If history has shown us anything, it’s that humans are easily motivated by fear. Just what some of those fears have been, though, is more than a little frightening.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Yeah the underground passageway led deep into the darkness. It had begun near a collection of small rooms almost like dormitories and then stretched out for over fifty feet into earth at the opposite end, a labyrinth awaited those who are brave enough to enter it and beyond that, the cauldron dont think of those little black plastic things that kid's carry with them on holiday, night. No, this cauldron was made of heavy bronze and it was enormous large enough to fit a groan adult. In fact, it was discovered in nineteen. Fifty eight at the foot of a mountain in western Greece, archaeologists, so terrio decorous, knew what he was looking for. It was a temple, no one any aid
times as the halls of Haiti's and dread per seventy, a name that comes to us from homers odyssey, or Adventurer Odysseus stopped to ask the prophet how to get home, and this cauldron was part of a temples offering. An enormous vessel that would contain water or oil, with a mirror smooth surface used to do one specific thing to peer into the future It might be an ancient idea, but the human Disease to know the future has never faded away Act as our world becomes more and more complex, it might be fair to say that we are more interested than ever before in what the future holds. Weather your browsing movie options or national best seller list. You never too far from concepts like time, travel or prophecies. The future more than anything else is what our eyes seemed to be set on.
so, of course, it makes sense that thousands of years of human history have led to the development of systems and tools that make it possible rituals and practices that are set. Two gift, the user, with a glimpse into the misty waters of not yet in hopes of guiding them through. The right now of history is any indication that pursuit of future knowledge hasn't always been acceptable, In fact, it's been seen by many over the centuries as a dark art with dangerous pitfalls. The play with the future is to play with fire, and the consequences could be tragic fortune telling it seems, might just get you killed I'm Erin Monkey, and this is lore
you never know. His father when he was born in December of fourteen twenty one that man was far away in France fighting a war, he would never win the transfer. their king Henry. The fifth was one of ink since most celebrated warrior kings and this new birth was a sign of hope for him. The child boy was his first, and only male air Nine months later, Henry the fifth was still in France and had yet to return home to see his new born son Henry his young wife twenty year old Catherine, was doing her best, she was more than just the queen. She was also the daughter of the king of France, Charles the sixth, so she was trusted by any one else in the court's around her.
Then, on the last day of August, in one thousand four hundred and twenty two King Henry died before ever returning home and in that moment that little infants became the youngest king in England's history, King Henry, the eighth. Not only that, but two months later, when Katharine's father died, he also became the king of France added. It was a lot of power to rest on the tiny shoulders of a boy who hadn't even yet begun to walk. As you might imagine, the events that far load were all mirrors of the worst parts of human nature. Relatives vied for position in various figures, try to take control of a kingdom that seemed up for grabs a rather than do that by going to war with each other and thereby tearing the country to pieces, they did it by wrestling for control The baby king, the trouble was his dead father had already settled that through his will at the same,
are the family drama were the voice to uncles John? The older? the two and next in line for the throne after him was the Duke of Bedford. While Humphrey was the Duke of Glocester. These were too powerful men who, until just days earlier, had been brothers to the king, but they had never been nice with each other and the new situation only made that worse, thankfully, the dead kings will was clear. John, became the senior regions and effectively took control of the kingdom. While the boy king grew up, but as the head of the kingdom, he was expected to travel to France and pick up where his brother Henry had left off, leaving Humphrey to care for the boy and that's how things went for a very long time The nobles all swore loyalty to the young king, Henry, the sixth and his uncle Humphrey, provided him with everything a child needed to stay healthy and learn what it meant to be a king and Humphrey was good at that. He was probably one of the most education friendly nobles in all of England, so yeah
Henry stood a good chance, but as he grew up, it became clear that he was different from his warrior. Father The younger Henry was shy, timid and disinterested in war and for a country that had been fighting with France for the better part of eight decades. That was The good thing so, as you might imagine, his daily life was rather tents and confusing. It didn't help that his to uncle Sir John and Humphrey got along more like children than grown men. Whenever John was home from the war in France, he and Humphrey argued endlessly and according to many historians, these fights often devolved into physical battles and when they couldn't settle their disagree. Minced themselves. These two experienced grown men would call upon their young nephew king to settle it for them by painting this immense portrait of chaos and personal vendettas. My point is: simply this? It was very easy for young, sheltered King Henry. The six, the feel out of his death, surrounded by self,
