Neil deGrasse Tyson and comic co-host Paul Mecurio answer a grab bag full of fan-submitted Cosmic Queries on the Big Bang, the boundaries of the universe, space tourism, Star Trek, dark matter, neutrinos, communicating with extraterrestrial life, and much more.
Thanks to this week’s Patrons for supporting us: Valentín Elizalde, Tyler Ford, Ted Shevlin.
NOTE: StarTalk+ Patrons and All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/show/cosmic-curiosities-with-paul-mecurio/
Photo Credit: V. Springel, Max Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Garching bei München.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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from the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming all is based and start with science,
This is host near the grass twice your personal astrophysicist and
We have a cosmic queries addition, but now it's kind of there
questions that kind of land in their own category and sweaty. Do. When you put questions together that belong each in their own category, you got to kind of a grab bag, a kind of a cosmic curiosity.
Or mixed together, and I went out with whose, whose a cosmic curiosity himself poor material Paul, how I thanked for been I'm sorry. I've been on your show or materials from multiple time. Yeah you re. So, thank you. You say that or not you. Actually. I didn't think you knew much about science has killed it now. I love being on your show, cause your curious and you didn't know you fancy curious and, and I like being amid curious people could then I can fulfil
my prime directive as an educator. I I told my wife that if I had you is a science teacher, I probably be doing something in science really, because I do think the mess
is the medium and some level and the person communicating- and I had this guy- this big hulking bitter guy
in thirty years, invaders motor bitter Tee, with small going. I we're gonna make a battery today and what an exciting? I remember a great I couldn't. I believe this is the worst I gotta seeing chemistry, but anyway
The way you- and I know you come on what Stephen cover
we're gonna show he just lies right, you're woman.
Yeah, you YE brains out when you come on, like him
so whoever they are- God, that's great. I have to do anything. I just ask one question: no authority segment, it's it's a big man, you're, not an excellent actual, so you collect your other question. I dont questions
I gathered from the internet, I, along with linen specifically solicitor their leftovers really
left. All I'm allowed our guy. That's about right. What did you want to call this? The cosmic cosmic catch catch all cut the cosmic catch basin. Have our Ashby had a false hubbub halls pathetic left over
the path that they all have moved on and auditing. Now, now that these people
They should be rewarded for asking questions. They fit no cattle
yeah and a very good grow. Aren't enough people like that out there who who walk at a pace that no one sees or understands it doesn't get away with, not others a quote from Nietzsche. This is one of my favorite quotes ever those who were dancing with deemed insane by those who couldn't
here the music wow, that's heavy. I think we should end the show they weren't gonna end up going to think about. If you looking through a glass war, you don't hear the music. What are people entered? That's so sure of it just now.
Up and down waving their appendages. These people having seizures is no, if you don't know
they're playing use and you can hear the music you think there and say it say it is definitely a good point b. So therefore I respect people who think differently. In fact, one could define genius that way. It's a genius is one who sees what everyone sees, but
What no one else has fuck were you always like? This is a child and I'm not gonna, because a year they are one of the most several analyzing me. This is a curious. You tell me about your parents, that's what this? What what ok now! I know why,
curious! Why? Because of how you're so well versed, not just in astrophysics in science, but in pretty much everything- and I'm just curious about this-
plenty of not first, and I just don't talk of a huge gaping all. But if I don't talk about you, don't know how on very good pr upside ages. Anyway, don't you know what it is? You noted, and I mean it.
Carbon and I'm not trying to be funny. It's hard to know what your cup cow that I just government. It has examined this wife in the penal gallery without a compliment. The spectrum of comments that combating your husband's mouth that counts as a car
I hate to be in your home again
I know we have three segments it is we got more when ok, let's get some first questions going? Ok
we're, starting with our patriotic patriarchs gotta get it. You got. I've got a priority,
gotta have already been the priority patriotic. This John Callaghan is the name big bang. A misnomer
from what I recall, we don't actually have any evidence. The big bang, starting with an explosion like a supernova.
Our black hole, merger,
So, first of all, the big Bang was a name given to this idea that the universe started in this one primordial explosion. It was given pejorative Lee to this idea by proponents of what, at the time, was known as
steady state theory, hypothesis, some universe when we're the universe, always wise and always will be even though it
expanding. It's always been expanding.
