Across the country, universities are being criticized over issues of money: from how they spend their endowments, to how they raise tuition, to how they award financial aid. Many students are feeling the pinch. They’re going into debt to pay for their education, or abandoning their dreams of a college degree altogether. This week on Reveal, we take a look at the bottom line for universities and students. This episode was originally broadcast on Dec. 9, 2017.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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From the sale of investigative reporting in p r eggs, this is reveal analogy. I want to start today,
By introducing you to someone who is behind some of the biggest headlines of the past two decades chances are you
heard of Dell Neck ripened, but you know his work. He was in charge of the missions that captures Saddam Hussein's and killed.
Osama Bin Laden here is our power player up the we go.
Welcome that Russia is an honour to have the presbytery bill the grave and is a former,
four star animal and Navy seal. His last military post was commander of the
where special operations command, and then he took on a completely different mission, this board,
and they hired me to leave the universe, your taxes system, even though I had no experience and higher education or clinical care, he went.
I'm commanding seal team six, two leading the Uti system, which overseas fourteen campuses, including the University of Texas in Austin, it's hard for him to shed that military scandal. You can just hear it in his voice, but I think you hired me
because for the previous thirty seven years I have been leading men and women under some of the most challenging conditions in the world. This is a speech said Mc Raven made.
In November of twenty fifteen, and it was a big deal. He was a big deal and so is his grand vision for the Youtube.
I well I'm some broad and bold initiatives, some quantum leap that will make us the envy of every system in the nation. These quantum leap would be expensive. This one would cost thirty six million. We are going to develop a collaborative healthcare in a prize that will leverage our size and expertise. The next one ten million are intent is to establish
it's a network for national Security system White Alliance so grave and leaves out nine big ideas, and when he's done, I hope you're bold gamble now in this old sailor to lead this greatest situation will be a winning an outlet for the years ahead and watching this vision unfold. Thank you.
Such was the unity systems governing Board is thrilled. They agree to green light Mc Ravens Vision, which will cost hundreds of millions of dollars. Then, just three months later, the Ravens back in front of the same board this time
talking about too wish to thank you very much in a German, the board.
I am going to recommend that you approve our tuition in fees. We have
some adjustments to our economic situation. Let me explain what he means by adjustments bill. Mc Graven wants to increase tuition by as much as ten percent. He says the schools need
money that is most of our tradition, and these are
well below the national average? The fact is, the tuition and fees are the single,
greatest driver for revenue. The fact is that
provisions continue to decline. So how can build Magritte?
proposed spending hundreds of millions of dollars on his grand vision and then three months
Later as students to pay more a lot of families across the country, arrest
The version of the same question as the cost of college keeps going up
That's why we re airing this episode from last year, when we tried to get answers, means a teacher and Matthew Watkins from our partners at the Texas tribute spent months, looking into what was happening in the University of Tax system and their reporting took
Hundreds of miles where all the big decisions are made in asking all the way to West Texas
you want to understand how a state funded institution like the University of Texas, can spend the kind of money Dilma Graven is proposing to spend. You have to come here, and you have to talk to this guy named return grandly. Is that upon check on your
on the other taxes and use it, but I had to ask:
like Richard, manages this plot of
and were standing on right now. Plot is probably an understatement.
Were actually standing on an oil field bigger than the size of Rhode, Island and Delaware, combined, Texas,
side all this land in eighteen, hundreds as a kind of investment for public universities. No one thought it was worth much at the time, but now the very
to wind up in this in the Permian base and which is now
the sooner the world for oil and gas development, as where everybody wants to base where a lot of money going. This one old, Pontiac we're in front of fully rocks. Like
she saw as it pulls oil from more than a mile underground thinking that slow creek and that sad, low, humming noise kind of like a sick, cello
I have a horror movie type, sound, isn't it.
I mean not an that's a Czech vow that you here,
the money generated here, goes into something called the permanent university fund, which will call the oil fund. It's worth two
billion dollars today and the U T system gets most of it,
the reason you t has the biggest public university endowment in the world, the monies supposed to last for generations, so you can't spend it all at once, but each year the oil fund generate six hundred million dollars for the Uti system. That's about as much as all fifty thousand Uti Austin student spend unto wish each year. So again, why
is the Youtube system raising tuition? It turns out it's a question. People are asking about colleges all over. The country
we'll come to order, welcome to the ways and means
besides Sub Committee, hearing entitled back to school, a review of tax exempt College in
diversity endowments for two hours in twenty. Sixteen members of Congress and experts talked about private colleges with huge endowments
hopping the list or schools with endowments over twenty billion dollars, Harvard Yale, Princeton Stanford and the fact that they get to invest all this money tax.