advisors, bickering, uncles and a royal court full of arcane traditions and rules. It's honestly, a miracle that he didn't just drop a robot of one of the palace windows and try to run away. Instead, he recognised that he had a responsibility to at least try, so he went looking for help in a field that today might seem a bit more unusual around that claim to offer answers when all he had were questions the world of astrology. astrology. Was it new, of course, even back in the fourteenth These it was already an ancient practice and, yes
For a very long time. It was tied to the other stargazing practice of astronomy, but only one. is still considered science today, those who practise destroy energy lived alongside a very fine line, though they have always been popular, but for the most part allowed to conduct their business. peacefully, but anyone whose work involved secret rituals and tampering with the thin veil between this world than the next well, they were risky to say the least. The renaissance, however, brought back into the light between the fourteen sixteen centuries, countless public figures became patrons of astrologers, looking for answers and guidance, common folk, nobles, kings and even Pope's all place their trust in the words of these fortune teller. So please don't think of it as an illegal illicit practice. The historical context here says otherwise, but there was a fine line, of course, was a small clause in a bit of english law from thirteen fifty one that made it illegal to
this or imagine, the death of a king and not just a crime but treason Essentially, astrology was totally fine. So long as the practitioners, Did not offer specific details about the death of a king? Maybe they believe that by putting those words out there, they would come true or perhaps even Sid during those notions was simply seen ass disloyalty. I have a feeling it was a bit of both regardless. That was the line, make all the predictions you want. They said believe the king out of it or else your guilty, Treason, which is what made Marjorie Jordaens so controversial, she was a wise woman who performed the jobs we might associate with historic, traditional witches she crafted charms grew herbs, worked as a midwife and, of course, worked as a fortune. Teller and locals gave her a nickname because of it. She was
the witch of I now among her many clients, rich and poor alike, was a young woman named Eleanor Cobham. She was the daughter of a noble family not a prominent one, which meant that she had a bit of means, but a lot of ambition and with it she managed get herself taken on as lady in waiting to the wife of the king's younger Uncle Humphrey, the Duke of Glocester, from there Continued her ambitious climb, Jim, heard Marjorie, though, which have I to make her a love potion and then managed to slip it into Humphreys drink. And while we could debate about how effective that might have been whether love potions, really work or if the active using one simply gave her the courage she needed to grasp for more. That's not important here. What's important. Is that a short while later she was Humphreys Mistress Eleanor had just moved up the ladder another step, accomplishment took took another three years, but in fourteen twenty eight, when the boy king was just seven Humphrey had his own marriage annulled in May
Eleanor instead it did it make her popular, of course, but that's not what she was after she was after power. And now after years of work, she was married to the man Second, in line to the throne, and she just kept climbing it for. team. Thirty one she was admitted to a fraternity that her new husband belong to a year later disappointed. As a lady of the garter, a companion in the highest order of knights in the kingdom, then in one thousand, four hundred and thirty five Humphrey legally brought her fully into his finances, making her co owner of his entire estate and finally, in one thousand four hundred and thirty six, she was officially granted the title of Duchess of Gloucester, and that's a lot to take in. I know so take a breath.
Think of it all this way, things were looking up for Eleanor from the daughter of a small time noble. She had clawed her way to the top mode of the side. You have to admire her tenacity and vision, but she wasn't quite finished just yet because in one thousand four hundred and thirty five something else happened. Humphreys older brother, John died, making him next in line to the throne. Should anything tragic happened to the young king, which prompted Eleanor to make her next move? Providing her husband with an air of his own and for that she once again needed Marjorie Jordaens help in the form of more charms and potions. But Eleanor was doing the math. There is a good chance that this king could even
get married and have his own air before she managed to bear Humphrey a son, it was all starting to look hopeless for her, which is probably why she reached out to a group of her advisers for help in navigating her future. One of them naturally was Marjorie, her beloved, which of eye, but there were two others, both men, Thomas Southwell, was the Canon of Saint Stevens Chapel right there inside the old Palace of Westminster, the other was Roger Bowling Brok who served as Eleanor's personal clerk. Both of these men, though, were known for something else, something darker. They were infamous as astrologers and neck romancers. and that's when she slipped up, because, while potions and charms were fine and ambition was the currency of the royal court, she crossed the line by asked. In these astrologers, a very dangerous question, a question that would change her life forever. How long she asked will the king live.
