Chicago is experiencing a reversal of the great migration that propelled African Americans northward in search of opportunity in the first half of the 20th century. Since 2000, a quarter-million black Chicagoans have left. The reasons include decades of bad policy and broken promises on affordable housing, education and public safety.
On this episode of Reveal, we team up with the Data Reporting Lab in Chicago to examine how trauma care teams have done more than law enforcement to reduce the gun homicide rate and with The Chicago Reporter to describe how activists are pushing back against the shutdown of 50 public schools at once.
Head over to revealnews.org for more of our reporting.
Follow us on Facebook at fb.com/ThisIsReveal and on Twitter @reveal.
And to see some of what you’re hearing, we’re also on Instagram @revealnews.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Hey. It is your favorite host in all of pod custom. Now for the rest of the year, I'm gonna be asking you to join us by becoming a member of reveal reveal. Is all about going deep, pulling on threads telling stories that matter for more than three years now reveal has been fighting a lawsuit? That's been jeopardizing our very existence of restoring we
about an organization called planet aid. Our story raises serious questions about whether international aid was actually reaching the people. It was intended to help and what's more, our story was truthful and we stand by it. We believe it is our duty to fight attacks like this, but fighting a lawsuit comes at a huge costs. Are legal fees alone totalled more than seven million dollars? Luckily, we have pro bono legal support to help our in house counsel, but it still takes significant resources, resources that should be used to do more public service journalists. This kind of investigative,
It takes time and it cost money. If you believe in the work, we do. The absolute best way to support us is by becoming a member of reveal to do it just text. The word reveal two hundred and forty seven, four thousand seven hundred and forty seven standard data rates apply and you can text stop or cancel at any time
also all new members who donate at least five dollars a month. We get our facts, t shirt again. Just text reveal two hundred and forty seven, four thousand seven hundred and forty seven
and all you who already support our work. I would offer a deep sincere thanks. We can't do this work without being willing afforded twenty twenty. We have big things plan, so, let's go to some good work together.
From the interval for investigative reporting and p ex, this is reveal a outlet
I want to know why you're dying burglar version. It says
one in the morning or Chicago cell side to report
driving around monitoring the police can for long
a job with a shooting in progress and let him have higher. But this block
fifteen minutes southwest of downtown residents have gotten used to hearing gunshots educators, Cannon Twitter feed
twenty two shots as the period.
Its response. A skinny get about twelve years.
Kicks a soccer ball. Next was building comes from electron
over there in the yard, and we just here to crush up. He makes it sound like it's no big deal, but President Trump has a different view. He's free
He lashed out calling Chicago a total disaster,
one, who knows the city understands this so much more to it than the violence. Chicago police chief Eddie Johnson responded to the president's criticism. This way on W B, easy public radio in December, it
or is the hard work that the men and women of this department I doing to reduce this violence, and it all
it ignores the fact that the mayor has given us.
Resources that we need to reduce violence. Those resources included more than a thousand additional police officers. Johnson said more cops on street.
I'll bring down. Gun deaths were now hundred homicide down from last year. One hundred fewer homicide
Those numbers sound impressive, but our police,
counting the right thing if murders are down. Why is the violence
the leading some people to flee the city, while others hunkered down to fight for their neighborhoods.
Given stark and there are no little? Are journalists with data reporting lab in Chicago they spend a
at a time crunching numbers to better understand the issues facing Chicago as they started digging into how the city tracks violence, they realized officials
maybe paying attention to the wrong thing, given begins
story of one man whose experience gun violence for himself.
I meet up with thirty six year old Lamar cables in the living room of his bungalow. He says he accept
to spend a lot of his life on two wheels: TAT Metallic
Blue Collar Saki, Ninja, he'd right a full throttle.
I want a rush. Is fine issues like
You think I'm a parachute buller, especially on the highway late at night out there he felt a low
of freedom. He didn't always enjoy day day in the blocks around him
I'll do at home. He constantly kept up his guard to avoid getting caught in somebody else's problem.
The kind made settle with gunfire it was bad, whether one is bad can avenue.
Some people are goin in their Robin. Unlike is terrible. It's a difference.
Laurie for people who live in or visit Chicago's like front the downtown lupin, much
nor side home to me,
exports. Cultural attractions and entertainment world class shopping, inviting people on the cities, largely black.
South and West sides where Lamar lives for dealing with decades, a bad policy and broken promises.