And matter is spontaneously created in the vacuum to fill in four, where spaces getting
so said, you'd always see a universe that looked about the same there's a collar, steady state hypothesis. You could get that out of Einstein's equations grab
there was a loud, but another solution was one where we're either collapsing. Where we were expanding, all three solutions were allowed, the one with the big bang itself they was eat. It was an equal competitor to the steady state theory for decades until we finally got some evidence to support the big bang- and that was the famous Micro cosmic microwave back on this is a
left over signal signature from an explosion that started in one hot, primeval, fireball thirteen point eight billion years. Thank you, sir.
You'll need me for this now, because I was the only thing german thirty born a five year. You showed off now denies that works, so so it was, it was given as it as it is a funny pejorative name, but its stock in any. If it fits it fits now is not clear how much noise it would have made, because just the expansion of space, it's
There's not enough. That's not associated with noise in spaces vacuum anyway, and noise doesn't propagate. So, if you don't want to call it the Big bang cause, it was probably made no noise. You think it thinks that by now you call it that
an event of loans. We already had a blow to the big event, but you know the main event. Will you talked about laws in theory?
in what used to be called, will ever that already river? That's right! It's a subtle point. In the old days we come up with an understanding of the universe. A new law has been discovered at a very exciting time in science, when they
happens, and then you learned later on that with better instruments and more tools and deeper thinkers
that what you came up with as a law was a smaller subset of a larger understanding. So you don't really issue call a law made its at say, but it works. May so we just use the we're theory for everything that
now right wing? And if you, if you just have an idea, hasn't intestine call hypothesis, Paul's hypothesis,
There's a lot of those bs Ipod. We but there's
we say we re examine this summer. You said in this context, you said the courtiers would have
and then the twentieth century. As I we came to learn that whatever we determined to be true about the universe, may only be a sub text of a larger, true yeah. That's right! Not that would later shown to be wrong right. So it's not like science goes from one truth to another truth. Discarding previous truths about the physical science has at least not since the sixteen hundreds. Have we been in that situation before the six hundred wets that's about when we the methods and tools and practices of what we now call modern science?
were forged the Galileo, Francis Bacon, folks, it you, if you have an idea about how the world worth issue tested in Attica, how it looks.
But your senses and how you come up with an experiment they going
but beyond your senses, or extend your sense in Galileo. Had a telescope Leeuwenhoek Oak had a microscope. You start seeing directions. They were previously inaccessible to your sensory system, your eyes, you urge that your sense of touch, taste smell, and so the universe comes to you now outside of Europe. The experience of your senses and the experiment then becomes the measure. What is true, not whether it makes sense and one of my recent books
the front peace that I mean that the demographic epigram, a grammar, epigram hours, we get. What do they call? You don't know on its I just as I just lead. I just I just baptized people into this by saying the universe is under no obligation to make sense to you yeah. But it's it's good.
Rose in a state of sub text, then in some way possibly- and it's something you might know completely rain- but let it be open enough to say this is a subset of a larger understanding, Newton's laws or motion and gravity worked. Did he experienced anything faster than
a for or less worthy the gravity, the Ervay, its worked infected, got us to the moon and bad rain. But then,
We have particle accelerators and get moving closer to the speed of light, and we say you know news laws. Are
weird things. Hamburger knowledge is limited by what you can do at that time in the joint any erected and in the end I strike him with his laws is theories of rank of much of motion and gravity, and we learn that it's a deeper understanding of reality that still has limits. May his snow and ice there is leave out. Leave us high and dry at the singularity, the black hole at the singularity of the big bang itself.
It's like dividing by zero, maybe not supposed to do that- a math class harangue, rightly okay. So there's I there's a poster said by a t shirt by now. That said, a black hole, the centre of Michael, it's were, God, is dividing by zero right. So I thought that was cute, so so singularity are now the frontier of string, theory and others who are trying to take it to the next look at it.
Just one other thing honestly, hawking said the boundary condition of the universe is that it has no boundary. Is that sort of what Europe
That's not the way to think about it. I think that's a it's! It's a is an organizational thought or are you? Ok? You can say what is already holding flatters aside. I assume you agree that earth has sparked,
Depends what could I get up? So if I say to you, I start walking and call me when you get to the edge of the earth you see. I'm not going to do that goes earth has no edge me. While you can walk forever and never get to an edge re sort of the boundary conditions of the earth. Is there an edge, no there's no edge so so so you can have.
Surface of the earth is one of hope you can have that on earth. Are you gotta higher dimensions? It and you can. I ve got a lot of places with that.
