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Baseball Physics, with Bill Nye

2020-10-23 | 🔗

Bats, gloves, home runs, and… physics? Neil deGrasse Tyson explores the physics of baseball with Bill Nye the Science Guy, co-host Gary O’Reilly, and DJ Price, assistant coach at Barry University.

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Photo Credit: Keith Allison from Hanover, MD, USA / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide. Dartle begin right now is to start talks, sports addition and furthest instalment. We're going to talk about the physics of baseball physics, a basic point, though often see those too words in the same place now I know a little bit about physics, but I don't know as much about the physics of baseball as my good friend bill, nigh special yesterday male three readings welcoming to start talks were tradition, and I got a co host Gary Riley Gary. I knew my dream liver. Sorry, I had to introduce, but none ass being takes priority and we did you send shocked, erect with. Did you banished from somewhere.
No, we haven't done his job chalk. It has found gainful employment. Wow he's a comedian, he's gotta, tell jokes, they can do in man and good luck to expressly during covered while building up. People know that you look, we may know you're a fan of baseball but eventually like studied it on almost Sabre metric level, and so we were almost at our conversations, it's kind of smell that way, and so I don't want to do it. Show without your expertise, just lacing everything bulgarian. I talk about, but then I realized ok to do this right and when I play literally, but we need somebody who is actually in the sport and we couldn't get it now be person. Let me get the next big thing. I get a college baseball coach, who also happens to be my true Their dj price dj welcome to start off with me. I guess you in loans welcome back to start our desire for a second time. Second year
fine, fine! So your coat where you a coach right now bear university illnesses and go sir. In Florida, North Miami and their division to division. To yes, division to- and you said like this- and what we do they rank in that senor. I mean Lasher before the covert head there where they were up and that the top that seen in the country and nine o their undefeated there are going through a pretty good time and then everything it, but they were led. The country most offensive categories, which is a big deal about very cool. We're going to have you on this. We're gonna tell you for an case some its case bill says something that doesn't feel right. We're gonna get your reaction to it. It's not all. Can I get an opportunity over? I wonder you you're you're, you're, you're street view of what would I says, fills gonna Hank hands. Some science and built lately have caught up with you. Lately you got a new path. Cast science rules could
a title. So what's the problem out of one of my oldest turn of phrase, rules are saw the format as we have guess on, and we talk about science. Really just the other day, when I was there, we wanted. You say we have inquiry. It is Corrie s power, and I encourage so he's your co author on a couple of bourgeois with you Where is students of Korea's pals? Here? Help me at a box than I've written and eyes very funny guy and we co host a podcast, and he also is one of the co producers. He does. The pre interviews finds people we argue discuss so you show up have their work because pictures well again, yeah? That's the way you look at global yeah bread for granting aid. Are you gonna twenty years now, as the ceo of the planetary society? Ten years now?
can you tell us forget, but not quite that body? what is position cofounded by Carl Sagan and two others, so quiet mantle, the ascending to their, but his congratulations on all that. So in this first segment we're talking about baseball as a contact sport, Normally it is the last thing ever mention when people give the list of contact sport, but of course, as bill is introducing here, ball hits bat pitcher. better on the other, the apparent the worry is the plate. There's contours contact in in sports is the plan at the point where one guy has almost no pads on the their guy is trying to and the ball, while this other human is hurtling toward him at fifteen miles an hour, whatever the heck, you play a catch. Your people will equip a few points which are using new torture be sure I have your left foot or whenever it is your back foot parallel to third baseline sewing
I slides into your leg, you folded, the knee and your first appeared needed go sideways across your knee. This is how is bigger than all peoples lying to me tales. So I never. They fell backwards. Back, and I believe that all the catches equipment, the tools of ignorance, I'm pretty sure they still do. Dejah thoris, let's start with, let's start organizational you're so bill if so many store a hundred miles an hour fastball, because lately they ve been talking to speed the exits, speed, eggs, a philosophy of the ball, or at least the ball upon leaving the bat and all the homer and seem to be a hundred and three hundred and six hundred seven miles an hour. Is I mean if I just make sure the ball he's my bad at that speed up and at the right angle, it MIKE basically getting a home run, no matter how big in bulk and stronger yeah yeah but you just through in offhand all and that the right angle
like a bird, everybody park, non apocryphal story from the story of meal and bill. One day, meals go amusing. Bolivar assuming a level swing swallows were both from a there okay there, two different things and hitting dj there's hitting in theirs heading for power. Yes, hitting you're, aiming the ball someplace, trying to get around defenders over the defenders head down the line, so the defenders to run towards you, while you're running, passed him and things like that, but then hitting for power. You have to hit it at an angle that guy's gonna take it up over the fence. We were built. Does that mean I don't have to be big in burly to do that? No, that's the mystery of, for example, from my I've, seen