Rooted in deliberate racial segregation, the inner cut through their neighborhoods,
isolate them from the city that tourists see those
highways offer gang usual territory. Tell him are Europeans,
There are a few of us out there. A pastor state trooper pass them too. They can catch me. I can catch me eventually, though, bullets did twice.
The first time he got hit my stomach while he was riding on a car. The second
a couple years later happened.
Side of a neighbourhood restaurant someone came,
shooting I go hit in the back
turn around. You know, get out away in a forest
We have one or two hours ago shot. I felt like a feather. He might have felt weightless
but a scar. He rubs on his forehead makes it clear that he hit concrete a bullet to his back. Put him in a wheelchair MAR says he thinks he reckoned
There is one of the people who shot him from another neighbourhood, but he is
no idea what had happened. He was asleep
worker about that guy who lifted waits after is shifted the mill
He had some Russia's with the law, but he says he didn't have to run with the gang alone raised airway to feel like a target
Chicago is not the large city where your most likely to get shot and killed
a distinction belongs to Saint Louis, with sixty shooting does for every hundred thousand people Chicago
leads to pack with about six hundred and fifty homicides. In twenty seventeen more than
LOS Angeles in New York City, combined with those numbers, don't tell the whole story. That's my reporting partner Darnay little. The
b. I tracks violent crimes and homicides, but it doesnt record
Miss shootings happen. Local law enforcement,
does the same thing. So there's no reliable count from police of how many people get
survive, but someone does
that information, the Illinois Department of Public Health. We found a request that agency.
Kevin and I get a few excel spreadsheets from them. I'm looking at two spreadsheets here we have shootings in homicides. How is this line up with anecdotally?
you ve heard from people in communities on Chicago, South and west side. So if we look at the spreadsheet for homicides,
from nineteen ninety twenty fifteen and make a quick line charred. We can easily see that
homicides have significantly dropped over that time period,
and this is essentially the story that we hear from police that homicide.
Really high in the nineties, in that that it's been,
Racing overtime. Yes, but let's take a look at shootings. If we go over here to the spreadsheet, the trend line is pretty straightest. Actually them
one up slightly. This is a very different story. This is now the story of a city that has declining gun, violence, shootings area,
steady or they're going up right, and so you look at just a homicides. You see one story, you look at the number of people being shot. You see a different story. The proof was
billing, the state public health departments Centres hospital in they showed
the same time, shootings increased in Chicago by fifteen percent,
Homicides dropped by thirty percent, even though people
like clear than ever to get shot multiple times with what shooters call our IP bullets, designed to
slowed inside bodies on impact. So if more people are getting shot with
As the murder rate. Dropping doornail stand by the place
overhauled emergency medicine and change the game for gunshot victims
strolled. Your hospital is really the nerve centre, the trauma
here in Chicago
my one. One call your far more, like
what kind of an operator and then my one one set of who has medical training. We ve got a hundred fire
covering the city Chicago everyone,
this fire houses has paramedics
our fleet of ambulances are all equipped for advanced. I support
One of those ambulances took Lamar Cables destroyed your after his second shooting
Paul, he remembered was the way he felt Bobby heard
every time a bomb, because I was already and pay Chicago's chief paramedic Mary Sheridan says her crews try to ease that pain way before they deliver a patient to the emergency room. We can breathe for that patient and we can circulate his blood with just compressions,
We can keep him warm and get him to the trauma centre where he can go into their operating room right away. The entire trip
medics. Some emergency room team at the hospital are communicating with each other and monitoring patients vital signs by doing this Mary
They were buying him, ten or fifteen minutes, but with penetrating drama to the chest or any significant trauma
you are losing blood. You only have forty six minutes for
six minutes after that, in most cases, it's too late to save your life,
Chicago's trauma. Sinners learn how to act fast from combat
the whole teams they visit,
What you're hospital to share best practices in battle field, testing techniques? Yes, they do shifts alongside us, Doktor forearm Bikari.
Is in charge of trauma and burned surgery at he says:
this team of military doctors and learn from one another. The civilians handle more casualties in very are the
the combat veterans generally do in the field as a model
severe injuries that we see. They don't see that cumulatively they'll see doing six months. Lot of my physicians have been doing this for, like a decade,
much more continuous and extensive here continue,
it's an extensive because street fight can escalate,
quickly into shootouts the strawberry,
you will treat on average
seven hundred gunshot patients a year.