I have to launch in it and you can. I ve got a lot of places with that right and imagine an entire universe that has no edge may in no boundary Nobel
the entire. We live forever as a universe, there's no boundary at the other end of
I gotta tell you, I love you jobs! Annoying because there's never an answer at the end of it, but we got Sonata. I take you to places where we don't have answers, cassettes. We're things were coolest, there's plenty stuff. We have answers to know
the age of the earth where humans came from. I got this guy. You know what I like about ass. You do things like the names you come up with
Other side of the coin was names will wait. A minute was no other size. Six, you all gi. Whatever is like latin phrases. You have like work. Spooky action in Big bang, whose net
we use them but had maiming. Yes, we call it like. We see him.
We. We ok begin your space time
energy in the universe, Big Bang, we're just one syllable communication for people like me again: it ok, there's a region of space where you fall in you don't come out like doesn't come a black hole
There's a crater in Arizona made by a meteor got meteor crater. All the other sciences come up with these huge land derive.
Word cretaceous, hailing paleo dioxin. You I've only nine if we had a letter from the outset, big tooth letter,
maybe maybe they might make it our motto, poetic. I think it's why so much of our vocabulary has been absorbed in adopted into the marketing of products where possible.
But you don't they still making, but that was a watch. Ways are bran tv
tvs and and microwave ovens in the old days. But today I think it's the second, the third highest category of where you draw names from turning cars, as is yes, it has still not or sites signs, leaning, Astro
Let's start off by countries was we ask me, questions the aggregate. When are you going? I can't you as the questioner you're too. Ok, fine, this council, Paul,
that's good, hindquarters upside fine. We find that you have asked whether we do pause question. It makes
and one pissed off at you. I M not unaware of that fund, and that is that we are likewise sudden number one in car names. I think our names, it don't mean anything like the S class for Mercedes.
Just letters and managers in numbers. I gave the the M class in it with a number gay. Then you have locations like Yukon or denial. I tell you I get. These are places that ok, I think third is like science named science, astrophysics thing
and I made a whole list of the physical. Let me read, I gotta get my pocket: ok, ok, Gimme saga, polar ice.
God I'm happy to go to the next month or usually has not you. That's why
atta became ready, ok, are between eighteen, seventy, three nineteen, seventy five year. What had just finished? What are we just finished doing just before that?
getting rid of mixing right. That's just we just when going to the moon. Yes, the car call the APOLLO. Oh yes, I forget
What do we forgot? You that all those a Buick Course General Motors, ok, and then I got
Two thousand and eight to two thousand and nine. The Saturn car
whoa. I start there. They had a car called the extra which is which is basically star in Latin.
I got that, but it doesn't go on and on and on a you, someone to shut up a two thousand and five to current. They Chevy Equinox, I'm taking
Oh, you know that it's ok now but could go in here we go another one Saturn going back to sadder, which the car can. We does not exist anymore, but sadder from two to three thousand seven had the ion.
I'm taking to the island's arbitrary brought with the it. The sun is abolished, ionize gas, coal plasma
All stars or I ll, give you a cousin really it's what I use me most of the universe is ionized and taken it. Ok, not given that it is ok. The famous one here night
sixty two to nineteen, seventy. Nine and again I can nine five and eighty to ninety eight, the chevy
over. That was the car we made out in a which, for those only listening, you should say who
taking out with you- and I and my wife arrows
in the penal gallery of history. I remind the high school together and you may not, in my view, not all along. We had a Chevy Nova, okay and we were very front seats. You could move the steering wheel, got the biggest smile,
people know that, in other words, a start that had just blown up. I think Chevy had they known that they might have done.
Does it mean if for no go now going into Spanish in Spanish, I've got another twenty cars
I just want to say right away for those, it was proof he's. Has it on his phone and he has so many that he's he must indeed about. Seventy swayed
Kept going you're going you're going. I voted with a place ass s. We would damage you tried and no
eclipse were orbit orbit. I prefer the harder gum rather than that software
so you're really committed to your crasser at noon. Glow, bath, bead, you get celestial seasonings t! You bet milk,
way, candy bar mom,
Can you list the name of the family they named Mars and its red? Ok, the packaging is red, I'm taken it,
That is why we have heard today about what have we got thirty second level. What's an exquisite identification is from another patriotic, probably
The entire first segment, one and one half gazette asks will face. Tourism require some fundamentally new technology to make an affordable for everyday people. This is Patrick Full was in no pre.