You suggested is one here solutions that endowment should be taxed? Yes, only large endowments president trumps tax reform bill aims to do just that. Some private colleges now have to pay a one point: four percent tax on their endowments trump talked about.
There's during his campaign. I'm going to work with Congress to make sure that is Europe.
Our cities want access to. All of these special federal tax breaks that they are going to make good faith. Efforts to reduce the costs of college spend their endowment on their students, rather than others
that don't matter, here's the thing
though, college in diamonds are, for the most part, a black box. Private colleges don't have to tell us how they spend this money
but the University of Texas System happens to be a public institution with a huge endowment, so we can dig through public records
figure out how it spends all that money, which is it
exactly what Matthew and I did,
It turns out half the money goes to the flagship, campus and arson
It also goes to building labs in classrooms. At the other you t campuses but alive.
It goes to things like the quantum leap you heard about in the beginning of the show
thirty, six million dollar healthcare project, the ten million dollar national security initiative- and this
one more one. We know we must,
To elevate our status, the world's finest university system, we
completing the acquisition of over three hundred acres of real estate of Buffalo point just report by miles.
Protection, but also the grave and announced the. U t system would buy a piece of land bigger than Harvard main campus in the middle of Houston. For two hundred,
fifteen million dollars all from the oil phone
let me put that number in perspective for those tuition hikes Mc Raven asked for would bring in thirty million dollars. For you to ask this law,
and alone cost seven times more in that raised a lot of ivory:
Let's get thirty, seven finance committee will come to order scholar all its January. Twenty seventeen immigration as a pretext.
State Senate, to talk about money. This is republic.
State, Senator, Jane Nelson,
we're going to call Chancellor Mccrae then
morning, the morning,
area. I almost right away. Republican senator Paul Betancourt brings out the Houston land by
Now that is a significant sum of money by any measurement than I am aware of this is I mean it.
One billion hours is a quarter vain hours. It's a big! The commitment of the way.
The fact that its along,
What I would offer to you is that the potential at this point has been more than a year since May Graven announced a landline and he's been
in four months. He wants to do something big in bold, except he's, never said exactly what
why did you buy this land?
and what are you doing with a jerk
We do not taskforce, we have looked at
some from others options for how we can develop this land in combination with a guy was joined. This answer doesn't
down? Well, with Republicans or Democrats, here's Democrat John Wit Myers,
don't think in all due respect. I don't like you give a day
the legislature flags
That is absolutely wrong
some thirty seven years in Europe or I'm gonna tell you of the military, but I swore knows discordant valley,
as to the United States are just all in misfortune. Domestic
I raised my right hand to do that.
Pretty well thirty, seven years
I went before long, that's not the issue this morning, sir, you just you said. I do not respect this bodies that he's mapping
sir. I recognise that your opinion and in our actions
actions you does do those tensions get so high, Jane Nelson has to step, and we know how strongly,
and for many of them go out, we'll stop right here, and I think you can certainly
Let us remember, I don't understand
The concerns that we all share, Senator with my has expressed
message during this. Grilling is clear: you can't cry poverty and
raise tuition while at the same time
then in two hundred and fifteen million dollars on a bunch of land, but my graven,
is to make one more argument. He says the
The fund is written into the Texas Constitution, which sets up limits.
A state can spend the money. You can give me
I need you to ask them: you can pay for capital projects like by land or
you can spend it on Youtube system. Administration costs utility
There is don't think they can just give all the money directly to students, but they use.
You will find a paper things like. I t, expenses and library, software at certain Uti schools,
optician their stay low,
the tuition has continued continue to go up?
even though the value of the oil fund has gone up by a lot, though
The fund is delivered hundreds of millions of extra dollars to the unity system. Students say they could have used some of that cash
My name's alley ruinous I'm gonna, be a junior. You t I'm studying electrical engineering we made up without.
It because a few months back, we put a call out on social media. We wanted to hear from students struggling to pay for college Alley, SAR message and she email me. She said it's been hard fer to keep up
even on little things like when you tell us and raise the fee for official transcripts from ten dollars to twenty dollars. I dont applied internships that require transcript cousin like and I have
Hundred dollar budget to go apply to jobs, alleys, grandparents,
are helping with tuition. Now she said
the download books, instead of buying them she's, move further away from campus to save money. Thank me
God was like. Is there any way you can do it in three and a half semesters, trying to figure that out? Don't things can happen? Alleys all,
is assumed, tuition is going up because state funding is going down because the
firstly needs the money. Have you heard of the quantum leaps.