It costs a lot to keep them alive, the most recent statistics from the Eu
receive Chicago Crime LAB show the city spent two and a half
Billion dollars a year on gunshot victims for medical care
last wages and reduce productivity. That's an average of twenty five hundred dollars per household. Without its trauma care system, one criminal!
we spoke with, says Chicago would still law close to a thousand gonna related murders are higher than the p,
nine hundred and seventy homicide
gaga. Police wouldn't talk to us about what we found, but we did speak with cook canny. President Tony Prick, Winkle Cook is the country that include Chicago it controls Trojan hospital.
I told Tony what our research had found. If we're getting a lot
you're treating gunshot trauma.
People are surviving. Let your point, then, it's not really that's not really the murder rate, but the shootings that we ought to be. Looking at the number of shootings, I see your point in a way the the world class nature of our trauma care, masks.
To some extent. The problem: do you see a solution there? We can't just look at
murders in the shootings, with the look at the community's out of which the and on these folks come and see what we can do to address the challenges that the community's face. Otherwise, they will just continue to produce at risk. Young people
and you know I think, you're well aware that the people who work
for being shot are the same. People who are at risk for being shooters that could have been Lamar
Ah, yes, I am ready to go now, but I know about it now.
I come relax
as you know, I got a lotta to live and has not for me.
It's not for me at all, so I'm not gonna. Let mosques
jewish turn me into a bad person. The markets by disability, benefits and money
Former co workers at the steel mill raise for him help health insurance
some of the Medical COS
still got a lifetime of bills to pay his feet.
We fiance pitch in too, when he thinks about his feature here
does he like to work with other gunshot survivors? He would, as does here like there's no hope
even at the NHL for the rest daylight. I would still like to be there to language
encourage him in the things that they made thanks to Harvard
Do you let him know my situation. There are know how much bless me.
Lamar says: sometimes he feels his legs again. He praise alot lives, waits at home and three times a week. He goes to. The gym
given start in Dar know. Little of the data reporting lavish Chicago browser story. Here's the big questions. They got them starting
matter at all. If officials focused on how many people get shot instead of how many die, tony preclinical could carry commission president
What does that could change the way local government budgets its money? We need it
he sure that those young people who have been shot the first time
find themselves at risk or put themselves at risk to be.
Again and that's a holistic approach to their recovery, not
just physically from the wound, but from all of the factors that led them to be a gunshot victim in the first place, like twenty five,
The guidelines during this year's Martin Luther King, how they weaken when we come back, we'll meet another cell cider who, despite this and other problems, is determined to stay.
Well, that's next on revealed from the centre for investigative reporting and p r eggs
the centre for investigated reporting in p r ex this is revealed, I'm outlets and if you ve ever visited Chicago, you probably know that its famous for its people
dark a millennium park along Lake Michigan tourist jockey for selfies in front of a massive stainless steel, sculpture called clouded. Then there's the Picasso creator,
the master himself, this modern day, sculpture stance. Fifty
be high and resembles the artist Cuba's paintings federal plazas. Just a few blocks away. You come face to face with
Alexander callers Flamingo at fifty three feet. All this bright, orange red action.
Ex sculpture is a mass of steel elegantly.
Being overrun itself like like it's about to do a back, handspring right near by
is a hundred your building that was home to the Chicago public schools. They ve sent saw the building, but it may have twenty thirteen hundreds of parents, teachers
students made their way there to protest, a plan that would shut down fifty schools
it was right before the memorial day, weaken the sky, was filled with dark clouds. With occasional rainfall can hearing what people fidgeted in their seats waiting to speak, they approached the microphone worked.
Shirts, with slogans like every school. Is my school stand with Chicago
Teachers Union and save our schools? Speaker just two minutes:
Let the school board have I've been waiting three months for these two minutes: you're attacking our children and breaking our communities, and we need these schools
there's one thing you ve done right. That I can actually say is that you have made our community come together and fight is bad,
I have a dream. I have a dream: I'm going to go home and going to tell my daughter that there was one hero on the board. One person that's going to stand up and go against this and say I'm going to keep
the elementary alive as a choice in an option for all Chicago student think they may send her next speaker.
There were so many hearings at one of them.
Name Irene Robinson found the courage to speak up in favour for neighbourhood school overturned elementary can a nervous, but I just want to say we want to support overturned and do whatever we can to keep it open. I have six grand babies go to overturn the baby's babies. Thanking MRS Robinson Irene got more comfortable with public speaking over the years sparring with the city in school board over the school closing plan at the time Chicago School,
we'll see was Barber Bird Bennett and right before the School Board voted on the plan she defended it. I know that change is not easy to embrace, but I do not believe that
can deviate from what is right. We cannot maintain a system that
and not be sustained and one which does not benefit children. The school board voted to close fifty schools. The largest public school shut down in the country
The city promise not closing more schools. For five years now, time's up more schools could close.