phantom days, each Euro Suzuki who went on to play they all do. I went on to play for the Yankees, but This is a pretty small ones, get hit home where, where we saw DJ dj your burly guy right, you have girth, and so, when I think of you holding a bad, I think this guy's powerful. I should back up, but then, like billow saying you get each euro, you get our two way you get people who were little red Sox had a few little people who hit was the guy for the Red Sox looking got. That's is now The dangers now get also also the second basic dust in Essen Protrude. Ok, these guys can punch the ball hit triples hit, doubles outlook here. If there's a, if there's a green monster out there, so it so bill. Is it just some kind of mythology that you need to be big orgy just have to move the bat with precision and with speed
That's all you have to do is moved with precision and speed. Thank you, general big guys can wait. Block guys were stronger, can wait a little longer to bring the bad around and break the ball, both your strong. And you can must hold a bad around late in pitch. I thought messages speed. Ok boy too Bad- has mass and so you're gonna die of become. Its inertia is frankly, ok and I think it is Isaac Newton who said that. lot of little guys, actually I'm a minute in some entrapment adverts behaviour which add to that I mean the observation- is got some incredible about speed and with his size you would think that most was probably would be high to begin with,
and you know because he's getting such good goodbye speed. I have a little bit of angle upwards because not to say that he short, but he is a little shorter. He it. Given him the right ball, she could definitely sending a long way away. bill have out at the point I made contact with the ball. How important is my most good cheer? the oil into the kind of guinea is familiarizing most bad, it's the mass of the bad, that's gonna! So you saying if I use a lighter bad, but I can get high speeds all this is too great controversy. So, furthermore, also in addition to continue what's happened, bidding is, people are selecting, thinner and thinner back handles so that the bad has springing. If you are somehow allowed to play baseball with some magical tennis, racket, some racket that could handle, but guess that's upon Their- could deal with accommodate reflect
accommodate. You could really launch the ball much much farther than is currently possible, emit, compare and contrast, jumping up and down off a sidewalk with John bring up and down off a trampoline like a hockey stick a bit like a hawk an ice hockey, stick where you got back its composition, but he's got that flexibility, and that is that possible. The council. So if you are to do that, then soviet era Also- but you say this spring- a little extra push yeah. But so what happens? then another not for nothing effect is before whirring bearing gloves, and so they have a thickness. The pads on the gloves have a thickness, then people are selecting even narrower bad handles able to get more flexible, but is why the bats are breaking, because now you get back, breaking you Workin Babe Ruth Bat from back
every drug about is the so called restricts Desperate Dan and you had to be quite strong to, naturally that not only met match the bats. Did a player now too, anyway. What you mean by that indeed are based on rule size. We do you know, what they are, what the basket of the individual is you can kind of gauge what you were kind of that they can handle it before they break it or the ball breaks it and that's how they can get me no amount of speed they they cut the tops out to give it a little bit less ounces, more ounces, They went away at an end, quote them right? Gorging doesnt work I disagree with that it doesn't they will take away with them ass, the bat. Well, not just a problem with corking. Our perception might be cork. bringing so if you put springy material in the bat
Then you get some that spring summit that entered restoring to the ball as left the back, but it doesn't work because the ball is in contact with the bad for such a short amount of time, barely a thousand a second, the energy doesnt have time to get into the cork and back and plus you lose a tremendous amount at the interface where the cork would touch the work so for people. They are trying this it doesnt work when I remembered the corking back in the seventies, why it has been going on since the eighteen, hundreds of brown real character. In my mind my day, They one of the rationales was that you still have that so that the bulk of the bad- but you made it later. or you can draw all the friggin holes in the back you want, but then you weak, and it will shatter in another, but then why? Why not just use a lighter back? So if you get it to light than its fails,
breaks. This is the magical thing about baseball everybody's. What everybody loves about it is, you're a century and a half of drinking around things are just I'll then were just barely works. It just barely doesn't work and it's a game of thousands of inches and MRS every pitches, artistic? It's a game for nerds, so the thing about the bats that makes me a little crazy. How about this rule dj if you're bad breaks, how about that? I would rather be a pretty girl. I mean be interesting. Sounds like a Navy parent bill. Well in person the present irregular do. We gotta goes didn't notice that well- and you know that's why we can't have nice things. I take a step back built. You know each other about how to thy and also do the errand judge comparison for them to strike,