It sounds like a really weird question: if you haven't heard of them like that, it rings a bell, but I couldn't tell you like what it is.
Have you heard of something called the permanent university fund? Now I explain what
Tsar, and it's a lot for alley to taken, because when you t often communicate with her, it acts like its poor like a hundred
recently the school even asked her for help.
Get ask students to donate work, exactly this
That's an email me like hey, it's contribute tea time, send us money and did you contribute? I did not. Actually they asked us to donate money, the Houston land by caused
such an uproar that Mcgreevy back down and agreed to sell it, but another
big chunk of oil. Money went to something that was meant to help students. It's called the institute.
Industry, transformational learning it is
education is changing, as is the landscape of industry and employment.
It is all about experience. I think in our
that really has a focal point. Its view
did he started years ago that can build,
the stone, the military since he became chancellor. We found its budget grew ten times bigger.
From two and a half million dollars a year to twenty five million dollars last year, Nina
I'll be institute asking for an interview. They responded within two minutes and she sat down with chief innovation officer Marty.
Baker Stein. Can you get me the the clear stance and what this place is
it is right now, and you went the brief history. Eridu both would be good.
Central capability. I get this sense morning enter team work on things like online classes for unity, students and digital learning. Software
I get the sense and thorny and her team work on things like online classes for duty students and digital learning software, but it still feels like a lot of buzzwords. For instance, there was this product called Tex, here's how Marny pitched it to the? U t system back and twenty four
my remit, that ecosystem is a beautiful,
gauging mobile first learning environment that will power adaptive pathways
close learner gaps and encourage learner strengths,
her size state of the art, content and learning objects. Deep integration with that
a million dollars on the Institute for Transformational,
When Marty made this presentation, the? U T, systems governing board had already agreed to spend fifty million dollars on the Institute for transformational learning and after her prayers
station. They agree to spend
fifty million dollars more all of the money would come from the oil fund, Marty promised Matthew and me a second interview plus alive.
If demo of that text product, but for months we didn't hear back
In the meantime, I got an anonymous ten, an email
mean that tax was practically unusable at low educational value. The tips
said the one university trying to use tax in its classrooms had abandoned it.
Then we learned Marny had resigned. Then we learn
her boss had resigned, and, finally, after them,
Three months of waiting. We sat down with another person had been put in charge.
My name is Steve Leslie, I'm the executive vice chancellor for academic Affairs, University of Texas system. We had some tough questions, first teeth and he was
the pricing we open with us is it fair to say that
I can twenty eleven when disinvestment was first,
allocation. Fifty million dollars there do
much of a business plan for sustainability also have been accurately menus.
But then another fifty million dollar allocation was made. You know do think that second, our
mission was made with the understanding that there does need to be a business plan. Now, though, the expectation was that there would be a business plan, but there was not the foundations of a business plan at the time that you either pot of money was put in place. It was, it was said,
Yet it is where it is right now. Steve did make a couple things clear: the institute was in trouble and it definitely wasn't getting.
It is where it is right now. Steve did make a couple things clear: the institute was in trouble
definitely wasn't getting any more money from the oil fund. We tried a
and to get an interview with Steve's boss, Chancellor Billina Graven. He turned us down every time, but we did catch him at a public meeting. Last
Now I ve got only a few more months Y gotta go catching her pleasure. There there's no questions raised United in the board. I ask where graven. If the institute for transformational learning is still worth the money as well
I think this simple organ have look at and I ask him
Why spend the oil fund on things like the institute in three hundred acres of land in haste
Are you kind of explain in defence of the choices of
that money should be spent, so I don't have an hour. Unfortunately, in the
or it is always looking out: how do we manage access
portability and an exceptional faculty, so that's it
Let him go ashore eventually report my staff and gets nervous.
We wanted to know how student steel about all this, so we go back to see Alley high Diane see coming with us again. What is it? What are we waiting engineering education, research center, but it's the new home for the alleged computer engineering department, so I spend all day here.
And its great. We walk inside to find a quiet room,
Tell AOI what we found since our first talk: they Uti system gets
six hundred million dollars a year from the endowment and they spend thirty.
Million dollars on financial aid. From that, that's
six percent of the oil fund money and you D leaders told us they.