gave her a dangerous answer. Both Roger All in and Thomas Southwell appear to have delivered this. sort of prediction to Eleanor the young. King Henry would become sick with an illness during the summer of fourteen forty one and he would never recover. Now, as we have already discussed, this was a bad thing. This prediction painted specific details of what was about to happen to the king and followed those details through all the way to death. If someone were to look up the meaning of the phrase compass, and imagining the death of a king woodcuts of self well in bowling would serve as adequate definitions and natural. word about these predictions spread. They run through the royal court like a low level earthquake and eventually reached King Henry's own ears, and his response was surprising rather than dismissed. The rumours he simply hired astrologers of his own asking them
see if they could provide an alternative prediction. It was clear that he was shaken by the news of his eventual death and was looking for a bit of hope As you might imagine, those new astrologers provided all the hope he needed telling the king, that everything would be all right in bold. By the news he had the rumours chase to their source and soon Bowling Brook and Southwell were in custody where they were interrogated. Both of the men fast up to the prince. since which brought official charges crashing down on both of them charges that sound like they were created at the intersection of folklore and the monarchy. They were guilty of treasonable necromancy, but bowling wasn't going down without a fight. He told the kings men that he had only made the prediction, because he had been asked a very specific question by Eleanor, the duchess of Gloucester at once.
The investigation shifted into a higher gear and the authorities began to cast a net to track down, but Eleanor wasn't on the run As far as I can tell, she wasn't even aware. The bowling broken Southwell were in custody, notion, is eating one of her lavish dinners laughing keen wine and enjoying the metaphorical view from her lofty position, but when a servant rushed in and with put into our ear. All of that came to a stop moments later She was running down the halls of the old palace to take shelter inside the chapel. Replant was relatively simple, hide out under the churches. protection there. She was only accountable to the church court, not the king and, while death might await her outside those doors. The worst the church could do would be far better than that What happened next was a series of very complicated events that I will oversimplify for you.
while Eleanor was being questioned by a panel of bishops inside the church bombing broken, well we're facing the wrath of the king. One of the key pieces of evidence that came to light during this mess was a wax figure of the king that was said to belong to Bowling Brook, and this figure was damning You see as an astrologer and Necromancer Bowling Brook would have known of the folk traditions surrounding sympathetic magic. The idea that if two things are similar enough, they will share identical qualities and characteristics and one of them The various uses of this principle was the wax figure, a procedure commonly found in grim wars of the era. The process was simple enough craft, a wax figure of the person you wish to harm or kill and then give it a christian baptism using that person's name. This was meant to make the link between them more powerful and therefore give the damage done to the wax figure, a greater chance of repeating it,
self in or on the person it represents in a lot of ways. Bolingbroke was accused of making a sort of voodoo dal, like we ve all seen you in tv in film over the years and the results were damning bolingbroke been caught. Red handed and the case was air tight. As far as the authorities were concerned, Eleanor however, wasn't as easy to crack. Instead of admitting fall, she had denied almost all of the charges against her. Instead, she claimed that shit only sought him and advice on how to conceive a child for her beloved husband, the question she also asked of her old friend Marjorie Jordaens, the witch of eye she was trying to help herself, but in the process, but a target on mergers. a short while later The other woman was arrested as well. Batteries do doom arrived with the discovery of a wax figure in her own home. It was described as rather melted and dismay.
Here and there was no way of knowing for sure who it was meant to represent, but given the circumstances, the authorities just assumed it was the king and that she had been melting it to make him ill. There wasn't much of it. Trial for Marjorie, although knowing how women of her station and occupation retreated in those days, her end was sadly predictable. She was found guilty of high treason and burned at the stake on October 27th of one thousand four hundred and forty one. Thomas Southwell died in the Tower of London before he could face. His own punishment is rumoured that he predicted his own death claim. That he would die in his bed and not by justice, a fitting end to unknown astrologer. I suppose but Roger Bowling Brook lived through. All of that, he watched all the poor figures in this twisted drama leave the stage one by one. Until he was the last man standing on November eighteenth, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. Thankfully you wouldn't have to wait long, for
Death to arrive later that day, he was drawn in quartered a phrase that many p, we are familiar with without knowing the full scope of that punishment. The drawn part refers to how the criminal arrived at the gallows dragged or drawn behind a horse Recalling broke his destination, was the execution site known as the Tiber tree, located close to where London's marble arch stands today. Once there, he was given a chance to cry out to God for mercy. Then he was hanged in front of the gathered crowd until just before the moment of death. wasn't an exact science and some criminals died at the end of the rope, but many survived as far as we know, Bolingbroke live to experience. The next phase of his punishment.