is in a different place, because once five foot I've got six foot five, seven seven, even the desire to via have an advantage because she can get his bad below us post. The ball is coming. It works have been written. As I like to remark. The answer is absolutely without question. It depends good The reason both of these guys are having success at the major league level is they have compensated for the large strikes by being a huge guy, you can bring the bad around really fast and for her small sthrike zone by being a smaller guy. Who can bring the bad around really fast and so also sounds like bill there? If your small, then the shrieks the strikes zone, so then the pitcher has to be more accurate and you don't have to be able to swing and more places, then the big guy,
you can't reach as far as the big guy, so the picture that has a bigger strike soon, but the bigger the eyes ring in a big way and suffer the new no word. We say we're getting into were the grey areas where it depends I just want to go on and on about these kids today and the bats so on a base That is a label a brand and skilled craftspeople in Kentucky making- that's put the bran so that the grain, is oriented to strike the ball John and so back when I was a satellite lived for twenty six years. Big mariner fan big Seahawks Van. I met with done other than Chuck Armstrong. Who was president, not ceo, not owner, president of the mirrors organization, to give a little talk,
Did these kids, these kids today about branding a bad? So I had this hurry demonstration. So the grain of the bad is oriented that way. They put the label there so that you strike the ball John. If you hit the ball this way, the bat will flax and ultimately failed because the greens will be moving against each other. Let me sliding in sheer as its call here can I To sum up, my college players. Absolutely fine, but they don't know to teach something something. I've tried to explain to them. For you, it's only we passed in a technical debate if it came at a high school with aluminum bats and so
Is it all the reason we have to be explained so Gary you made reference to parents, getting arms akimbo about those kids breaking their toys. If you're apparent breaking bats is expensive, you go. You have to go by That's it you're running a little late team were the next level up high school team and you're breaking basses cycle is too expensive so that Why they we? It went to aluminum bats. Are you can engineer? Aluminum bat have a tremendous amount of flax and I play softball with a guy who got hit in the face with a ball that was just scream. A third basement Because just screaming, because there was a few years of the sort of lack regulation in the spring dimity, the springing us of the best and so when you got hit in the face with a ball that was hit by
the little guy was an aluminum bet. Softball were used in the face with a limited bat and not the reverse that was very, very troubling so anyway, that's why all the way through college people I will limit, ambassador of Europe is outstanding player. You get an opportunity to play, majors with a wooden bet, you're not familiar with this notion, a branding the bat and taking into account the mechanical properties of the wood dj, what are your players? We live in a matter at a level, but in a most them use would, during the summer- and I just at their scouts in encouraging can obtain to see what their capable of doing with the actual about around duration. There occurred, but even at that level you you're talking to me it's dangerous amidst super dangerous. I think, I think all college Walter GO too would be honest with you. Why is a dangerous? What's dangerously the speed you can get off the bat euro so that the picture has
I'm a big about their pictures and made the laser again hit NED and the ball is coming of rationally slower than would be a college when it using battle and they're all prospects to that level. So you got a guy, that's equivalent to an Aaron judge, it's six thousand six hundred and sixty seven that's two hundred and sixty and he hits a with an aluminum bad at a pitcher. There is got no reaction. Time, there's no way that you getting so go back to your original point of baseball has been, has become, or has always been, this game inches and micro seconds in and so the slightly better bad will kill the pitcher raw said the pitcher stands that close has always been marvellous to Greece, which, when you see them catch a border, is back to them. It's like oh, my gosh any fraction of a second faster or their slower, the ball faster. They slower they lose their
You got a way that is they say yes, so many way a woman embarrassed can be tuned or engineer so that they dont have this crazy springing us, but then they get they get anesthetic. They get heavy, they get heavy in the wrong way, and so this is gets into the whole wooden. that controversy, but my weight Gary there's a guy in cricket called the silly mid off? Yes, it is a fielding position. Also, what are you doing? You're standing right in front of a guy with a wooden club at a balls. Go one hundred Closing the tow with an is quite simply that silly position and so we doesn't work loves in cricket, they don't want to have thought of that. We all about it. We thought about. It. May just say it now, the only guy the wicked keepers allowed to do so. It's right here and give us the up a bolder in cricket. Can
reach over a hundred miles an hour because you are using the ground as another pause, although we're getting really get to that in the next thing. We're gonna talk about the making of a pitch I've. Had long conversations with bill about this and I stood on end she's gonna, throw your teacher, and so when we come back start talks works addition. The physics are based you're back. today. We're Back Darkhawk sports addition. The physics baseball
Gary Riley, Jerry Anal yeah. We lost Chuck he's he's on a gig. We term is less global jets, get him on the good for him check amount on the next round. I've got with me my trainer August former trade because he moved to flow a dj price dj? I hadn't when I'm not because you were my former train, because I know you're baseball crazy man they all everyday. You bury, you believe, baseball right so and just to have a ground truth on this conversation we're having with Bill nine who sharing with us his soul, If thinking and expertise on very small and build Une, I've had conversations about what pitchers do when they throws the ball right, not just throwing the ball. Some other kinematics, byles physiological thing is going on. So could you just