What does that mean for students and their families, the Chicago reporters?
in Belgium has been investigating that question by looking,
and how the last round of shut down has affected people in Chicago with six kids and eighteen grandkids, plus faster kids. Irene Robinson is the kind of person who takes care of everyone around her. Whenever I see her she's wearing purple, lipstick, glasses, tee shirts, she tells me purple
makes life bearable. All my life I took care to join in my house was open dough to out
Anthony, often children, Overton, was a school on Chicago South side across
the street, from where Irene used to live and the kid she sent their brought back. A bunch of good news Irene keeps the evidence in envelopes, filled with photos, unaware
since this is man. Baby you're report car from Antonio,
in two thousand and five because the school was such a big part of
her life Irene remembers clearly when the district started, cutting teachers and programmes in all take a rapid, say. Anyone
see that formula is to destroy school officials called that formula. Student based budgeting is exactly what it sounds like a school. In rules, more kids, it gets more money. The district decided to shut down schools with fewer kids to create a bunch of bigger ones. With bigger budgets, officials promised to invest in those schools, they call them welcoming schools with extra like air conditioning and ipads, nearly all the schools. The district closed were historically black neighborhoods, like bronze,
our people, our grandparents, when they may dal said they came to a brown, and they built in my heart- is here Irene thousands
as we ride along her old neighborhoods mean me. Martin Luther king drops
There is a monument to the millions of African Americans, whose migration chain Chicago and the nation, a giant bronze statue of a man holding a worn, suitcase waving with his right hand, the public
complex as the east. A tower over this area are all gone, so are the people who used to live in them, I mean says: summoned
families who stayed the longest moved away.
When the school district closed over ten that school had
the families and teachers who lived near by. We need unable who school this important neighbour, whose too hard
Community developers put up expensive, new condos rents. All over went on
Irene and others couldn't afford to stay now
and she visit her old apartment. She says she feels like a stranger on her block. She places a lot of blame
for all this change on Chicago Mare, Rama Manual, he controls public schools like few big city mares. Do he appoints the schools chief and the school board? He declined our many requests for an interview in general. He doesn't like to talk about this, but at a press conference in twenty thirteen after the school shut down, this came out. Reporters grilled him. He acknowledged the plan would upset
student and their parents, this very difficult love of anguish- and I understand that- and I appreciate it, but the anguish and the pain that comes from making the change pails compared to the anguish comes by.
Trapping children in schools that are not succeeding. Thank you very much about the measures that it would take time.
Kids would eventually end up in better schools. The whole effort is about making sure that every child, regardless
of where they live, regardless of the circumstances, has the opportunity to go to a quality school. I receive a high quality education
Irene along with many parents, and students didn't buy the mayor's promise.
Let him know that loud and clear. Their protest got a lot of coverage from local.
Outlets like W B B, I'm news, radio on the West side, my Crasser NEWS, radio, seven, eighty and one o five point. Nine of these people,
Betraying marrow manual is lying racist as that no Chicago mean no more black hole where people can go there not cost around in the community. If there are no school Amy and overturn, and forty nine
other schools closed about eleven thousand students, most of them black and poor, had to transfer. They were supposed to go higher performing schools, but research,
at the University of Chicago found later that most kids didn't end up at schools.
And were much better than the one thing left Irene through
in your old grandson. Eric knows what that feels. Like I caught up with him, a family party
he used to go to a school, he loved Wadsworth, elementary on the south side
when I was there for a long time. Anyone clothes, I thought was with us
how can meet new people their close to
I'd movie and music. There we will lose our joint work,
I have it now. When Eric's parents heard Wadsworth was going to close, they plan to send him to overturn where he'd been a student before his family moved, but both of those schools closed and twenty thirteen and Eric had to transfer to a different school. He lost touch with his friends from Wadsworth and had to start over
you think, after the close the first time I had party be it, but it when it happens again and again and again now you can start getting a little frustrated. How many times you got to transfer, because because
is not like not like even know what school closed. In recent years, Chicago has invested a lot of money to keep middle and upper class. Kids in the public schools was new or expanded buildings, but when most of the kids are low income, black and latino the district
closes their schools, fires the entire faculty and hired a new one, or sometimes it uses one building a house to separate schools. Let me explain the thinking here:
even Roman, is low in one score. Why not put another's
inside it and use the empty classrooms that hasn't worked out so well. First, kids still have to share spaces like gems and auditoriums. Second, the new schools often compete with them.