Still breathing. He was then dissembled be headed and then finally cut into four pieces. The quarters parts of drawn and quartered before those pieces were delivered to distant corners of the kingdom and put on display his head, though, would stay in London, where it would join those of other criminals. As declaration on the London Bridge, it was a bloody logic, and to a man who had done nothing more than answer a simple question, but it was also a first. It was the first time in english history that the full punishment for treason was carried out on a criminal or doing one specific thing for making a prediction
humans are predictable, it's a reality. That's been part of our world since the very beginning, wherever there is power held by the few over. The many fear and superstition have been wielded like weapons to defend it. We lash out at the things we don't understand. Yes, but the powerful do it when they feel threatened. This predictability of human nature is also what made the job of ancient astrologers so easy like an experienced hunter knowing Exactly which direction their prey will run when cornered, allowing them to be guided into the trap these fortune, Others may or may not have had a direct line to the divine, but at the very least, its clear that they understood what made people tick and then use that to their advantage. Not everyone. One out, though even Eleanor afterward Reading into the sanctuary of the church found consequences waiting for her two weeks before Roger Bowling Brook was brutally executed.
She watched as her marriage was annulled by the archbishop, because if He had been willing to manipulate Humphrey with potions, who was to say any decision, made after meeting her was voluntary because of this she lost everything, her titles, her wealth and her lofty position in the royal court. A week later, On November thirteenth of fourteen forty one she stepped out of the palace chapel. And into a street, surrounded by hundreds of curious onlookers to begin the next step in her punishment repentance this woman had once paraded through the streets of London, dressed in shimmering gowns was forced to walk plainly dressed and barefoot. through the mud and manure that represented her new station in life. She was instructed to carry a lit to pound candle from one location to another across town. Then, after three of those trips, she was taken away to Chester Castle, where she would begin the final phase of her sentence
life in prison even move around over the next few years. But by one thousand four hundred and forty nine. She found herself inside Beaumaris Castle about seventy five miles west of Liverpool. She died there three years later on July, seventh, to one thousand four hundred and fifty two poor and powerless, but one person from her life still managed to hold on to a bit of control. The witch of eye you see Marjorie had been a troublemaker for a lot longer than Eleanor had known her. In fact, ten years before her death Marjorie had served. Timing, and for some of the less savory aspects of witchcraft when she was released, she swore she never do it again, but that didn't last very long ass. She took on more clients and those clients became more and more power, for she met people like Eleanor, as well as a man named Edmund Beaufort, the Duke of Somerset. We know he was a pain customer, at least for a while but it seems that they had a falling out in the middle of that
this agreement, she predicted that he would eventually die in a castle. During the week that Marjorie was in custody and that wax figure was found in her possession. The court sought out other witnesses to her crimes, and one of the men who step forward was none other than Edmund Beaufort. Who agreed that? Yes, she was a powerful which and not one to be trusted. Marjorie, of course, lost her life a short while later, and I can't help but think that Beaufort believe that he had slipped free from her fiction about his own demise. He certainly went on living as if there were no dark clouds hanging over him, but you can't outrun your own destiny on May. Second, to one thousand, four hundred and fifty five Beaufort participated in the first battle of the war of the roses which took place about twenty miles north of London. In a process, the Duke was wounded
and in an attempt to save his life. He was carried off the battlefield and into a local establishment. Sadly, he died there from his wounds For those the knew about Marjorie S, prediction that he would die in a castle, his death came as quite a revelation, not because it happened, but because The building he died in wasn't a massive stone, fortress or the whole of royalty. It was just an in the castle in. One thing that is clear from today's tour: through the early life of King Henry, the six: this just how steeped he was in superstition and fear of the unknown, but as difficult as it is to believe
drama of Eleanor Marjorie Bowling Brook and all the others was just one of many connections he had to the world of witchcraft stick around. After this brief sponsor break and I'll tell you exactly what I mean. this episode was made possible by stamp stock. Come if you're, a small businesses. You're busy enough as it is either have time to deal with the hassle of going to the post office with stamps dot com. You can skip the trip never waste another dollar or minute steps that come with you print official postage right from your computer. So you can spend less time at post office and, more time running your business simply put stamps dot. Com saves time, money and stress for more than twenty years stamps that come here an indispensable for over one million businesses giving you access. All the Post office and european shipping services. You need right from your computer and get discounts. You can't find anywhere else like up to forty percent of: U S, p s rates and seventy six percent off. You p s, all you need is a computer and standard printer, no special supplies or equipment.
