if it's like, some fuckin x, men type, shit yeah, maybe get like you know. I mean radiation was bad in real life, but always good in comic books.
That's a different kind of radiation so, right now the Arabella is a really big. So when we say they go five percent chance of cancer, that's taking a very conservative estimate if we can find out what it really does the humans. Maybe it's a lot more benign. And maybe to sharpen the peasant say yet acceptable would have people comeback, smarter. What if it's like some fucking x, men type, shit yeah. Maybe like you know I mean radiation- is always bad in real life, but always Gooding comic Books, yeah right. We weren't spiderman of one of the HAWK spider man, so many superheroes there were involved. Sort of an accident wasn't doktor. Manhattan was now the thing with I'm as well. I think so yeah, I think so. The watchman, I think he became who he is because of an accident at the document I believe, I was hoping that you up. I had my kids after I did that flight. Some hope in a day lay one day in kids.
There is now a nine year old boy in a two year old girl noticed anything unusual about them. I didn't When did it to your was concentrating on her blocks and one of them for learning, and so what? What chain just have been made since you go from the old shuttle model of that technology to the space Ex Dragon crew. Think probably single biggest changes is all the more we ve got a lot better at electronics and software so the vehicle is highly automated and that's why we can fly like night, the normal people they don't have like years and years of training, because it's so much more smarter than to shut the shuttle Lindsey so much more smarter, so much better. If you're such a genius, you nuts put on his language like that you're goddamn astronaut
So much more smarter, something exciting. I would say to talk about that girl. I know. I'm sorry, though. The directive as a math is my thing, the verbal, my verbal as it is worth that spectacular but enough. Yet this is much more so and what about what about the? There was always an issue with the tiles right with the re entry tirelessly and then that's that's what did challenger and no one was elevate Colombia, that's what did Colombia and the the new design have they made advances and how that stuff is applied, or is it a different surface? They use yes, so that vat is It is also not really where anymore, that the reason at Columbia took that damage was was formed. The big orange tank, that's behind the space shuttle sticks up above the space shuttle and some fun fell off of it. We always handsome foam shutting off the thing and in the beginning we took that very, very seriously.
Is a major problem. But the thing is: is this concept of of gonna forget the name of it? Now, when images describe it, Oh, so you get away with something for so long that using it, it's not normalization deviants as us so it's when you get away with something for so much so long in it, something that was a deviant thing or so there was bad, is treated as a normal thing. And that's what happened to us, because we knew that their phone coming off could do damage to the space shuttle and in the bag.
We tried really hard to do something about it. We treated very seriously, but it was hard. We can really come up with an easy fix in the meantime. We're fine, nothing bad was happening. What was really happy news? We were again lucky and an event. She a bay peace, came off at Columbia, right in a wing and is shattered amid a big hole in southern, but nobody knew for sure and they made a bad decision did not like investigate it further assumed it was ok brought him home in an obviously know what happened? So it could be possible to fix something like that. If they had known, you could have been possible. If we did a lot of things like when I flew, we had a lot of things and places to try to fix that one. We got to rid of a lot of the phone that was unnecessary. We try to do things that stopped a phone. We also have ways of detecting it so that we would know we had sensors and the wings
We added a maneuver. We do when we five to the space station did like a pitch over where we took photographs of the of the heat shield to see if anything got hit, so at least we would know, and then we could we could shelter in place the space station. So what there's a lot of things we do in the shadow, but the night, the thing about with dragon in Sand Starliner the new vehicles as they sit on top so there's, no any any phone that comes off the rocket is not going to hit you so problem solved so that that's one example of how not to worry about anymore now is the surf is different. This still have the same kind of tiles. The heat shield is, I dont really looks like in the future. Does that material on the side of the cap's on the walls of the castle is is made as silica, so it it's it's similar to the details, but them there that did the material it's in the in the heat showed itself in a blade of material means it s kind of like, as as it heats up at flakes off, and it takes to get away with it and that's that's kind of more similar
you like it was during APOLLO, it's a much more advanced than they call. See that we go. There would give us a tour. I bet Wigan about wig Mobility policy, a spaceship. The guy should, as was my boss when he was here here we are talking about- are the shit you know he's got the keys to the factory, but but there there she is on on the launch pad so that white stuff at the top on the capital itself, that's kind of like the same eternal is the. As the time as the tiles, but the heat on the bottom is- is called a peek, a fanatic impregnating carbon of later. So it's a different. It's a different, very high tech material. That is really really good. It was standing tremendous meant that that he childers Way oversized
You could use that thing at least ten times, and it's really was originally designed for Ashley Entry is coming back from the moon. When you go in much faster and he hit you build up a lot more heat when you hit the atmosphere, then just coming back from the space station. So ultimately that's the goal for these things to take people to the moon to take people tomorrow, to take people well and reusable right. This is just a start. A reusability is key and his elements of this vehicle that are not reasonable. That trunk, you see the thing the cylinder below the capital is not reusable. We throw that away that that the second stage in the Falcon nine we throw away and Yo Elan hates that within the Holy GRAIL, is one hundred percent reusable but affordable reusability. Will you don't have to spend like it at a dazzling? others refurbishing it and between flights and we're getting there in the next vehicle is gonna, be the real. That's can be the real healthy. What we will we will get that holy. Rail what the starship that done that were working on now. So this is a topsy.