Old ones for students? Remember vigour, enrollment means more money,
Let me explain the thinking here, even Roman is low in
this whole idea. That's cool me to have more kids in them doesn't make sense to University of Chicago Souci.
I'll. Just e viewing some of our most elite. Academic institutions tout low and Roman as being a great thing evils in education. Doctorate from Harvard she taught in one of the schools are closed and twenty thirteen she's writing a book about what happened. It's fun.
Canadian, because the idea that a school building should be efficient in how many kids it holds
is really not and educationally sound or pedagogical early sound way of making
decisions, but when it comes to poor black students, the aid
is basically that we need to efficiently fit as many kids into a building as possible. Some of irons grandkids felt that, after overturn alimentary closed their mom June says they're welcoming school was too crowded and really hard to get two June in her kids used to share an apartment with Irene and the last year or so
They shifted from seeing each other all the time to visiting like this
Baby June, twenty nine she's, the third of Irene, four daughters, her job at a Mcdonald's in Chicago, barely covered her expenses, hoping for a place of her own. She spent years
on a weightless public housing, but never got in. Have you dear Joe,
Christmas shopping, yet
You know, and Jan abandoned data, come now even
I would wager there's here
No one love, because your mama missed you mean you know, I just hate their job, also spread it upon to improve life for her family June, decided to move out of the neighborhood more than two hundred miles away too
rapids have you ever been to Iowa before you moved out there now, never allow already bet Barlow movies like that, have had to take a chance on camera happy. I did. A lot of black families have taken chances like June Chicago's. African american population has dropped by a quarter million since two thousand. During that time, the city's public schools lost
I need a thousand black student in Iowa June is thriving. She quickly found work at a north from warehouse where she makes fifteen dollars an hour. A big boost from her fast food job at her rent is a couple hundred dollars less than which he paid for her tiny Chicago apartment, now she's in a two bedroom rental, with lots of room for her kids to play. I am how how have my way by the life cycle of many, how about aspects of our kids right in front of the house inside there's a couch and other items that parents and staff from the school gave to their family June's Cather, adjusting well and a new school district that most funerals kids from why it well off families that isn't the case for many kids who leave Chicago's poor, segregated black schools, analyzed records for fifteen thousand students who left Chicago for the suburbs.
Brother Illinois towns. In recent years I found that a third of them landed in poorly funded, racially segregated squalls, pretty much like the ones I laughed, except that many staff in their new school districts felt overwhelmed by the health, an emotional issues, these kids, carried with them
even though Jones Ass, she and her cares are doing real God. They still feel the distance from the rest of their family has actually lie land.
I may be allowed to my mom look. I can't see her and her like that Irene
Does her daughter just as much but these days
Putting a lot of her energy in one direction was allows Anthony over. In school
I vow did. I will fight for our children our school, because I really didn't understand what they
storm when they were closed thousand schools. That helps explained her work to reopen a high school named after Walter
diet, a legendary music teacher and bandleader in Chicago it's on the cities, south side, not far from Irene Department. Before and after the district closed it, she and others. Organ
As usual, we went to board meeting, we went in, we protest,
He talked to me. I have spoken with running man. You sell, will tat.
Tell him how
These were heard our children we did air with DE eventually, their protest ended up on the news to die.
High school hunger strikers, are now into their thirty first day without solid
the strain on their health is beginning to show hunger strikers say this whole issue is about race, unequal distribution of sitting resources and a lack of respect from Cps in City Hall. A plan police arrested Irene during her protest to save the school twice once just
before the hunger strike began, she blocked elevators at City Hall a year earlier. She changed herself to the bronze statue of George Washington outside the mayor's office. Speaking to crowds didn't phase her anymore, not after refusing solid food put her in the hospital for a little while
The hunger strikers did reopen that school. They called it a small victory in a big long fight.
Although her daughter June moved away, Irene has managed to keep other people she loves in the city.
Like her second daughter Shanna and her husband Tyrell their son as era?
these models shadows and he's always man. Wherever I go in, I feel lucky. There
his age. I'm still has primary influence. I talked of Tyrol in the kitchen of the bungalow they bought on the Far South
side, he's thirty one will a college degree and a corporate job and Chicago's West suburbs. His commute put some on the road.