latest offer us what's going on about. Oh yeah, sure, I'm an expert on that. Now everybody Gary yes, you're, a british descent, and so you grew up point cricket kind of yes and global crises, a former professional soccer play cricket. Familiar with. I have held a bat and had things thrown at me, vote. That is our legislative and have the same goal. Sorry. Now it's all good in cricket. they are they you all allow the, as he's called too. John there's some she borders to board to balance the ball off the ground Yeah? Right, though you can, you can pull a full tops, so if it gets to the wicket or the batsman with, touching the ground, but generally they incorporate
the ground in this than that's another layer of physics to the whole affair. Well, here's the thing that happened. I'm sure early on quick tears discovered that the bulwark adjust overwhelm the batter could, just Do anything to the bad. A better Batman cannot. routinely hand all the bald ball so they made a rule that the board has to keep his elbow straight, ok, reduce the range of damage they can commit. Yeah. Ok, another ok, fine, but the boy can do is run uses legs, and so there there's an old saying in DJ. Let me to see if this is the true factor, or I whimsically call false fact, ha that you throw with your legs, agree totally agree or you want to do in the zones to deal with this in: U S baseball, originally? U S and
baseball. They allowed you to push off a fixed object, which is traditionally called the pitching rubber also in the rules is called the pitchers plate you push with your back leg, while you throw but you're allowed to bend your elbow. So it's the different rules for throwing, but an all of as the key to it is how you grip the ball or a key. A very important aspect of it, rather, is how you gripped the ball room call tip to the stitches or how you get the ball, no matter what, with respect to the stitches right so yeah. This is the four seam. Where are you see? All four seems, then you can hold it here and you see two seems one thousand two hundred and twelve, or you hold it a little crooked and you get you get the curveball. You get the slide,
and then people who spend hours and hours at this throw it with hardly any spin on it with a fork ball. When's, hardly any spin stitches catch. The air in Spain tat, you are ways and make it fly. Funding was simply waiting for. All and a novel you can grab the fort ball much more tightly when you're, trying to throw a narco ball. You can your barely hang it on, and so you just can't throw it as you can't snap. Your wrist with the same says a faster Uncle Michael Milk esters, not consider holding all these weighed. The whole ball is for the battered. Had not the ball right yeah! That's that's the entire gulls who want to fool the batter yeah right. So you are using certain aerodynamic principles in your favour to help you fool the batter cause a batteries brains.
Sees it as justice. This this object coming towards them. That might do normal things. A gravity would do to it, but you are now exploiting what the Erika do confusing. My newtonian expectations for the boys at affair is sure I just DJ, how many times is a coach? Have you mentioned Kay, listen people. We want to views are newtonian expectations. I may use that today to rush you see me and for that one cause I've already zalzal and right, that's the soul and so we consider the following this is these are pictures from one of my favorite books an album of fluid motion and you talk about fun. Anything that I was on the best seller list. Recently sure was,
Lois. So here is a sphere and fluid flu is going, buys a ball in water, and you see these pulse does poop poop Pooh Pooh as sharing vertices, just like a whistle or you can't whistling. Sharing pop up how pulses, but if we are a trip wire this wire, Then you see how much more smooth the Florida on stream is required to make text her to the surface and what it does. The way I described, but is it causes molecules to tumble and when they do humble they sheer they. They go past each other and their interaction, changes and the flow more smoothly. So then,
in the ultimate amazing. Alternatively, of great amazing. This were, however, where's area. We put a baseball in wind tunnel, with streams of smoke and you see, were that stitches. The stitch has tripped the boundary where it sticks to the ball. Much more smooth, We were the stitches down stream of the boundary layer of the of the free stream. It causes the tumble so this interaction of smoothness versus tumbling These changes and pressure on each side, the ball and it flies funny and it's hard to hit and pictures and bowlers exploit this. They go crazy for this. We have to assume that, with the inventors of baseball didn't have fluid dynamics in mind at the time they just try to stay
two fricking ball? The gather gathered by daylight offered the properties of this like that. What but what? If new- and I think we ve had married this wheels, whose this is a serious a little bit of an investigation and the thread they used in the stitches was somebody ten or so percent occur. Yes, she was choose accounting for the higher a baseball, a higher homerun ashram rate, the yes, so bill. What what's up with that young, so different leagues are allowed to use different stitches in general, the younger the players are the higher the stitches which gives me the more raise they are now I mean just maybe that's absolutely true the younger the players, the higher the stitches, the figure, the thread which enables a pitchers to learn to use that to exploit this more readily, then.