One can talk about what it is. You seem hesitant, just in a week we got a lot of development going on in, and it's not top secret meeting. That alarm went down to the press conference in front of it in Texas two long ago in windows showed what it looked like? Yes, sir, it is, one of the tests is called star hopper. So this was a beginning, This is a test bed to test. The engine did make sure that we can, but that's fake. That's real does, room that is common. That is nazi gee. I really that's the thing. That's the thing! Well now the real thing He's gonna. Look just like that. It's it's it's the aid. This is re testing the engine and the sensors in the electronics. What is that yet coming out of the bottle desert does that at that. The bottom is a. Is there as a rapporteur engine, it's burning liquid methane and liquid oxygen and in this puffs topical gets through there's just to keep pointing in the right way, and so that's landing now, yeah, my god. That's amazing us, and that is
may look out gently at lands. Do that's you like science fiction. No, that's I'll tell you that this thing, and I the guy's, a blue origin, Jeff bases companies get all kinds of incredible stuff on there during board. Twenty twenty is start, but it's just a start. Show me that again, I need to see that again and it is a vision. Out there that, then I want to see that thing land again that video of landing, is crazy. It's so crazy, though, does did the image, though to see it gently come down and perfectly land like look at that man that looks like some war of the worlds type shit, that's a Tom cruise movie right. There fly over earth and they were to land, my god, that's amazing,
amendment when you first talked about Lanni rockets on their tails is etiquette murmur him saying tat. We might do it just like Buck Rogers. So, of course you have some working with with with round more on this tv show workin on now. While that thing as possible as it were, but for people want to see this Jimmy, what is the name of the video, so people listening can go star Hopper, two hundred Fifty meaner star hopper test more than two million eight hundred thousand views seventy thousand years. That's amazing. Two main inner. Ninety eight, how on Spacex page so can go check that out. So that's now stage? That's net sticks out as worrying, so there can be a rocket and then that that thing is gonna sit on top of it or something like that thing and then we're gonna get both back
Rock it will end on its tail and then lying after goes off to the moon or even Mars. It'll come back and also announced Helen and we'll get both pieces, we'll get hundreds sent back wow and then we're really got reusability got in and hopefully it will be a huge uses. One liquor your times. At least now is there any innovation or any breakthroughs in fuel in in the type of propulsion systems that you need me. Nor did it conceivably as are ever gonna, The time where we have like, like a star wars, ex fighter, they can just go shoot off onto its own In others, there is potential for more advanced, more efficient thrust engines and and We want the most promising ones and the new term is actually a nuclear engine and Nuclear Thermo Rocket, where you, instead of using combustion to propel.
Hot gases, out the back of your nozzle, you actually using nuclear reactor, and you take hydrogen new flowed over that a heated up like super hot and she led to back without letting it on fire. And if you do that, you can actually get much more thrust at with much less massive of fuel like a smaller fuel tank, but more thrust overtime So that's one possible way to go. So it's conceivable that one day it could be a stand alone unit that doesn't need thrusters. That eject I would look like a regular rocket cuz it. The background of the nozzle still have like fire come out the back, but you just be superheated. Instead of letting on fire to heat it up, you would do with their you got there. We go here in nuclear propulsion, NTP nuclear thermal propulsion so the top one is traditional and the second one is the nuclear one. Yet as says yes so rights there there, it is ass. The hydrogen culminate in flying over the reactor
Instead of having liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, then you just all needs a liquid hydrogens wow, that's one way, but in is short term. Given that the advancing their without STAR Hopper is that is still traditional chemical propulsion rockets got of fuel and oxidize or which is liquid oxygen because no oxygen up there to have fire? You need the pyramid rights, indeed the oxen, in an that fuel and spark, and you have to bring your own oxygen appearance base because you can't use dear you know have demonstrated so you carry liquid oxygen and some fuel and in a foul connive, for example, it is basically kerosene. Its is rocket. Fuel bids are p one, but is basically kerosene. It liquid oxygen, the engine you saw that STAR Hopper is advanced indifferent because what it uses it still uses a good option, but instead of kerosene it uses liquid method.