See anything wrong with that. The way they spend the rest of the money still benefit students and
idea here is that we use this money for extra things. That's going to raise the profile raise the
prestige of the University of Texas yeah, it seems
like one of those things like when you get your tax return? You're like? Oh, I'm just going to go, buy a new dress and it seems like we have a voiced student concerned that there is not enough.
Funding for people who need more financial aid, and so it does seem like
a little bit of like
we have all this extra money, but it's not gonna go to your
that story was from as a teacher and Matthew Watkins at the Texas tribute allows changed since it first came out. Just
week after they had in December film a grave and announced that he be stepping down as chancellor about a month later he shut down the is due for transformational learning and just a few weeks ago, the utility
raised institution by as much as eight and a half per cent,
some universities with big endowments, have programmes to help low income students paper tuition. Others are actually making it harder for poor kids too.
Bored school there was advancing office
A cry like
felt more hope this in a moment in showing the cry too, and she was I I I don't know what to tell you that next on reveal from this
four investigative reporting and p r eggs from the centre for investigative reporting in p r ex. This is reveal a melody and am also
father of two college AIDS, kids, and let me tell you in the last segment when I heard all these people baffled about how some universities are spending their endowments, while still raising two wishing it really hit home because figuring out financial aid. It can make your head spinning, I'm just not that good with numbers. So, looking at all the paperwork, sometimes I just get overwhelmed and the stakes are especially high, because two wishing keeps going up and its people
students into two groups, those who know they'll go to college, no matter what and the rising number who may be forced to set aside their dream of a college degree, because the price has finally grown impossible to afford
Can I get the twitter leave these with Alfredo US eighty Medina blending with others,
at lunchtime in a crowded cafeteria at Coronel Universe and you
thank you have a good day and he's the kind of person everyone at Cornell seems to recognize. He's involved in lots of activities gets good grades,
always seems a beat, but Eddie is different from
most only other students here, his family.
Doesn't have a lot of money. His mother came to United States from Mexico and works,
of course. In her father is a: U S: Navy veteran neither went to college
but they pushed eighty to study hard and set his sites. High still paying for Cornell is a huge stretch for them.
I might have maybe one big meal a day, but I mostly snack to be completely honest, its
something that, like I'm, just become accustomed to to try.
Fit in with his wealth, your classmates. He wears what looks like a vintage omega watch.
Father gave it to me: do you find it
upon shot. I don't even know if it's real that what is kind of like eddies,
higher life here. Cornell doesn't want his friends to think he's. A charity case
keeps up appearances. I made a conscious decision to have something
take presentable when I can etiquette some financial aid both from the government and from Cornell, but it does
anywhere near as far as you might think that
more and more of the money for financial aid in America
going to a different kind of student, one. That might surprise you
higher education. Editor John Mark is from our partners at the Helsinki report. Brings historic.
Eddies majoring in economics, and on the day I visited him he's in a class on immigration. There talking about immigrants, stereotypes and popular culture and the professor
Tensions in old, loony tunes cartoon character. She remembers from years ago. He might not know this, but there used to be a cartoon character, called speedy, Gonzales speak and I've been involved, not war,
back in the day in a town like not anymore, so back in the day when went much,
Now, when I was younger, Eddie grew
in San Diego. He worked hard in school and got good grades, but he still never expected to get into a place like Cornell. When the acceptance letter came, he was
I get the envelope in its the big one and I'm like I'm sorry
The only get the big one Minos you got in his eye, open it up, for I read it all, and I broke
now my marked I started crying literally just now started crying. I guess I right on my mom
so you what's going on and I fatter down like Spain, it terrific mommy. I got in
but getting? It was only the first turtle now Eddie had to figure out how he was going to pay the more than forty three,
thousand dollars for tuition and fees his freshman year. It was my
more than his family could afford.
There was no way he was going to turn down the chance to go to a place like Cornell, so he got a job at sea world and studied every chance. He got
I would urge you to make funding, because I would never my Briggs immediately open a book but the money here.
It see world wasn't going to come close to what Cornell expected eddies family to pay. My family contribution was around twenty to twenty two thousand dollars twenty to thirty.
Doesn't dollars each year that, after the financial aid from the government and the university, and it didn't include books, supplies or Roman Board, his parents didn't have that kind of money. There d,
worst and paying two separate rents and supporting other relatives and
It was really difficult for me to fathom. Why was anywhere near that, and so my mom
Mom's way of doing that, should I hold the only money. I can get is from what I understand, like my life insurance and like I'm, going to get penalized for it, but sure I can help you with.
I was thinking of three or four thousand dollars and
my father had sold some of his belongings as well to raise money, rating retirement
things and selling possessions. Those are things you
only do once each semester,
he and his family tried to scrape together more money and Eddy took out loan after loan.