Wash- and we will get to that question next-.
Hey I've got no secret for you,
when I consider singing all of the ads on this shell
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arms last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying.
This is a start.
Various addition where it really a grab back its Paul's, but Paul mercurial microphones, today for being on possible,
they found. The poor material show yeah. I can't ipod ass. I do not deny it several times is always one being on there with you thanks for coming,
They have only have been a big fan of the show is really like an honour to be asked as to lead, and you collected not out of one category you just you got the dregs of everybody's. We have what I think is cool, because it's like it, it's a mixed bag. It's fine! You know it's not just
the topic of dark matter. Guy think some of them are the best merchant yeah. Did they don't the several
far more out of a bit of a different from yet? So what what we have? You call this pause? What would a cosmic cosmic catch I'll catch up
Are you really that questionable sherry book?
This is a patriotic burst. Anyone Hive Gazette Patrick for was in no creek was got Washington ass. Will space tourism requires some fundamentally new technology to make it affordable for everyday people. Yes, that's a really good question. What interesting about access to space is, if you remember, you're a con one or one, we think the demand is completely elastic. Ok and an elastic demand would be if you dropped the price more people will do. If you re surprise fewer people, do it, but there's always a demand at a price as one of the measures of whether something's elastic its inelastic, it doesn't matter what price recharge everyone has to buy it and you can drive some people bankrupt or whatever, but elastic is like most products. You want
to be a lasting. It's a healthy economy mega, so tourists seats have already been sold on the space station by the Russians to the Americans, wouldn't do it and how much where they are there to twenty million dollar? Why wouldn't we do it because it was not our witness now we roll mark not for for our greatest of frontier, not so tat. We have.
Write stuff. You just lie the right stuff. It ate the right stuff. You, our image of go into space. Had some of that meeting right studied. I want to sell it right. You're Euro sought ya know correctly. I think that was then known would say that, but I think that was part of that
you think, is inevitable that we are going to have to know exactly don't apologize for universities, New York. Let me that's my only.
But you're paying attention. I'm sorry, I'm sorry who you think so so you can drop the price of if you made it, ten million other, might
be ten people who will go up, you ve ever billion dollars? Ten million is lunch money where the latter billionaires today make it one million.
Then you have all the like hundred millionaires. Ok, so there as you
down the economic ladder. The number of people who I think would be interested in this would continue to grow plus I bet I don't know your budget
I don't know what you do on holiday, I'm not going to ask, but I bet you would save two years of holiday expenses to go
one space to him ass. He used to homer Watch TV and all your colleagues when you might have gone to a rubber or ever does my wife have yes she's in the room now answers and I go on a crank call Nova, so I'm so. I think there is a price that you can you just keep doing this. Then it is a price below which it can't go, make a lottery o inches. Yes, yes, so, let's say
Get a blow a million dollars, so you sell a million lottery tickets for dollar. You do that
for any wrong how low every single seat we'll go for dollar, but you can see
we're going to get the one person in that's the million that the ten million dollars it pays for that one percent. You could you do that every time,
I love you think this is the price could go real? Is it's tough? It's it's tough get into space, and it really is here. I don't I don't know it's tough. Do you trust
technology and the private side to get it right and do a right, do you mean you do not kill you? Yes, people die for that will have the first airplanes people die right now people cure bag commercials either. This is how this works go to space die, don't even look at first tat. People says you when people said, if even much you know has a spacecraft mars, would you take his first patient? I said no, I wait till after he sends his mother and brings her back right if he can do that.
I'm gonna try and bring. I get a good Netflix account is occupied a nine months to get their move. At least I believe in size of you. If you can make Disney in Disneyworld affordable, then I know we get something outside think. I think you have to do lottery if the ticket doesn't come down to the thousand our vacation, that we would all take paying for an airplane and rental car at a hotel to go to the beach you drop in anywhere between one and five thousand dollars.