And is actually not as efficient. Quite it didn't have a quite that the specific impulse, which is a measure of efficiency, doesn't have it quite as good as hydrogen is better than kerosene, but not quite as good as hydrogen, but here's the thing you can make it on Mars and that's why we're that's? Why has been an engine because you can go to Mars, you don't have to bring your gas to come home. So that was the big now I'm going to Mars for the longest time was that you'd never be able to return. You do you have to have to wait two years for the trajectory for the plans to come back around say about a window to come home, so you do at the stay awhile, but that the beautiful thing is, if you can go, someplace and and gas up again fill up your tank without having to bring all the gas with you. That's huge right, you can. You can be so much. You can carry so much more
way, and unless you can, with carbon dioxide, it's in the martian atmosphere and the water. That's in the ice sits on the surface of Mars. You can have a reaction process by that allows you to create two to take those two things make liquid methane and you can have the attacker that ready to go and all done, robotics early, you can get the telemetry back We got the gas and then you go now. How much are things can accelerate? Now that you have all these different companies competing against each other? Das was beautiful, as is the pace of of of technological changes like really goin exponential, again just kind of like it was during APOLLO. So we're back onto that really rapid that fast track. We kind of fell off for that. For a little while and the nice thing about people ask me there was a big difference between working Spacex and work at NASA out, say bill is decision speed, because we will make up our minds quickly now. The reason we can do that is we get tremendously
agility cuz? Sometimes, when you make up your mind quickly, you make the wrong decision right, but if you hurry up and figure out that you made the wrong decision and have the agility to Dan say: okay, that was not right. Let's try not something else. Then it works Nasa, you know we had all these contractors and suppliers and in a very cumbersome kind of system that we took a long time to make sure we made the right decision, because changing things was prohibitively costly, but Spacex doesn't have to worry about. Now. What is the difference in the way Spacex's handling it? You said Boeing has something: what are they called again so nice as his commercial crew program and they selected to commercial companies to partner with Spacex and those Boeing is using. An older rocket to spin ran along time called the ATLAS five and they build a capsule to go on top of that called the star liner, and so this is strictly for commercial flights. Well, it S. Meat is fort. It is good that the
anchor tenant if you well, that the core customers still NASA cause. Nasa's gonna use both of these rockets to replace the space shuttle and we won't have to beg the Russians for right. Anymore, then issue at the Boeing. One looks like what's the name of it again, star, liner or you'll, be called the sea as tee. One hundred mm see with the sucker, looks we Scott Appeal S, one hundred zero relating but where to go right to give vehicle. Ok, so it's kind of similar in design a little bit, It's the way, let while Fredo AIR one key differences, it lands we splash down in the water, and this one. Lands on land with those airbags, while one of those bags don't work, does it
Is it fill up like the way they use rovers on Mars, word surrounded by this gigantic airbags and bounces wanna hit the ground. It doesn't bounce cause. That's not good for people of robots, don't mind, but if you bout like that, you're gonna be really upset, so it just hits and a guy like airbags at the a car, they deflation in your done, and so this is on the same short timeline as the spaceship yeah figure there. Dirt ethics basics A spectre is really ready to go like in March, like very soon I think we're gonna wait a little longer cause you're talking about extending the mission for Bob dug in keeping among the space station, so they need more training, sorry Bob nor they get, get to hang out in space for a while, then I'm not too, I don't feel too bad for him, and their equipment is keeping them from losing all the bone density and muscle. When everything we had a big fine when does Dizzy Longo to space Well, how well do you have to have the system work in before you put the boss and capsule shoot him? Often in the Heavens, ISA
a lot of work to do here, so I don't think he's gone anytime soon, but dumb. He does eventually when one when we get this up and does eventual wanna go. He talks about it, The die on Mars just now impact boy. Now that the said that Turkey is so that's that's now he says about that really does wild. Die on Mars. I give early old. It was a go in with the rest of his days as part of a permanent martian, counting Paw Ilan. I gotta talk to you this, but he's not going to tell always thought that way. As always, when the plaza always but maybe indian of high. In effect that reconciles sieves like TAT, he's gonna way is that could be the first one is gonna. Wait till we have egg preserves air and some Chino and I get a decent hotel, and so the. Concept? Is terror forming right? That is, that's not gonna happen.
I think, even you and we'll tell you, that's not going to happen in his lifetime. That's something that, like generations, for now we can think about its that's that's hard soda. Some sort of a domed civilization like what yeah we'll get a live in some kind of pressurized compartment, so kind of pressure habitat, so it beat conall like science fiction like what do you see in science fiction? Things were ships, land on planets and people live inside the ships and he can't go outside monsieur suit this, where suit while, but over there be plenty, the pony room inside. If one system grossly really big, we all have to make sure, is really really well protected from radiation cause, even when you're on March, at the way, but does GC artisan yeah. I didn't have an idea like nuclear caps, Gallic Newt, the solar PA, polar TAT, yeah, you know it's not like anybody really sit around drawing up plans for them,
That, though, is kind of like like. If we had to do it, how could we do it? There's one thing: you know that came off the top of his head, but it was those raise a temperature of change the atmosphere, that's like knelt, the captain and inject a lot of gas into the atmosphere and impede up the martian atmosphere, one a weird role: the dice. That would be a good return any then. What is the concept like in terms of terror forming what kind of window of time would it take to turn that it livable environment,
that you started a really extrapolate out pretty foreign, be pretty hard for me to give. Yet I why that is like a giant leaps of technologies enough to take place. That's that's a big one, but it's as proof of concept. It's it's sort of a mean. There is a theory right. They can alter the atmosphere and Emily Mars has got enough gravity that if you could put enough gas into the atmosphere, would stick around Canada like it's got. It is possible, you makin it get to one atmosphere pressure, they fourteen point, seven p s I like we enjoy here, but might be enough now, and there are their gravity, is what percentage of earth as about third third mile, so you would a. U definite experience, a lot of the same issues that you have if you go to the space station, so if you want to go from Mars back to earth. Do a definite, be some sort of just period
That really interesting thing is that we know we have. Of data. We know what happens in zero g because we have a lot of us have been up to the space station and sky lab and mere, and all that and we have tons of data at one g cause us every day live in one g. We don't really have any data and between so there Russian is: is a half a g half as good, or maybe it's like? Eighty percent is good Brandt an end, and so is it linear or is it not linear? We don't know and that's why, if we send peopled and we live on on the moon or we go Mars. We live on Mars and we have did it. I kind of moon is about one slash, six of the earth's gravity, so we'll get points in between and then we can figure out. If this thing is this a lot of stuff that happens to you, they may be completely solved, but even just a small as the managing, but we don't know