major league. The stitches get quite thin and this demands more of the picture, he asked have more skill. And when I have hung out with these guys in DJ, you must know more. They just walk around the clubhouse all day. Snap in their fingers to get this strength, so there It is interesting to see how the ball moves when they do it to get different angles in You know that they're trying new things all the time, putting pressure on one finger I'll, give you one effect putting pressure on other thing. I would give you another completely opposite effect just like that, but you also talking about length of fingers. You know like this, like Mary, are aware, for example, had one finger that was longer a young about there It was just saying you- and here he picked out because one day, one of his coaches was telling I'm just after put in a with a little bit more pressure on another finger and
getting you wasn't getting as much run and then he told him just throw it the way you want. It normally throw it and then all the sudden fall start running because he wasn't putting the pressure on the thing that was longer is using it and it was staying on the ball longer and then creates the best pitch in baseball the capacity for women with what you mean he had a long finger, but wagon. Here's your finger was normally longer than most, where wages are sound like he only has one. finger so pressing, which figure be talking about the fingers he puts on the bar. So you do things on the ball. Is it my? Is one thing There is middle finger may have been a little bit longer than most pictures, which shows you get to stay in contact with the boy was out of his hand longer and therefore give a little extra push right and he gets all and that's where he got his cut fastball from, and it was just by accident. Dj tell us about the cut fastball yeah you're. What
is relative to wear like where you have released on the ball and pressure on the far so what we're doing his passport was always over. The top right is no creature, trot trying to go to one side or the other side you're trying to get over the top it. Usually the fingers are close together and some guys drawing right down the middle, where there have been that the small end of the horse, you some, I put a little bit more curve on the on the outside. All they're doing is throwing it that throwing it just like a fastball, but the ball would come off a little bit left or right and its outrage eight is. Am I right in saying that that is considered, possibly probably the most difficult thing scale? to execute in the world of sport false memory out over there. I would totally agree because he was yeah, but what they call the cutter. That's Parnasse caught yet two pages you had a cutter and a fast one and
It was hard to dictate which one was coming, because his release point was identical, so we always look go about a certain place, though. That's where hitters are trying to get a little bit of an idea of where the balls coming out based on release, point angles over the hand part of the hand you see. He always let go of his fastball like this, so he came over that I've been off, but it depend on which pressure he had given more to that finger and then the ball would run. You know Can I ask you not to read that from the play? I know you don't read it until it's too late, range and mass bats. I mean like you would watch him and he would be breaking both left and right because you're seeing fastball in your brain, and normally with breaking bridges and changes in smaller pledges. There's like a light tat goes off. This amount, Lindsey hey, that's not the same stay back the
you, you and you know yet you fight it off. You do something different, but when his fastball was literally a mile per hour slower or five minutes fast was a mile per hour, slower you're, registering that too late and all of a sudden it's it goes in the middle of a plate. Knuckles and you're now like. I, if I don't get my hands in now I'm going to get hurt, not not even just like am I gonna make contact, I'm my life is in danger. I have to do something to stop it from Africa. You guys were taken like crazy swings began There are just trying to find me guys we're going through back to three bats indeed that, while because of that fast, and it also made him so devastating because the ball was going, it was an identical pitch is identical, release point, but the lad.
A second is where you get that little cut a little break and it's hard to register if they're coming at the same speed, when my bill bill, how? How can the ball do something different part way through the ark that has taken has any impossible. Well, so they decided. What did you just stop? I mean like those books bunny. Where one of the soldiers legends were the pitcher using amazing, like a snowball and the ball, just kind of wiggles and and jingles and stops and continues so does. Of course, a cartoon extreme of this, but it is, is dj describing something question of the boys doing rather than the balls actually doing. So, to give credit where credit is due Robert add the physics of based talked about this
being the same phenomenon observed by two different people, so your Point of view is what's producing their sole as the balls coming towards the plate. Not only is it, as soon as you let go of it. It's slowing down because of air, the heirs slowing it down, but it's also falling. And so, if you can get it to slow down and fall in a different way changing how fast it's going when it leaves your hand and changing were you aim? It is appears to the battle to be moving across the plate, but it's Marzano yes or hear her. and so is always doing that is just changing the rate at which is doing that and because when you start doing in the most difficult thing ever in sports, I want
chalky players do what baseball players do backwards and on ice gates, so I am open minded no except where, where it bill most of the time the package on the ice, so that reduces one of the degrees of freedom of how and why you find it before you hit. It always was warmly saves time. Moving off the ball dimensions, Neil, it's the most of the time that may have recorded modern players, modern occupiers, lift the park yet to be lifted. but the hitting a hysterical object with around that. So, as saying goes yours, you're soccer player. The ball was round The boy was use. I would use to a larger surface area factory weathers side about for either outsider inside or the instinct,
yet which is a large surface area, to make contact the barbarism in an old saying that the ball was round. Anything can happen. Let me get to that just before we take a break book gimme, like your most succinct comment on the precise on what fraction of and in what a fraction of an inch different contact with the boy makes was certainly or the fate of a war after leaves the bad. It's on the order of a few sheets of paper really slow. You type in the thick stars and seventeen so you know you can. If you're a human and a lot of your viewers are love some you can. You feel this difference between two thousand and four thousand without much difficulty, but that much difference will make and this difference in the form of a boy shows an exaggeration to even say a fraction of an inch is even a tiny, tiny, tiny fraction of Africa.