But by his junior year, even though
he's doing well in school, with a three point, four gray point average he'd fallen behind
in his payments, are my family got female and read it.
Sorry to inform you that you have been withdrawn from university, that you're no longer a student. Those are the fancied office and I decided to cry out. I just I like what what can I do. I like connected joining a semester off. Do I work- and she told me no don't do that as you'll make more money in it a large financial package. Ok who, like I've, never felt more hopeless. In a moment she heard the cry two inches, I I I don't know what to tell you that he's parents, poor credit, meant he had to resort to private instead of federally subsidize loans, those have higher interest rates and tougher repayment terms. He also got a work study, job and after a few weeks, was back at Cornell,
In the meantime, the university kept charging him late fees. You get here with the first.
Which I believe is stringent. Fifty dollars does sex.
She comes if you still haven't paid on top of this is feasible and nothing at around five hundred dollars. First student, like Eddie, three hundred and five,
De or five hundred dollar fees are a big deal. That's money. There
would have gone to groceries or rent and while it
charging students like Eddie for missing payments. Cornell itself is doing fine.
The university has nearly seven billion dollars in its endowment, and it's been running annual budget surpluses of New
Four hundred million dollars
Eddie situation is becoming more common, as universities shift financial aid away from lower income students like him and toward wealth.
Kids at Cornell, since two thousand and eight the amount the poor students pay.
The discussion on financial aid has increased more
four times faster than what the richest students pay
Coronel, wouldn't talk about eighty case with us or how it makes financial aid awards or anything else. So
We went to see, run Ehrenberg he's a Cornell professed
A few studies. The economics of higher education has photos,
his office of the grandkids he's planning to help put through college, none busy saving for foreign grim children so that they can go to the most expensive private college that they want to.
He says financial aid programmes do little to help low income families that want the same thing for their children with you're bright kid.
From a relatively low income families, your chances, Zurbaran role, will eventually completing college are much much lower than a less talented student coming from a wealthy family. I think we're not helping the right people go to college as much as we were sure. I ask Ehrenberg why this is happening. Lots
of higher ed policies, basically are built in a way that would win support for middle and even upper income tax payers?
so it's not only universities giving more money to wealthier families. It's the government too,
A lot of financial aid comes in the form of tax breaks. Families can often deduct at least part of what they pay intuition.
And they also get a tax break when they put money into five. Twenty nine savings accounts. Those
means of dollars worth of benefits go too far
please making as much as a hundred and eighty thousand dollars a year. Then there are private scholarships,
Eddies councillor in high school didn't tell him about scholarships from rotary clubs, chambers of commerce and other groups, but councillors,
fear schools help their students find those all of
financial aid and going to wealthier kids, who could probably afford to go to college without it like Alex Stake, of which an economics Major Cornell Cute. Can we ask how? How do you pay for college? My parents do among some financial aid and almost like a bunch of scholarships ISAF. My parents deal with all that. So it's really for the students like me that
a financial lady. You know it's just like a little supplement. Alec says he would have been able to go to college whether he got
and she later not pressure for sure. I definitely would have an. But that's the sad thing of those kids like need that to go to college
since Cornell wouldn't talk to us. We had a mile away too much smaller Ithaca College. It's on a hill above the town with a view of Cornell across the valley. Is it cuz endowment is one slash. Twenty the size of Cornell
but it manages to enroll a larger proportion of low income students.
Financial aid officer, LISA Husky, shows us around the office. She has photos to us.
She received aid and did well at the school family, eight or nine extra staff student.
Several on the wall I play for five, and you can see actually one that some some been quite successful when the rustling programmes
costs. Why colleges like Ithaca and Coronel, give growing amounts of money to people who can afford to,
their kids to college anyway, wherever you're sitting with somebody when they're looking for financial aid, I think they feel like they need it, regardless of the
come level, and so there are very few people, even more wealthy among us that can actually afford to say fund the whole education here at Africa. So I have talked with families who have well over two hundred thousand dollars of income and still find a challenging to meet the cost of school and instil may appeal for
funds. She said. Colleges like Ithaca need those families to come and pay at least part of what it costs to keep the campus going
Oh, they give them some financial aid to get them in the door say a college has
twenty thousand dollars to give away. It could give it to one poor kid and it gets
one student and no revenue, or it could divided up among five, wealthier kids and it gets five students whose families can afford to pay the rest of the tuition. I know people are often think that there's a bottom line.