you're saying right. We don't know air because zero Jeez an issue. We don't know how much of an issue one thirty years. Now? What about food like? What are you gonna do with food on Mars? Are they gonna have to us fly all the ingredients out. Everything out, which is their talk about me. Consider that long carrying all your food, If you bringing in all becomes mass prohibitive, you know you ve got to much in and out to amuse, you need that that much bigger of a rocket and adjust after while it gets. You know to the point: where doesn't work with all the future food for the rest of your life. Essentially, so it probably is talking about like living for a long time, a Mars or even deep space missions. We go grow food, so probably plants hydroponic really liked the Matt Damon Movie, yeah yeah, how realistic
that you know that movie is really pretty good movie yeah there was. I met the author together, both anywhere together, wrote the book, and I told them that I really didn't like his book. And using Why was it because, like does not really enough dynamic, sure in a martian windstorm to knock the antenna off the roof now found with, that was good. And have enough redundancy com system. That's not really really sick right now Why did you like it and micro? Listen I have a long day work Spacex, I come home. I open up the book before I go to bed and I'm reading this like hey. I got sixty two souls and I got a cover. Three thousand kilometers and I've got fifty two modes of hydrogen hydroxide Balboa, and I'm like it's like I'm still at work What I want I like some
Am I wanna go home rid of romance flowers on? Well? That's not his fault, though no was so you just buses, powerlessness, Bulgaria, that's it's interesting, though, that he got it close. Yeah yeah, hidden the great job. That's on a true I mean for certainly does have a background in them. Yeah. I think it is, and I am certain that makes more sense, but what that movie was terrifying, ideally gets done. Yeah. The only part of the movie wished, and it was in a book that was not realistic. It always when he cuts his glove and does the iron man. Oh yes, I fly back to the spaceship. You can't really controller that Jimmy how you spin ETA controllers ass, yet also need a big hole to really get enough propulsion and then your suit would defeat
It is not just knock and work, and how long would you survive out there with no suit cats? A good question to hold your breath this holy well, you can't really hold your breath because, as the as a pressure goes down, the first thing The worry about his barrow trauma so like in your lungs and in your sinuses and near it is all gonna like looking over inflated. Balloon of is that if you try to hold your breath, that's a wrong thing. The Duke Sea have to let the breath Breslau. There. You can only do that for very long now, like the way people hold breath and why are they actually have breath in their lungs yeah, but they're not equalising with the pressure as a goddamn? You know when you do those free, diving grass right, so
If you're going to equalize it you're going to have to let the air out or it's going to just expand and is be extremely painful and it hurt you, so you could do that. But then, eventually you get to the point where there was a pressure gets so low that the all the liquid in your tissues starts turning into gas It's called abolition and then you'll start gain is massive swelling, like your nickel will puff up my dad and ever that you get grotesque, swelling in wherever that their blood is turning to gas. And all the other liquids in your tissues are turning into gases. Is it's not a good? How long will it take before that starts happening? There will start happening fairly quickly. When you equalize f, you breathe out all that air you can counteracted by having squeeze suits like scoop suit, with mechanical counter pressure that squeeze it and hold it in, like a blood
the cuff kind of pressure kind of thing, so you could do that, doesn't some promising now you know, there's there's wage again, you can live through it, but it is we ve. Had this happen. People in vacuum, chambers, accidents, like industrial vacuum chambers and one test Chamber and NASA once had an accident and with momentarily subjected people too close to space vacuum, but very quickly got back to pressure. They were ok, saw the bubbles just guessing limpness shoulder now. What is the timeline in terms of, like does basics? Have more? Double stage timeline like a timeline for incorporating the dry. And crew and then timeline for the star Hopper and then Timeline for additional projects in the future, as is he
thinking along these lines of like of like charted out progress, oh yeah, yeah he's effect He he measures play much every major decision by whether or not it today, when we have self sustainable colony on Mars. Sooner or later does the prison by which he makes every like every single decision he makes. He makes it through the Prism trees so he's got an idea and he'll keep pushing in the now. He aggressive timelines that we have the were too, and we worked really hard to try to try to meet him. It's hard when you're doing stuff that this does is complicated to predict exactly how long is gonna take so near. We end up often fauna lobe of blind, but we do our best. That's the case, though, with everything that crazy right. No, amid specially Isla never rightness predictions of wacky inventions there a little off, but they think but video
Oh driven, you know any such a smart guy and unease is, is the most. He is really the most driven person. I think I've ever met I'll. Give you a story to tell TAT kind of illustrate once when it first caught her by Spacex. We did an interview with sixty minutes and day innovative element and myself awe and Scott Polly was there. And if it ain't there, he talked to us and he said to me: why did you leave NASA and come work for space actually have liked best, gig and a world? You know going up and rockets and stuff. Why would you do that and I am I said. Well, if you can go back in time- and you are a young engineer and had the opportunity to like getting under ground floor and work with Howard Hughes, when he was, I do and all crazy stuff, he was doing it in his day, which want to be a part of that. It's got. Probably look at me like with a deer in the headlights are cuz. I don't think he knew what I was Talkin
but I was like that's what, but then I realized as soon as I said that, like oh, my god, I just made a terrible strategic error. I compared my boss to Howard Hughes and know things didn't end up that well for Howard. You know he went crazy. You are kind of crazy became washed, his hands to margin german phobias in jars, unlike his fingernails grew out like yeah. And ass, a God now I really can stepped in right. You don't say there were the boss. Right So it took a allows months later we were driving, in a rental car, just the two of us in Florida. Had a mini at NASA and we're driving back to the airport again his airplane, to come back to delay, and I'm driving the car is sitting in the passenger. Seen as hey boss. Remember that time we're on tv, and I compared to their Howard Hughes. You know I just want to know. I was compare the young dashing starlit
eating Howard Hughes, not the old decrepid paying in jars fingernail solve other time lie, and I and when I got back with silence and I'm really scared right and sit there lay waiting from the sale of the in any land will do this and an eye he did. This anew show ride he kind of like if you, if you pose to embassies, question hill, consider it and how kind of guy into this. Almost like a trance austere off into space is in see the wheels turn in here like focusing of his intellect, which is considerable and as one question and that's what was happening. So I waited and any turned back to me said you now get down. I don't think it's an apt comparison, as o k could good. Why bomb cares. Why do you think that, and he said well-
none at Howard, none of Howard's designs as brilliant as they were, and that really changing the way. We live our lives, so we don't send like he made the disproves goose, which is an incredible airplane was all. Would you know trying to solve the problem during the wharf rationing is it we don't centred on our goods across the oceans and giant when an airplanes? We don't do that the each one race or is a beautiful airplane, but is a one off and everybody led to a large shirt designs that changed the way people live their lives, so that was his objection was not that, like I was comparing him to some creep, but that he wants is really important to him to have the legacy of drastically impacting away office live our lives are kind of the way Steve Jobs did her her others that that really move the ball down field for humanity.