Just of charm but think about just people, the something always I may have to pay for their means. The big sluggard that successful homerun hitters can can decide in a fraction a little fraction of a second whether they can swing swing around stick, make contact with a round ball and hit the ball. Forty and fifty feet, that's nice, yeah. Let's wait, don't forget me, your adding history of day, one to one confrontations into the mix, not just what's. This guy dialing up but Miss moment. What has this guy dialed up to me in the ask certain seemed certain moments in a match in a game. So there's a whole lot me dj. treasure that is as low as mandated the outer edge of a lot of educated guessing so does come down to you. They have books on everybody,
usually rookies. However, a good go first couple times through because they they don't know nothin yet does know. The ball looks like when it comes off here when you re getting used to seeing somebody throw a ball and That's right! Now, most starters not making through three rounds of of nine. They usually only go to two and a half because by that time, that third time I've seen him, I know What is pitches? I know where he's drawing me. I nobody's try. I know his plan so like the good fisheries nowadays don't make it night sittings because of the fact that the hitters are actually there is so much more the en masse in there coming in their trust me. I might not dry and I'm out waited well, but not coming and going. I got it and bids the fact that there are people down there actually giving them information like books of it. Like hey you, just the last time you guys you out on this watch for this first pitch
Gay. Now I have on looking curveball burs bids. I know girls coming of it's in my hitting zone. I'm going to take the best way possible. Is your heart. I get this thing. Not that's that's where we love reload, the precision of which and abortion even great homerun hitters strike out more often than they had a home run so bright because of the bad angle that they're taking. But that's besides the point I think a lot of the geysers are striking out now because of the bad angles and how they're changing it, there there there too there the degrees of upward swing is changing. How consistent you're hitting the bar, and I don't. I don't know why doesn't make any sense. I mean back when I was growing up in the eightys and Ninetys it was three hundred was the that was it you want about three hundred. Now you guys are in line of battle to seventeen before your minds, and there I will use, is a home run in every kid wants to be a. But what about the guy that status
before forty, like a detail. What you you know that he had a lot of ways Then he had little drivel the middle scores to run the revised like. Well, you gotta hit headed out you. Nobody didn't! You know like that that not baseline in butter high average per yet so when we come back more starter exports addition physical baseball- with Burma. we're back Startalk supported the physics of baseball got my
long time frame bill Nigh who thinks if you didn't know this, this man thinks and breeze baseball he's he's a student, a baseball, as we might say, and I also brought in someone from the trenches dj price of former trainer of mine who move to Florida to coach baseball, Hackney coach. While he was here, the New York, and so he knows some inside and out, and each of you were here to keep each other honest about what you said about this morning, but I want to take the segment and start thinking about. The air, the texture, they are the humidity in the air, the air pressure, and how do these other factors, these climactic factors influence either the pitch the hit, the fielders and so bill? What can you tell me about so humidity in baseball
well. Consider the following areas. Mostly nitrogen and nitrogen, is what everyone die. Atomic eggs So it has a nice travels. I, with my concur, Your June travels around with two nitrogen molecules or together until you got it, So with my love, I guess too. Rick is die. Die. Atomic do say: miss lack. Do Sir Darras obits too so that means their seven proton. Seven neutrons you're, that's fourteen atomic. units for mass units for each Adam, and you end up a twenty eight hour. I have to ask too atoms age to o options ape that's. Sir sixteen Atomic Mass units each there and then just one atomic mass unit with hydrogen the air
is less dense. The boy ass familiar to you not, I mean just out of aid to be so pedantically all you're talking so fast, you're, not you're, displacing it rather than a reply. sing it because that other molecule still there somewhere all yet another part of North America, refugee Venezuela Surrogate wedged its way and to create them on a human dashboards. Ok US alarm a day some water molecules are not aside, some nitrogen molecules or not Besides him argon benzene hunted, all these other happy molecules but or atoms in some cases, but Water molecules are less massive, the nitrogen molecules and most air is nitrogen. Seventy percent, or so So, when a ball is going through, the air, that's humid, pushing aside Adams that are less massive. It has. It can travel fast