But there is that bottom line is pushing college education even further out of reach than it already was for low income students, students like my partido she's, a
friend of Eddies Cornell. She says she gets what colleges are doing. Second business
have to make profit someone. So what are they gonna do find the one really smart, low income, catarrh, the you now, five Justice Helen,
and individuals to come. It's a hard balance
started life in the middle class, then her father walked,
out and her mother Lustre job. They moved in. With my ass grim.
Parents and Maya and her younger sister went to work to help support the family. I can't even
begin to describe how hard it was. I mean. I know it's really hard to talk about bad am when you have to help put
on the table when you're in high school. It does something to write, make
two very aware of their income. Inequality in this country, and unlike eight people, tell me that I should
I'm here, because not that I wasn't smart enough, but because I couldn't handle the amount of wealth that would be in front of me
My I was one of the lucky ones. She got enough financial aid to cover her tuition, but that
Cluj loan she'll need to pay back and
we still short by more than three thousand dollars a year for health insurance and other expenses and being poor at college
most other students don't have to worry about. Money has another consequence
can miss out on important opportunities like the prestigious pre locker.
Am I a got accepted two in New York City and I was,
excited hold on. They dont pay you it's that can't do it right
turn it down which students can afford to take unpaid internships for students? Can't
my last anything I meet up with Eddie again, and he takes me to his favorite spot on campus
Yes, we are in the Johnson Museum, Coronel University. On the fifth floor.
Is the asian gallery for from up here you can see all of Cornell Impressive,
emphasis spread out below
three building starting here to the second,
ass. It were the first buildings I went off these you to be dormitories action, Eddie likes to come up here, where it's quiet and think about how far you come so humbling.
And it keeps you going it also
may I you that this is a different place in language used to my rich enough. Eddie thinks that paying for college
shouldn't have been so much harder for him. Then it was for his wealthier classmates after
I'll colonels motto is any person any study, but he spent a lot of his time just trying to pay. The bill
It's almost you try to make sense of it by saying to herself that are worth highlighting
really socks, but I guess I'm getting the degree writin
It should work out that the pay off should be just about right
I constantly trying to amuse myself for that
the first element, still Eddie did manage to graduate with a degree from Coronel.
Is very last dollar to pay his last month's ran
our story was produced by MRS Fraga and reported by John Markets of the Helsinki report, a nonprofit, their reports on education. Since this story first aired Eddie has found a job with a social impact, consulting firm and he started to repay his student loans.
Which add up to sixty eight thousand dollars. There are some students like Eddie, you ve gotten the grades to get into a good universe. They may even be able to afford the tuition, but schools in their home state. Let them in and law makers have even pass laws to keep them out that story. When we come back, you listening to reveal from the centre for investigative reporting in peace.
From the centre for investigative reporting. In p r eggs this is reveal
but today we ve heard about how the cost of going to college is putting higher education out of reach for some students but
That's not the only barrier. Arturo Martinez lives in Georgia,
Five years ago, he was getting ready to gradually from high school in a lot of his
and what appearing for college senior year? You know I had a lot of friends who, during the final as they would be excited to shore. There said the letters Talkin about,
where they were gonna go in
they were asked me where you not gonna college yours,
why you can go to you know: you're the Tiger use Yea Arturo had good grades
wanted to attend the University of Georgia or George Attack.
But he wasn't alone. That's because when you these eight years old, he at his feet
we illegally legally cross the border into the United States from Mexico.
But you knew he be cut out of certain things,
One time in middle school, he heard his knee play baseball. The other parents thought he should go to the hospital, but Arturo was afraid that someone there might ask
questions something may come up in my parents I rested so just wanted to put out just tell him. That was fine, that you know I was actually scare with doctors. Did you catch it? He pretended he was afraid of doctors rather than risk his family being discovered in high school Arturo guidance counselor assumed he wanted to go to college, but when he asked Arturo, if he had a social security, number Arturo started seductive meetings. I try to
a boy. You know the college starts when my councillors, because the fact that in I was undocumented anyone to disclose my status, he watches classmates, go off and start a new lives. Any grew depressed
Arturo is what some people call a dreamer,
It could work legally and pay to wish president trumps at last year. He wants to end that programme, but legal challenges have kept it in place for now
temporary permission to stay in two. You work permits that made it easier to go to college because they could work legally and pay to wishing present
trumps at last year. He wants to end that programme, but legal challenges have kept it in place. For now, for students like Arturo want to go to college, a lot depends on where they live. Some states have generous policies and more than twenty states, they pay institution with Georgia
does the opposite direction. It bar students, like Arturo from enrolling in its path through colleges in China,
who were non resident tuition at state schools they partners allowed to attend. I reports afford
even if I had to jobs, defenders of Georgia's pie,
I'll see you say, immigrants living in the: U S illegally, shouldn't take see
resources away from people who were here legally saucer as lenient with our partners at eight p m reply.