But it's driving he such an unusual human. I mean there's very, very few people that you could make any kind of rational comparison to other than maybe Nikola Tesla plea really stop. It think what he's done here and the fact that doesn't, while simultaneously, that is involved in a boring projects involving Tesla and space acts all simultaneously and Tesla Hall. Solar other that solar animals in the making solar tiles for roofs, and upon his jet and he's at Palermo in a couple hours, and he can be first thing in the morning. A Tesla like it. I don't understand how he does it yeah. I seen him do it and I still don't understand it. You know it's like I'm kind of Burma's of Just trying to do one of those things. Tat is all of em and aunt em, and he does all the advantages of wealth which helps you know, so I kill have meetings with us and how,
walk out of his last meeting in her walk across the street to Hawthorne Airport hop on his jet and he's in Palo Alto. In a couple hours- and he can be first thing in the morning- a Tesla he's got a staff to help someone. You know he's got those advantages, but he here that isn't in any way describe what are or that doesn't explain. Why is able to do what he does? I don't know? How does it to be us? well he's the next stage of humanity with people. Valverde he's he's like looking around us from the next spot. He's ok, I guess. I've got some ideas, yeah he's just an idea factory and ended he his it was really remarkable. The means is, is the breadth of his knowledge? I mean I've met a lot, a super super smart people, but they usually super It was more than one thing and he is able to have a conversation. With our top engineers about the software and that no the most arcane aspects of that
and they will turn to our manufacturing engineers and and have discussions about some really esoteric welding. Process for some crazy ally and and he'll just go back and forth, and his ability to do that. Cross all the different technologies ago into rockets and cars and everything else he does that but really impresses me, but also the lack of burn out cause he's been doing it at this credible rate. Sixteen hours a day for how long is our life? I think that's nuts and he still hungry for still taken on these new projects and new ideas and their pace seven years is a bad is as much as I could take us like. I need it, isn't mouse yeah, just don't you know. I mean I ve happy exists. But it's is very confusing to me. I just feel so stupid when I'm around him conversations I've had with them, like God, damn I'm dumb?
do what you gotta do is what you got nothin. I will go that far so his his ultimate goal. Is to create some sort of a colony on Mars, but he Believes that this technology will continue to expand the point move. We will be leaving our solar system, we will be making human trips into other sources terms into actual deep space yeah. We certainly hope we that's at some point if we to survive? You take the really long view in other solar systems, not gonna. Last forever right is going to last plenty long in my kids are listening. At home. Don't want a friggin, our usually a three year old data and we're gonna die. Now we got plenty of time couple billion years, kids relax not in our lifetime, they so funny, but but eventually we're going,
to find a new home if we're going to last forever and we all hope that we last forever as a species right so others most of us do so you have mentioned. We gotta get there, but we get plenty of time and in it, in its short term, new important things at least guinea out, so not in just one place in the solar system, because, as you know, something bad happened to this planet showing we got no backup right, particularly if there is a natural situation. Super volcano supervise, attract more, you know we're going to privileges, tragedies place all around me ass. We don't really need an extra to hit us we're we're gonna, go down the road of of making displays an uninhabited well, what we need is someone like Ilan who concentrates on the solutions. I mean he's hours obviously got a full plate, many full plates, but someone like him to concentrate on solutions to some of the environmental problems that were created for ourselves here. Well, that's really, that's. That was the thought
Tesla I mean so so. Tess was kind of like playing a save. This planet in space x is kind of plan b. If you look at it that way, just so weird to have a guy like that amongst us, now, especially hammers, your boss, israeli, we did you talk to him at all about simulation theory. We never thing is when every time I talked to him, we focused on- and this is what he does. He focuses on the thing that we are working on, so you just that when the ways he does his time managed there's one always he is able to do other things as I keep doesn't sit around and and and and and bs with you about, like. What's going on with them was a neural late. The company wounds The chips are not thrive. Regard about that! That's usually does our image in the way humans Interface, with data in ever suddenly like Garrett, what you think, but haven't shipping you that night they ve. Never it doesn't do that. He talks of the people who really know about chips and view in putting chips in people's antitoxin them about it.