farther through a human error a bitter cold dry day, and this is so not This is so noticeable in baseball, especially cricket especially when word your hidden. Abortion is flying it hundred miles an hour. Push inside your molecules, if there were less massive it goes further and so and now that seems like if we follow this line of reasoning, that if you go to a mile high stadium, where this is simply less air Rikers air pressures lower that doubles down on this effect prison yeah, it's true fact not a false fact. As I will declare remark, so you Does he have a plot home runs per altitude of stadium and it should go up so cause I owed in Denver yet the home of the Rockies. They think ass, beginning of the twenty first century, introduced
humidor, the sort of thing you have your cigars, you all my cigars and if you re drought, Soda then, because of the yard inside the bull, allows the young to absorb a little more moisture and therefore kind of damp sit down. Is that is they re thinking there? Where would you say they put the ball into humidor, not the stadium and a humanitarian right? That's a rather large humidor story so that all these little bill rewrite the humidity effects it gets into everything. So I ve ever Crystal ball moving through human error. I get it, but if my ball is kind of machine because he said in a human environment, then what so? The ball doesn't go off to a bad as strongly as fast. the term heightened when okay. So this is so it's a mitigating, it's it's a mitigating factor on the humidity that would otherwise make it go farther. Yeah so ended the Rockies first the plan was just home, run home on Roma long headlong headlong hit, but they had
this innovation, they get the balls humid, and for some download, but why is that? Why do they want to do that? So very, like home, runs well think the game became accomplice. Created in that you all the strategy, all the tactics that a pitcher wherein fields would stand a better approach to the boy. Everything was changed by the board traveling, so much farther swinging about his heart. Also, the pictures had much more difficulty, causing the ball to curve or change, but then they could throw it faster So these two things so the thing about baseball but everybody's kooky for is every pitch. Is the statistic every pitch is a datum in the great pantheon of baseball record. Keeping I don't know if that's a pantheon, the gray, record books of record keeping and sewed them at all just animals.
They made adjustments to make the statistics. More meaning for when you're playing in Denver and in our people went when you play basis, otherwise it's just a free for all the work Roy did it changes the two statistics for the home team? It changes the statistics, statistics for the visiting team in a way I had all these great left handed its and they made the right field fans two hundred ninety six feet: that's how many Babe Ruth Home runs dropped in two hundred and ninety eight feet, so I feel like they were DJ. Do you guys actively know that human error, the boy goes further than it is at an actively known thing- is not something that that I'm thinking from scientific perspective, but I'd rather baseball in June and July, then in September
or knocked over that much. I do now. Oh ok, so some hours in the psychology of what you ok, you have not always answer you. I was a baseball players are by this modest business. They don't know it. You got it because we're always go get about stuff like that, but we don't know what we're thinking about from a scientific perspective, because I equally. You would think you know. Humid airs heavy in that and you think and but bill not just explain that away right. It's not a matter of hours, differently, when you, when you hit a ball in October in September late September, in the north of its uncomfortable and doesn't feel the same way in July in most places you go to in July during its pretty hot. So I got married you down here, Ready Jackson, Mr October, with such a significant, it was more than just its its rural series
It is our top areas, it is, the heirs is, is cold and Chris and and all that goes with the odd it is a deeper game. I mean in that even like you, looking from the West Coast, EAST goes gonna thing. You know that even down south in Florida meaner, we would come down here for four spring training when the from new York- and it was like all while these feel at the Bosnia GO further- can you throw it a little harder, Rollo fast feel so you're, the other you're, the the unsuspecting physicists? Just? Why? Yes, that's great! I love that so so Gary offline, you are telling us, you had a question about about global warming. Yeah, that's what you put your hand at a blockade also leaves it any scene. Reckless temperatures in death Valley issue something by two hundred and thirteen plus, and when I think we should build a stadium in Death Valley, which is very, very high air pressure because as well it is very low elevation and then curveball would be amazing
yeah. They might be a problem in the field. You know the game depends not this year, but generally on bans common to look after her in five degrees. That's another drawback! Yeah I get there, but holding aside those complications that would be a ball throwers dream Lady. I forgot about about twenty nine goes, so Yes, ruhrgas warmer, though era gets warmer and less dense, and we will expect the ball to go for the Seville as the world. Its warmer were areas thinner right. This future molecules protuberant meter or what have you? Ok, a and b throughout its warmer. We are vapid rating, more moisture and keeping more moisture in the air gives more human. Is it true that the air on in general would be more human