Looks at how some students in Georgia are pushing back
The aim was to go to college and steady computer science. Instead, he spent five years working construction with his dad on most,
things you'll find him in a room off his family's kitchen. It's pretty much a broom closet were their work, is hooked together. Three computer monitors and blinked out the computer tower with tiny lights. The change color I build the whole computer. So I repeat that you see you there. You know
put together. Basically, my routine coming from work with my dad religious construction. These of my favorites, I free myself,
Ro shows me examples of the graphic design has been practicing here are some of the pieces I'm working on their portraits made from geometric shapes with crowds of light like religious figures, one of my favorites call Amelia US about the
may revolutionary meter, though we learn from freedom, you,
Freedom University. It's an underground school,
undocumented students in Atlanta the experience night, the door dozen much bigger possibilities.
Visit colleges university,
promise not to reveal british meat. Regular small groups of whatever
eyes on the Sunday night about a dozen kids, get
and donated space in
still room with comfy purple and orange couches when visiting professors from
thereby colleges volunteer their times. Students don't pay, but there is also no credit tonight
an english professor from Moorhouse College, is teaching a poetry class saying that we become hard rock and so forth. That's when we're most vulnerable,
when we break freedom. University is inspired by southern freedom. Schools from the civil rights era of the fifties and Sixtys College
from the north establish temporary schools for local black children as part of the overall push for life.
And social equality freedom. You has one paid employ Amoco solstice,
quickly at the proper stand, the janitor of freedom, you Sultans, has a phd in human rights and social movements and a history of being which he calls a troublemaker she was arrested for standing up, for
rights of cafeteria workers when she was a grad student at Emory University freedom. You was founded and twenty eleven in response to Georgia's policies that put a road blocks for kids like Arturo SALT, us became executive director and twenty fourteen. This ban has now been in place for seven years and we have an entire generation of young people in Georgia who, since they were in the Middle school, now grade school soon thought college was not exactly and they gave up in twenty six do there were just four hundred and twenty eight undocumented students enrolled in the university system of Georgia. That's one seventh of one percent solstice tries to convince her students not to lose hope and to explore opportunities, and other states strives to back up the east coast, so they can meet freedom. You alumni now going to Ivy League schools. They tore campuses
around the country that welcome students like them, and they even asked them to give talks. Sometimes back home in Georgia.
Salter's has introduced them to an earlier generation of at last student leaders who faced
Stu calls and fought back people like Charles Black with a board member had freedom meal. There was little college that I could again because marries blacker up in Florida in eighteen. Fifty eight he came to Atlantic to attend
Our house asked or Clay black college. He was an early leader of the Atlanta student movement which challenged segregation, is illegal for blacks and whites to sit together and replace the public assembly. You couldn't use the same taxicabs, the hospital that separate ambulance
blacks and whites. I mean all these things with the law.
This is the law now that we are voting against four.
Turtle Martinez, Charles Black
and the civil rights leaders of his generation are an inspiration they fought for what they believe
Who's right ended up winning black teaches them. What it took two dismay:
till segregation from
unchecked counter to dime store to City Hall.
She was first arrested. Nineteen sixty I'll trying to disaggregate the white suddenly waiting on the train station wait first arrived in town, monkeys, brother, eighty Williams, king and I led to several groups into the white waiting room above the journal translation. It is to be noted that all these places were scooped out. You know beforehand, so we knew you know how many seats that were where the issues were where there was a phone booth somewhere near where we can have a bottom good report.
So things were planned with military precision and so are the protests that freedom you organizes today. Their main target is the Georgia border regions and its policies against
documented students, all its February of twenty seventeen Valentine's day, actually
a dozen freedom you, students and supporters have gotten dressed up their seats in the audience
at abortive regents meeting after a few minutes,
didn't stand up and begin handing the regions
carnations and handwritten valentines, asking
to remove the tuition and admission restrictions for undocumented
leaving a blocking David Lee
The regions are whisked from the room. Carnation
scattered on the floor and an officer with the state patrol approaches the protesters
you got dispersal me. You won't be arrested for joy. The protesters file out it's a month,
after Donald Trump and admiration, and they can't risk it.