Two and a half hours. Every week day, Tyrell had wanted to move his family closer to work
but his mother in law wasn't having it rather discussion.
Thousand tat before where you don't you want to fight, will have me to buy my house. I wasn't looking here. I was looking
delete and- and I like a lot of black me- do that because, as it seems like what we're supposed to do in our readers show me,
from like we need to stay here so that you can be successful here. You're fat man can't abandon
but you can't just provide for your family and elevate your family.
Forget about everybody else in your heritage and where you come from S, sister came devoted to the south. There they built here
But now I'll children don't even know hair, but a history that our grandparents have left and that's sad
the fight to save the schools and her neighbourhood where's Irene down? Sometimes she
older than fifty three per job as a home? Healthcare
required, a lot of spending and lifting now
Irene battles, arthritis on her knees that pain and feelings of depression can cheaper and bad sundays. China says that's the price Irene pays for what the grandkids admiringly call her.
Eight full side. Where that your mom it's gonna, get really tired. I mean I know she is. She puts a lot of work into it and I wonder what kind of things in good time these motivate Thursday's give her a strange, this
You now want to fight
even more I've anything our worry there she's gonna as blow my keys obey me to take a break in her own apartment away from here.
Entire else. Kitchen Irene says she knows why dazed free
when I go to jail
being on a hunger strike, were
at a really talk to them and make them understand that this is something I have to do. What do you do when you,
very clear. All was go on. What do you do? You can cause your ass and walk away if she and other activists had done
The city might have gone forward with a plan to close for majority black high schools on the south side to make way for a new consolidated one. That plan would have made the students for in those schools now transfer to other struggling high schools across town and across gang boundaries. When I spoke with her last fall, the current schools Chief Janis Jackson, told me: district officials want to treat this situation differently than the closing and twenty thirteen DARE Cps community. As your see all I have promised that your school district will listen
earlier this month on Twitter, every shared an announcement that suggested they meant it and they, even though some people sought as away for the mayor to win political support from African Americans. The more we talk to you, the more we heard how important it was for some students to stay in graduate from their current school in response to your feedback,
or modify our proposal instead of shutting down before high schools all at once. The district will give students in three of the schools the option to finish where they are or transfer to another school
I want you to know that we have heard your concerns and we are happy to
modify this proposal to ensure its supports all students. Still none of them will be able to attend the new high school when it opens next year,
because it will start by enrolling. Only ninth graders this plan doesn't do a thing for Irene. She figures
The four high schools are still going to close and heard the surrounding neighborhoods. The only difference she believes is at the school districts, letting it happened gradually like a slow death. If
issues were really listening. She says they would invest in and maintain the existing schools, so Irene will protest what she calls a bad policy just as of her own fan.
High school, was on the line. There was careless, Belcher Scoggins, the by the way,
should mention that the former ceo barber bird Bennet we heard from the top of this story, is now in prison last year.
Judge sentence bird vented to four and a half years for planning to collect Hunter.
Thousands of dollars of bribes by stealing contracts to a former employer in education
salted company when we come back will meet the South sides, Lois Lane reporter Nellie more will talk to us about her Chicago in the cities, most chronic problem until Chicago. I trust the segregation we're gonna continue to be a city had been equities. That's next on reveal, for this
Therefore, investigative reporting in p r exe
the centre for investigating reporting, p r eggs. This is reveal a mallet
You gotta be tough to stay and fight you neighbours, even your loved ones. When a move away Joe,
Natalie moored knows about them. She's the author
three nonfiction books and reporters
public radio station to be Chicago nearly a third generation Chicago all four four grandparents were part of the african american migration from the south and escaped from terror.
Stifled opportunities on my father's side, my grand?
other was from Nashville. He had two brothers who had to get out of town. One was accused of raping away
woman and another one got into a fight with some white man and they had to be washed away because they could have been lynched aegis that I'm I'm done
and came here and my my grandparents were able to buy
a home by rental properties, are able to send their children to college first generation in her book self side, Nellie writes about how segregation shape the way she looks at the world when she was fourteen. She helped on a train downtown for concert on south side. She noticed something she'd never seen all the white people were usually off the train by then it shook her up that they stayed on. Finally, when the train reached the White Socks Stadium, they floated out and she could relax again. Natalie, never forgot that train right or the fight or flight instinct triggered. She.
At the time in shadow south side neighbourhood, she calls this kind of cosy racial, cocoon my parents and still a lot of cultural pride.