So he can to sign up for that now. Here Fridays. The expression you made no, my website got hacked the freak me out with they're gonna, put wires in your head yeah right as the idea behind this idea. Christ. It's probably gonna, be inevitable. It wants it happens. I mean I wanna be an early adopter, but once it does happen, and it really does remarkably increase the or your ability interface with data is SE the idea right ramps up the bandwidth in which people can, access, ideas and information can change the way we interface yeah. I may I could see it being
kind of our own extreme haven't have not situation. I think now how far behind your today, how left behind you are, if you have no internet access rights and then this is because this could be like in another, That yeah, I'm worried, I'm worried about that. I gotta things get me up and I get yeah me: what does it get crazy, nine year old and real real world problems yet to me. It seems like if you pay attend to the track. If you track technology, like words going things constantly improve, they constitute the wee wee demand, constant innovation and we're already wearing these things on her body and watch is now. A lot of people were in the apple watches in the Samsung and all the Google watches, and it just inevitable that somehow or another advances to a point where there's a chip or so thing you wear or some plate that they put on the back- you hadn't screw in
yeah, but anyway so black mirror, and I now back matters. The problem may not be good, I mean, but do have a sense of history that you are first volume amongst one of the rare human beings that has ever been in space and then who you're working for a company that is at the very Tipp of this fear of innovation like that you're you're, at the front of the line and too firms of creating viable methods of sending people in the space of returning them. I've. Strangely fortunate, you know at led to have that experience. I hadn't NASA and have the visceral experience incredible experiences of flying in space, doing spacewalk operating robot arms launching on rock and all that and then coming to Spacex and being there at in the relatively early days and and being there for seven years, I feel like
feel pretty satisfied at the sea. I got an incredibly lucky to see these things and be, in a room where it happens, you know it's, it's pretty remarkable now. So now I'm among now I'm stilled consultants, basics, but I'm a full time. Professor. You a sees an M teaching and also working on tv shows and now, my taking that those incredible where are? They had opened up a lot of other doors and I kind of like, for example, work and work. And is to be sure I found myself I can, in the writers room with a whole bunch of really talented creative people. When is no one in a million years. I what this would ever happened to me if it weren't for these incredible experiences. I was lucky enough to have it Isaac jackets. Even that gets really surreal. I can Imagine I mean I can only met. You mean especially coming from your childhood, haven't that image. Your wall and now really being a part of this massive change in the way human beings
to be able to travel in space yeah what is tell us about the tv show you were talking about it off air before we started yes This is for all mankind, it's on Apple tv and the way I got involved. With this thing. I was a big fan about Galactica that the re too reboot was awesome, was also underrated. Addressed science fiction shows ever yeah is like an early days, a kind of lake Peak TV. I guess- and it was I come. It was just so good, I'm in the writing, was so good and the whole concept and area all the other things exploring an in science fiction, is always as best when it's like an allegory in the way they explored things that were happening in society. Like terrorism and stuff, the way they were able to depicted as an aside in an alternate universe, I thought was suspect: a Yes, a brilliant, brilliant show some watching it on the space station, which is
the best. What do you use an ipad or something like? How do you think store ordered zero tv up there, there's no tv, but there's we have all these laptops assent of files, and you can you can give him like four shows that you, like hollows, take for a show that download and space whether they didn't but a four year, which is nice wire. Why your work and then, when you, when you ready to watch you just pop up the file solely like a satellite, can inaction, internet satellite, its kind it it's it's a key, You bet system that goes to satellites that aren't partner. It necessarily so called teacher satellites. Are the data goes up to teachers in Indiana, ground stations to white sands, and in so we cannot ban with you getting What's your late night out, remember the numbers, but we weren't getting when I was there. We everywhere getting live internet, because all that ban with business used for science to and other data from the experiments in a video from can't twenty check your twitter,
and now you can now can now just missed that terrible. Yet as a family, that's fine In spite of distraction, they're, just Google search at random things resource, we do need jobs space here, so you you get. These shows in your watching battle, STAR glad to go on your lap unless it Bassa Gretta, Kobe, Rapport daily, show and like New York, Yankees Games there's so much wow what you don't watch the Yankees Games real time, pre prerecorded still, though Let's just that, I was a nice like make a bit home that I would play the radio broadcasts. While I was working in it just in the background Last year the crack at a bad news came again space, but he still could have connected, That is something that will go on in a movie some guy work about Aspasia in the movie is listening to a baseball game. Go check. Three balls to strike tat does not pay every
He does seem very like some Classic George Clooney movie about space, Israel, man, how that has real, so surreal. The Euro a guy up there. With a laptop I mean you at best, so much about our like now in the final season in their like finding earth, I'm like it's right there year, you're in spaceship. How many people watch bows Toggle Acta, while in a spaceship you might be the only person ever well. My command, who was watching. It is easier to but it. So they ask you, like other any celebrities, you like to chat with wire up there and it will go out and get them for you that kind of morale hosting powwow. As I said, I wanna talk to IRAN more and David Ache with creators about a startling. So we have this great Skype session, why that is so cool and its well before going to mention this when we are talking about. You know signs,
fiction in science fact and how this is crazy feedback loop about you, gotta think about it. First, I can go back and look at two thousand one, and you see these guys using tablets in nineteen. Sixty wasn't eighteen, sixty eight that movie came out, and you know Steve Jobs saw that and said I want to make one of those and so this is crazy, like interplay between fiction, in fact, and- I got to talk. There are more about all this and in any invited me to come on the set for the for the final episode of Battle STAR and you're, not supposed to like the first thirty days. Your back from a long duration mission in asbestos like go anywhere. And am I gonna look? Don't shoot does what's up its two weeks, I'm going in the last time I checked. This is a free country and in echo stop me so I went and I went away of the to Vancouver and I got to go to set amid all the cast. I got to be a focus polar on the cap.