Arrested on misdemeanor trespassing churches trumps. First, we can offer
he'd signed an order that any criminal offence was grounds for deportation outside.
Sidewalk freedom. You student Arizona.
Sanchez. Relieve the protest went smoothly,
my heart was racing just because the police were,
ready and obviously something that the amazing
but tough enforcement is exactly what some Georgians want to see trucks
Rapporteur DE a king opposes freedom, as activities runs a group that wants to make Georgia the least hospitable state in the country for unauthorized immigrants. I catch him on one of his frequent trips to the georgian state capital to way and on immigration issues, kings, white and a former marine who quit his insurance business to devote himself to this cause. Today he walks through the metal detect
carrying a letter. I'm goin to do this.
They were not governor deals office and asked for ten minute meeting.
Also going to ask- and I ve, given hair the the odds of
one of those happening or about the same king S bald and he's right. He doesn't get the meeting, but he's pissed.
Distant and he's been on the winning side. Much of the time he's at home at the capitol he visits with staff in their offices,
says TAT goes to the aid of one of his Senate. Allies damages me a lot of favours. This is like a to talk of favor and then, when I go by talk reared also, then I deliver talkative
He does he charms or into letting us use a conference room for our interview. What motivates king
is a sense of moral indignation. The people are coming and taking something- that's not theirs. For the first ten years that I did this
people started coming to me. Instead of to our congressmen and telling me that their king,
couldn't get hired. Mcdonald's and gains. Will George, because I didn't speak spanish or small business owners would come
to me and she D. I lost my business because my competition is hiring black market labour. We have homeless, that's what,
have to hear people whining about a new legal alien, not getting x. It doesnt wash with me and I think, given a fair presentation, it doesn't awash with most America
King fills a certain amount of sympathy for kids brought to the: U S: children, who now don't have legal status, but he doesn't think their situation can be compared to the african american people who face.
Jim Crow laws. When I lived in Montgomery Alabama, when I was eight years old, I saw
colored. Only bathrooms and water foams
I remember crying when I realized what was going on for people to take this.
Our goal of black Americans to obtain their constitutional rights and compare it
to illegal aliens demanding amnesty and access to America
but they do not deserve or nor have they earned, makes me sick to my stomach.
Freedom, you supporters say: undocumented immigrants also have constitutional rights the Mexican American.
He'll defence and educational fund has failed to federal law. Seven's one challenges, the ban that keeps students from going to certain universities, the other
challenges the rules about paying higher tuition one of the plaintiffs and that law suit is
Jerome Martinez, the young man working construction with his day,
I wanted to
find other ways to keep fighting
this. A lawsuit will push even farther to put pressure on the border region because I think the law is on our side,
as the lawsuit began it slow crawl through the courts are turtle kept working alongside his dad and applying for culture
Jason scholarships out of state aspirin,
He checked his email on his home, built computer and guts.
scholarship from the dream died. You ass. It's a private scholarships for
didn't live in the fifteen states that have barriers for undocumented students are turmoil.
A full ride to Eastern Connecticut State University
my dad and sell them. I think I'm
colleagues and he got a really started- jumping out to have been facing. We started hugging each other. The iraqi
my mom, even there,
action on my die. She studied dumping on me, start illegal,
was a special moment. For me it was a victory
for the Martinez family. Even if our turmoil
go a thousand miles from home last for five years,
graduating from high school Arturo Move to Connecticut
he's double majoring in math and computer science.
Such as lenient is a with a pm reports. The documentary and investigative journalism group at american public me.
Arturo graduating twenty twenty one, but it's not clear what will happen to dreamers like him. Last year, president trumps, it was of the Congress to come up with a solution. More recently
he tweeted no more
ministerial was our lead. Producer today show was edited by talk. You tell needest thanks Dave Harvard from the Texas Tribune and Catherine winner from a pm reports. Are production, Manders Wendy and are also are sound. Design team is the dynamic dual J Breezy, Mr Jim Briggs, Fernando my manual Aruba, their help from Catherine Raimondo Catch shipment.
C, o Christa Sharpsburg Amy, Pasok, editor in chief executive producers, Kevin Solvent, see music, is by Colorado. Lightning support for reveals provide
by the Raven David Logan Foundation, the John D in Kathmandu, Macarthur Foundation, the Jonathan Logan Family Foundation, the Fort Foundation, the Housing Simons Foundation and the ethics and excellence in journalist foundation reveal is a co production of the centre for investigative reporting in p r eggs analysis
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Transcript generated on 2019-12-20.