And me and my siblings, and we support it. Black
on businesses in the neighborhood, and there are black clubs. There was civic life.
I didn't know that there weren't some of the same amenities in my neighborhood as there were in other parts of the city, but this was a. It was a great place to go.
I have friends there. I was in girls scouts there. I went to church there. It was the great neighborhood, so I've been reading the south side, which I love for listeners. You have read the book. Can you tell me about how Chatham became the hub of the black middle class? Chatham
Blacks outside middle class neighbourhood that I grew up in and Chatham
One other neighbour has had experience white flight, so in nineteen forty
was, is it was all white and then, when restrictive covenants were struck down by the Supreme Court, nineteen, forty eight you saw black people start to move in and so from. Nineteen. Fifty two nineteen sixty you go from ninety nine percent white to ninety nine percent. Black
tat. I became one of many. Many neighborhoods on this happened was sides that opened up to African Americans can tell you that your love for Chatham just jumps out of the book, like I can
Tom you talk about, I feel like you're. Giving me a warm hug makes me. Smile tat was best. That was what I was intended.
Today, we can you connect the dots to how things
like segregation, have led
to these issues that we are seeing now. What are they connected at all? What make
cargo unique. Is that its diverse yet segregated in short,
though the city is about a third black there
and a thorough latino, but weak, typically don't live. Work are later
This wasn't by accident and people need to understand that these policies have been set and these patterns have been set for decades. My argue,
And is that until Chicago address the segregation we're going to continue to be a city of an equities? Let's take schools. For example, there was never any real effort to integrate Chicago public schools. This could have happened in the nineteen sixties, win. You still had a significant white popular,
You had to I families who resisted but more imports,
lay to note is that the mayor Richard J Daily resisted you start to see the White soon population in the public school system
why some people will say. Well how can schools we integrated of housing, a segregated, that's an excuse. The biggest problem is that we don't acknowledge or addressed segregation policies that were put in place by the city of Chicago, to limit african Americans to segregate them exactly like what happened.
Air that plays out today. This was bigger than segregation. It was also about trying to stymie black. Well, I.
Even want you in your own communities to be able to own homes. It goes beyond that, the city of Chicago
you had racially restrictive covenants which were deeds to homes. That said, you cannot sell or rent your property to some one black,
and then you had read lining back
about in the nineteen thirties that literally
drew a line around black neighbourhoods and said these are high risk places. Dont give loans, their red lining when
ay, but those forces shaped our neighborhoods in shaped what happened a lot of times you hear from the national media
stories about Chicago. In this hour we ve talked about violence in Chicago. We talk about school clothings. Now it seems it,
African Americans are leaving Chicago Saudi en masse,
Why is that like who the people that are leaving at, I think when we talk about population laws, it comes across as a people, just in the past few weeks it and packing up their bags in and leaving. We ve seen this trend for decades
there's been some research around who was leaving. You have low income. People who are leaving, I think you also have met,
as people who are leaving, because the suburban dream is something that african Americans, by into also they may be, one
school system out there they want a bigger how's. They wanted a
and style of living. I think it's difficult to paint Icu is this. This one person by
Affordability is an issue for people. Jobs is an issue for people
and I think it's a complicated mix of why people leave some. Those who look at black
neighborhoods through the lens of deficits and not through assets,
in the budget
talk about how homeownership has
you know been the way that we ve been told that you create wealth in this country, but for black people, that's not the case.
Can you explain why that is theirs? There is real
That shows that if your neighborhood,
Is ten percent black or more? That's when values start to go down now
to be clear. This is not about these black families moved in the neighborhoods declined. No, this is about how things are valued and there's an under valuation. In black
Were hurt you're, twenty years old and away a college, and your parents moved away from China? Yes, why did they move? They wanted?
Moorhouse and they wanted more value for their house. They move to an integrated neighbourhood,
miss outside integrated, meaning, black and white, but mostly white, and the way
system is set up. Is that if you are black and new bind black neighbourhood, the Carter stacked against you.
You know one thing that that at that I will say is that the blackness that people have in their imagination in this country, I think, tends to be the poor black person and then the exceptional black person, so you're Obama's you're.
Press Natalie Moors. Now, not me, I'm not rich. You yourself.
A pretty bad stature and then there's the image of the poor. The ghetto the desponding
and I think there is a real and visibility of middle class and working class black people in this country. I came here the love Chicago. Why do you low Chicago there's, an expression here Chicago over everything, despite all of its problems is a city with
It is a city with innovation. There is a lot, that's inspiring the cultural workers who were here, the blacklist, people or China,
their neighbourhood a little bit better. That's part of our fabric in some ways it's a little.