We're going to do that that that sticks in o awhile. I just had a blast They then it may be an extra colonial marine in the back of a ship to gets blown up, I'm sure that show super competence to make, but I would love to private back I'll. Do People appreciated enough because it was on site by which is not the most Popular network in its also reboot of classic show, so maybe it had like a bit of a stick to it, but that was so much better than the first version of experience a fucking show it's really intense us. It's really really well made of EV. Think about it from the plot to the acting it's it's sensational as my favorites I show of all fear me to its blasphemy four star trek fans. But it's really good. It's fuckin good man. I mean you, so have it without star track? He couldn't have it without the original barrister Galactica, but the other day in Vienna, are gonna, build on each other and that's what answer
run. One often did outlined or after that and now- he came in one day. He calls me up and he says I got this new idea. Can I come by so we can get together and maybe I can bounce the idea off of you, I like ya, so you can space access egg immature or the place, and then we sat down at the in the cafe and is it ok, so I'm sick! about doing to show about NASA back in like the seventys and become a like a period? Peace would be kind of like we'd, have a castle characters but they're all Workin on APOLLO and it would be true to real life, but it would be the drama of the people behind the scenes sounds pretty cool Yeah. I'm also time around with a slight twist that, where we use an alternate reality and in his in reality things we start at that point, but things turned out differently, and we start talking about like how close the Russians were to actually beating us to the moon,
not a lot of people know about, but when I was over there in Moscow, I got to see actually there and they have a warehouse where they still have their lunar lander, for example, that they built they were really working hard on it. So we started what, if like well what, if the Russians got there first, what would it what it would America than? How think how things be different today If that seminal moment of kneel and buzz stepping out on the moon, was Stead Alexei Neon off cosmonaut, doing it and has tat his genius and has a good I thought I want to see that show that like a great premise and he pitched at the apple and they bought it and any call me up is over you. Wanna work under show ya, yeah so? What is your role? Would you do their technical consultant and one of a cup, We have a clever of another group of people about people they help out too, but I get involved in like everything was in the writers. Room were first come up. A basic ideas and sketch out, like me,
double seasons and character arcs in all our countries, and I got to get all the scripts. I read them all on a give notes on the scripts and then they come to the set night and meet with the actors the cast. I give him the suggestions about like how to look real when they're in space, and then I like work with the Vfx guys. I work with a stunt team. I get phone calls from like people like padded at what a lady's do at their hair? If they have long hair, when they do a spacewalk, unlike you can't buy back and ask a friend rights, so so all necessary so much fun. For me, it's like you know you know how, like you, can pay a whole lot of money and go to fantasy baseball camp delta and, like you get too like they have banning practice with the Dodgers or somethin, and they whom you, because you paid a lot of money, is kind that you dumb for them to say on like in.
As ever get out here go back to your day, job in our, but, unlike like I'm, just loving it that's wild. So how much correcting do have to do? How much do you get the get the that that doesn't happen, that you can't do that? That's not it to pay and in every productions different the nice thing about for mankind as a really really want to get it right. I've learned and other projects where they say they want to get it right, but then they like completely bluff the laws of physics and end. You know I'm ok with that ocean with the hand cutting thing tat could, at the end of the day. I guess this is some students. Nobody goes to see a movie for the orbital mechanics. We go for that, story, the carriers that our hair, but it's hard, if you're in it, spread and something to watch a movie. Who were a foodstuff stuff doesn't make sense. Dear light. For me, martial arts movies, martial arts moose do dumb shared among come on.
In our or if I watch a movie about a pool player, and I can tell it, I can't really play pool, I get upset so for you when you watching something like gravity right. There was a big one lot You ve got really ignored Erastus. I know I hate it. He hated the hated when I liked it promise now that I have this job now get more per snickey about. I'm sure now much earlier. That's not right where everything the gravity, the hair, the asked- and I care though, like I know when I first saw gravity I loved, because it was a good story, it was a grip me and but you knew that those space stations were not close to each other, their inclinations. The orbits a totally different. Isn't it you're going to go from one to the other with a fire extinction? I knew there was complete bullshit I'll, give you that believe, treating I like your a moron. They treating you like, there's no way you you'll be all the resources, but somebody like you, someone, like you that's your life, so you know that nonsense. You sitting there watching some hokey,
a solution there for something it would never work. Yes, if it gets the point where, like but ass, a beautiful thing about lake? Doing this television. Is you dont have to actually be right, just had to be believable, which the bar is like when I'm teaching my class at USC, I gotta be right, but, I'm like. Maybe this could happen right. You know what the tv show it's easier, but this tv show you're just saying that really want to try to get it really do cuz, it's it's really important to them, and so yeah I've ended up making like wholesale changes to episodes become like that, the original idea. I try very hard not to interfere with their creative process. Desserts- really really good at that, and you know that worthy but, unlike YO, can see what you're trying to do. You want this gotta be the hero you want.