yeah, I mean that's my certainly first cut at it. That's what I would expect. Ok, so we have to reasons why, in a global warmed, earth baseball will have more homewards. Yeah a more extra base. Its end So far, higher pitch speeds and fast you're, the pitcher throws it and you'd make contact the farther with the ball. There is a whole they let the pitcher do. The work of many of us have seen sort of strobe photos of a golf ball getting here, and you see the golf ball collapsing and then recoiling do you know how much a baseball under when I was a kid I unravelled a baseball it was it was. It was one of the happiest
So my might well, I just discovered that there's like rubber inside and it is a little bit like a candy thing in the center. Just this legislation would not like Turkey role Popper exactly I felt like. I was the first person discovering this and you know how much a baseball deforms so the ball. compressors, a surprising amount like imagine if you could grip of baseball and squeeze it with Europe Index anger in middle finger so that your room and middle finger were a fully submerged in the service the boy that's about how much it compressors is really surprising in support of the distances. Is the ball restoring to its shape? So the ball is in. It is in a way propelling itself in the aftermath of that. Well, when you jump off a trampoline is, is the trampling
propelling you or is it you what's? The answer is both your storing energy and the ball and more the springs of travel. So how long does it take, but also the timeline looking at here from impact defamation and then returning to its original shape about a thousandth of a second that long? There are not two hundredth much less than way. Less than that, I prefer a hundreds of a secondary. I think he would see that in their high speed, replace yeah I made a thousandth of a second, it is, is not catch and that we have to return quite quickly because a boat fly obviously as well right. The active returning off the surface of the bad it gives a proposal for like like Bill, says the impulse. so the physics term, based mainly on foundations, at that I gave up contact well where the ball gets. The formed enormous envelopes himself over the bad. It's it's while.
as rosy rising. What's under velocities. Are we talking about DJ for a bad? If, if we ve got a real power, heats up? What sort of speed is this patent meeting the boy well let me I said another went along in the ball, leaves the bad at a hundred five miles an hour in. Does that mean I hit the ball at hundred five miles an hour. It is right that movie on reform can be our faster than the speed with which I swung the bad. That's yesterday, the question for bill. I would I oh yeah yeah certain famous, you know this My famous wonderful science teacher demonstration, you get a basketball and a tennis ball And all the double bump, the double bob like plan: yes,
so go ahead. Neil describe it to the listener. May I don't you started up an idle? I would. I would so delight in describing this ok. So if and we have, we ve actually to calculate this in physics class cause, it's the result is unbelievable, you see it and he sat on believe it and the new calculated and then the calculation shows that's what must happen if you take a large ball at a small ball on top of it. Ok so that the market will have to be much bigger than the smallest, so basque, basketball and like a marble, or I marvel pretty good, but you can use a baseball
or you can use a baseball. It's fine tenets of all with our traditional thing, something much bigger than that. Also take a basketball and add a bit Anna baseball sure so drop one by itself and come up to a certain I'd drop, the other by itself. Little comforter, certain I'd, take the smaller gall hold it just above the big ball and dropped them simultaneously. The other traditional thing is a little strip of double stick tape or a loop, a loop of tape, so that the Boers as you drop it saves kind of states by say, as they are as they drop. What happens is the bottom bull hits furs recoils off the ground goes upward and hits the small ball, which is itself coming in and then doubling back of its own recoil as well as the basketballs recall, and it goes up nine times as high, he has really require the tradition.
The thing is the best born tennis, ball and so the basketball. So much more massive, then the tennis ball. and its momentum is transferred to the tennis ball because it changes into the cell. It is manifested As a high change and speed of the tennis ball at an because fifty feet in the air. I mean it's a striking experiment that hundreds outbreak in beginning physics, ok, so I like that. Well, that's baseball! You guys is all so called classical physics. There's. No. Therefore I say: do Tonia Physics and you got all meet medical science. I didn't really get mad. I just if you're a baseball coach. I don't know how much people respond to me, I'm using all of this sitting, all guys we're gonna land this place. Thank you bill.
Do. You still got my science guy. Is that yes, yes, it's trademarked. People don't make me come over their view, thank you very dj. Neil thanks for having beyond all get Jerry always good to have. You come mainly James. It's great to have you back on this and is concerned. You again enjoy Florida. We also really crazy people, while DJ plan a lot o god, it's very driveway. Do you got it all right. I'm near the grass placing your personal astrophysicist as always bidding you to keep looking
Transcript generated on 2020-10-27.