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Henry. The sixth anytime government passes a law that makes predicting the death of its ruler a crime punishable by death. It's pretty clear. They have crossed the line In that sort of environment and bore and raised on that fear. King Henry behaved exactly as we might expect, but there is more to it than that member. He never had a chance to meet his father, King Henry, the fifth, but he grew up around his father, stepmother, Joan of Navarre, she had married his grandfather, Henry the fourth back in one thousand four hundred and three, then even after he died. Ten years later, she was reported to have had a strong and friendly relationship with her stepson Henry. The fifth went sour in fourteen nineteen, though of Navarre, was accused of plotting, Henry's, death and rumours have used dark magic as her weapon of choice, but he survived and Joan had her entire fortune confiscated before being thrown into prison. It would get her
picture long enough for Henry to return to the war in France, but his death would change all of that. I mentioned earlier how his will dictated how his infant son was to be cared for and who would be regions while he was growing into adulthood, but it also called for a third thing. His stepmother Joan of ARC, was to be released and given back her fortune, After that, Joan was active and around all through the years that Henry the sixth was growing up until her death in one thousand four hundred and thirty seven. My point is this: Henry might have had a good reason to fear the power of folk magic because he spent his entire childhood in contact with the woman who had at least according to rumours, tried to kill his father with sir. sorry, but as amazing as it might sound, there is at least one more connection between his family and a powerful figure who threatened to destroy them. Remember his bickering uncles, John, the Duke of Bedford and Humphrey, the Duke of glass
Her well John spent most of his time as regions across the english channel in France bouncing back and forth as needed. Although it was usually just to settle an argument with his brother who had a bit of a chip on his shoulder, fourteen twenty, seven John headed back to France after yet another of those sibling spats it found the war flaring up with new life. A new for Military leader had arrived on the scene claiming to have message and mission from God, and this new fuel turn them. or portion of the century long conflict into a religious war. John Duke of Bedford, was furious. He was so close to the finish line. You that taking the city of of Orleans would signal the end of the war, but this newcomer changed. All of that and John was forced to withdraw his siege of the city Then, while he was trying to clean up the mess and find his rhythm again, the french of their new leader out into the countryside and began to Libya.
Town after town that had previously been controlled by the English, I think it's an understatement to say that things were falling apart for John and his english forces, and then they only got worse after that, but almost three years this is high things went for John Bedford capturing this military leader became almost an obsession of his all the more so because it was believed. Their actions were those of a heretic and a sorcerer, but in May of fourteen thirty in allies, managed to ambush thousands of french soldiers and found their beloved melody leader, among them. The trial was nothing more than a trap meant a trick. The prisoner into Self Incrimination church officials attempted to force theological mistakes, but it didn't work The end frustrated with all of the dead ends that kept popping up in their prosecution. The trials, hold on a more obscure heretical crime, not witchcraft across dressing crossed seen, because the military leader was a woman, a what
who wore the uniform of a soldier as part of her mission to lead french troops to victory a mission. To her she claimed by God- and yes, the utterly charges brought against her led to her being burned at the stake on May 30th of one thousand four hundred and thirty one, but no amount of blazing fire could ever erase her courage and vision from the pages of history which is why most people alive today still know her name. The maid of Orleans. Joan of ARC This episode of law was written and produced by me. Aaron monkey with research by Michel, Mute and music by Chad. Lawson more is
much more than just a podcast. There's a book series available in bookstores in online and. Two seasons of the television show on Amazon. Prime video checkable thought. If you want more lure in your life, I also make two other podcast, Erin, monkeys, cabinet, curiosities and unobserved, and I think you'd enjoy both each explores other areas of our dark history, ranging from bites iced episode to season long dives into a single topic. You can learn more about both of those shows and everything, Going on over in one central place, grim and mild that come, and you can also follow the show on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram, just search for lore pod
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Transcript generated on 2022-03-11.