Person to feel remorse. You want this in the end. In the end, over the course of time, this person has a change of heart. I get to story, but what, if, instead of doing it? This way? What if the events occur like this cuz? This could actually happen right, and so I try to change it. It is one like like episode, nine and limited episode, ten of seas and one we ended up certain. I additives that new working very closely with the right nurse and changing all the technical content to fit to make the story work in a believable way, and that went when we that, in any see it on the screen, is so incredibly rewarding. It's really fun. There must be, especially as someone is a Sci FI fan: Would you ve had to dream lives here therefore, really incredible that you ve, from that from NASA Spacex and now to be able to create television shows you can actually ensure, while One thing I wanted to ask you about space: is we will here stuff about space junk about
satellites in just junk- that's floating around the atmosphere, how much of concern is that in what could be done about that stuff, It's a huge concern, it's a very, very big problem in in in certain orbits running lower earth orbit and also at the geostationary orbits there very that's where you could put like communication satellites and stay over one spot of the earth. Those are very polluted. He knows a lot of junk and it is very dangerous and it's it's. A real problem is hard to clean up over time event We even even higher out are still a little bit of atmospheric individual Adams. Eventually, that's rose you down, those collisions adventurous lay down so eventually comes back, but it could take a long long time come back to earth you mean yeah back no burn up, so the most important things don't make. Any more junk did the best. We can.
And we're getting much smarter, they get space if we take our second stages and Osborne s emissions and after it after we its accomplices mission, we keep enough gas in the tank to Bernie into one more time and bring it back in one piece, so doesn't blob into some. The means and cause more junk whenever we do at that satellite test, though, check that China did one relatively recently, and we ve done in the past- does like the worse because they create giant clouds of of junk and and we have to still wish to have to live with that, Is there any concepts on the table for how to do it as tough out some ideas of using lasers, Dayton, lays the things and and and and makes subtle changes to their trajectories and orbits. But it's all its other technical solutions are challenging, inexpensive centre.
Many one idea: that's gonna like to solve this problem easily because we ve seen the map of the earth and all the different satellites that orbit it now and all the different jumpy pieces of junk that have been identified. It's crazy, yeah the amount of stuff and seems like nobody can thought it through they just sort of did it the junk up there in as well. Humans do man, I mean, like we ve, been dump and stuff in the oceans forever and that really giving much thought to it now or funding giant jars of plastic or them in so yeah. We tend to not really react until it's a really big problem, but it's a big problem and then, when I did my first spacewalk one things we had to do was how to bring in his hand
They were going to use in a subsequent spacewalk. It was like it was Scooby CALL Adi handles just basically a half inch piece of aluminum around like this, that you can attach to something and carry things, so that is big chunk of aluminum and we brought inside of my facebook partner. Rick looked at the thing when we came inside the whole shot shot straight through it. A millimeter in diameter is really small, but it went right through this half inch thick solid aluminum. You look at that. You said man if they hit one of us and he didn't have to finish that statement cuz if this stuff is moving generally speaking about ten kilometers per second says like roughly ten times as fast as a rifle bullet. So if something like that hit you, it could be a flock of paint hit. You that velocity, if it hit you in the suit you're in a hundred percent oxygen environment and you're just going to flame up, I mean you're going to instantly, can buses to be really bad day,
so you don't have to like you said you know when he said that even have to finish it and we both looked at it and then I looked at him and said yeah, but you're, six foot, four, so stats. Equally motion, like he's gonna hit you more object and besides, I was kind of behind you most aware that probably overthrew him and ran through you to appropriate, and my thoughts were so crazy about, as is so much of that stuff up there I'm always wondering like. Why doesn't it hit the space station? What it does is a couple times I was inside the space station I heard is take a hit by this, but so far the pink before I didn't hear that ping far by the air, leaving. So that paying is probably something bouncing off. Something are going through something so the station as shielding COD bill shielding in its basically a piece of of of a wall, a thin pieces.
Oh, that stands out from the hall. So the think his mail is never gonna. Stop this thing, but when a hit that hyper velocity it breaks up and tell us a little tiny pieces in it's almost like a fluid at that point is like these look like it that gomes a cloud of dust and then when it hits the hull does individual pieces, don't penetrate so just adjust adders it and that without works would have it it's a window. It has is hit the shuttle window. You know with this, it has multiple pay. Then it's really really strong, but we came home with big. It looks like like when a Rockets kicked up in it takes really. If we ve seen that wow Nettles Gary Jesus Christ, the little what about micro, meteors and things along those lines? depending on where you are so in an earth orbit, there's much more. Of man made junk dinner hour micro meteorites, but there are those too
when you get out away from earth orbit like if we're gonna go back to the moon, then is no more human made junk, but there is those micro meteorites still out there and that they can do the same kind of damage, but there's a lot fewer of them. The density of those things is as a lot less, experience, so it's if you're, if you go to Mars I'd worry about the radiation first in the micro meteorites, like analysed, seems so many things to think about, and this is all factored into it I was in China while a lot of these things are. I can't cancer. Accurate Spiers season. One is available right now it is going to talk about that, but season to reality given despoilers or anything. I like you deny that idea that some of these concepts and up and listen It's been a real pleasure, haven't even here man. I really appreciate you come in here and talking about the stuff and develop
the three amazing lives, a third one right now. It's you ve had a pretty go into man now this has been a real honour and a real pleasure says it on his mom and thank very much so one more time for people. It's available right now on Apple tv for mankind. Mankind, and if people want to find you in social media Dave yes, everything! You can go to my website Garrett recent that come! Thank you and then on twitter and his two Grandma Astro G Dog with two thanks for the procedure being here, my pleasure. Thank you. Buyer buddy. Thank you for it. Turning to the show and thank you to our sponsors. Thank you, too. Legacy box get started serving your past today go to legacy box, our com, Slash Rogan, to get forty percent off your first order, save your time and your memories, gotta legacy box, dotcom, Slash, Rogan and save forty percent Thank you also to Turkey to achieve a fantastic attachment at tat.
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Transcript generated on 2020-02-16.