Tribal- and I say that in a positive way, the ties that people have go long in deep and there's a beauty in every corner of the city. The is nothing looks on the term sure nothing like it followed. The Chicago
for six months, I was standing on the Bryn Mawr L and I watched the wind come off at a lake and reach upping, grab me and say Florida boy go yes, sir. By out that's the great e now like that builds characteristics.
Cargo character, Natalie more authors outside and Rapporteur for W B, easy in Chicago thanks. So much for join me thanks so much
having me, we started out with reference to procedural college cargo totally to test.
Heard throughout the hour? The city has issues just
like every city in America in the world, but for some Chicago has become a talking point, a place to point out the failures of democratic governance. The city is used in the gun debate because it has strict a gun laws that many part-
the country or if a racial incident happens anywhere in America, commentators, politicians and Twitter Botz will point to the city and ask what about Chicago Black on black,
and what about those black kids? No one cares and that couldn't be further from the truth. Yes,
guns, are in Chicago despite laws because they flow win from areas outside the city. They don't have strict gun laws and no black on black crime is not in actual thing. Unless we begin to categorize white on white crime, statistics tell us they cry
happens among people who live close to one another in Chicago is an extremely segregated city. But how do we get here? A while back the money Jones Sports commentator gave one of the clearest breakdowns, the problem that I have heard then Chicago when black people moved at city from the south in the night before nineteen fifty, why people get the hell out of died? They built a freeway system area through black neighborhoods in all parts of their freeway system was to get white people
in the suburbs into their job safely, without having to make any stopped in between that's what happened. Discrimination dead, having discrimination is the biggest reason that we could point to historically for why we got already dead kid that Chicago Viper, terrified guerrilla state with poor, accommodated and facilitated everything that you're supposed to have within the city. Poor education. All this, because the Tec Dolphin
we think it decided to move away when you can't do that. You wind up and basically
like these neighborhoods created by apartheid and he's right and yet, in spite of all the problems, Chicago still stands. If you ve never been
It may be hard to hold onto these two ideas: a faltering city versus the city that works, maybe it's more appropriate to save the city that puts in work.
The everyday Chicago's or rolling up. This leaves in every neighbourhood on every block. You'll find people like the ones we
met in today show Irene Robards if the grandma, whose
city hall, to keep schools open, very shared, the city's chief paramedic, whose giving victims of crime a fighting chance,
and even the notice sociologist and former teacher whose demur
and a better future for the cities. Young people, like all of the ship
whether we live in Chicago or not,
We mention housing discrimination throughout the show, many people think
That's an issue we solved fifty years ago at the fair housing at, but we found that lenders are still turning down people of color at greater rates than why people in cities around the country we reported on that last week. If you missed it, you can still listen to that show on our pockets, just go to Itunes, radio, public or anywhere. You listen to part gas subscribe to reveal
today show was produced by Bill Healy in Anasazi. Vs cortex show devolved at its adoption thanks to the data reporting lab to the Chicago reporter and the public
tv station Don T T W public radio station the BBC, W B
m. Lose radio into the Chicago, sometimes for archival sound on production.
Andrews, but when they had a wholesome are sound design team is the dynamic dual J Breezy Mr Jim Briggs, Fernando my man, your router Amy.
Editor in chief increase. This often burg is our actions. You, executive producers, Kevin solving, a theme music is by comrade lightened.
Support for veal is provided by the Raven David Logan Foundation, the John D and can T Macarthur Foundation. The Jonathan Logan Family Foundation before found
The hiding Simons Foundation and ethics and exploits in journalism foundation reveal is a co productions
Jennifer Investigative reporting and p r ex outlets and remember there is always more to the store
These are last few shows of the year and let me tell you in twenty twenty we are bringing the fire launching some of our most ambitious projects we ve ever done. I can wait for you to hear them reveal is all about going deep, pulling on threads
telling stories that matter and this kind of investigative journalism. Well, it takes time and it costs money. These are the final weeks.
For end of the year membership campaign. We depend on listeners like you to help make this work possible to support us just text. The word reveal two hundred and forty seven, four thousand seven hundred and forty seven state of data rates apply and you can take stop or cancel at any time again. Just texted
I'll do for seven four, seven, four, seven, let's go! Do some good work together.
Transcript generated on 2019-12-20.