The family that you might have saved up to do, and I dont see had come in that it getting that cheap, see that happening to me come faster than I thought it would mean a seemingly just talked about a few years ago and suddenly, like were close to making this happen, yeah and so as a thing. What will watch the rich people do at first by the way, rich people were the first, a finer points just but this is how might you know it's a good point, the first press,
and to do it that was headline news. Present applies and interpret ok, quick prediction who move on how many carry answer my louder? I think you right now. Access to orbit costs ten thousand dollars a pound, no matter what it is. Well, yes, so
can't do that fake. I have an emotional problem. Can I bring my dog, then you pay ten thousand, also power for you not to allow two hours or others forget,
the blood and the great day, and you have a great deal on a weight loss programme and I want to go to the base and ride you. Are they haven't enough? So ten thousand also pound Eli Musk is trying to get them out of think he's, gonna get it to a thousand dollars a pound
and what are you a hundred and yet so there be hundred fifty thousand dollars way less than a million. But in an an I bet, if you wait a hundred sixty, but you could dropped two hundred fifty you do that. To save the ten thousand dollars absolutely go into space
oh I've gone naked, just the same way to enclose we're going for you to carry on their baby some basic subsidiaries
important criterion. Can I
by Boeing MA, it's going to close your fists things as valid,
we're gonna go onto a court
bowling would be hard and space way just for having waited. If we're going to leave your bowling ball at home. If you get a strike in space, you down here didn't happen. If you got a strike, is facing, you didn't hear it, you be bowling in a vacuum with spacesuit on and they'll be weird. We would. We would be a place where there's air
and you could breathe ok, we would do that for you and your bowling ball awry
the Euro Gregg. I saw you at the time. As a you talked about the movie gravity, you made the point that Sandra
Bang Bang always point: is our Larry gangs knew where gravity was everything's blow? Harare revolved around of hangs, didn't but then angered me first,
I shall again, who are a cut of delicate mediately, went to her face it. Is she looked great you're right down there and pearly? There was straight everything around it and now was. I was wrong to to go there now. You might think it might then each of them just defend myself for the moment. If you look at any picture of somebody in Spain,
who has long hair
first thing: you notice that the hair is everywhere this the first things a good point:
the women who got with all along here and it'll tied in the tank stick and straight up. Is that why Kelly the ball.
It is you spell, must he wants to keep your yesterday if, in space, Herpes sounds David Martin
they mark early, but merely one of you waited vine growing, we islands, I think it might be Scot. I don't know I gotta do not wear which, when do we interview, one star talk. We had what one of those two twins we had the better looking one. Apparently that has introduced a scotch.
I think it was he yeah, maybe headlong deadlocks and want to scrutiny.
I know that photo livery ivory mess with aids, so we're gonna go on another patriotic.
The porter, a one hive gazette this is this- is this is the same a gentleman this is.
Ask questions in writing. Dark matter seems to be a placeholder for unexplained. Gravitational forces in the universe is possible,
Our understanding of gravity is incomplete. Could gravity work differently on galactic scales, not likely some excellent question? First, it's not so much a placeholder
placeholder? But if not, we measure this thing out there and we don't that has gravity associated with it and we don't know what it is come up with a name calls on the collar Fred. I don't care what you call it. It's a thing. It's got gravity we measure its gravity. It interacts with matter by gravity, so we happened to call it dark matter and it was Ngos. The matter is that it is really dark gravity, dark, red replies, you know, met in either. You know it's matter. We would it label
correctly. Just like the big bang. We have to call it the big event, the silent and every the main event. If it didn't make any sound it with dark gravity, is the accurate
we should be calling and we all know what it is, but we can calculate with it. Then you put it in the equations and it works is a term areas. The extra grab, the extra stuff dark. The dark matter is in eighty five percent or something yet also. Eighty five percent of all
every than universe is of unknown origin gravity that we measured so yeah. It could be that we need a deeper understanding of gravity on larger scales, but we
examples of colliding galaxies and
You can run the numbers on it,
and regular gravity accounts for that, and then you throw in dark matter account for some other things that are going on. So I dont. We think it's not that. I know how slow ITALY there is. There is a there's, a sub cottage industry or people who think we just have to modify gravity, modify, newtonian gravity and they abbreviated that Emily, indeed modified Antonio. They called Monde demand people, you type Monde and wiki you'll, get almost description of taking newtons gravity and adding a term to it for large scale thing, and then you can fit a few things where there's something you can't sit
so we think it's we think of something else, that we simply don't know what it is. We you said you you'd. This is something you said you dont know. If it's made a matter is a misnomer to send people in thought directions. That's not the right path. I dont say some on the right path. It's it's! It's! You dont want to mislead you'd want to prejudge
What it could be because then people use the word and then they get caught up in the word and then the word becomes. The thing, rather than the
there? Are you a win win proponent of weekly interim?
thing messenger articles. You have ensured that the bulk of the possibility, what role they could play in the universe, rain pleasure I mean in the universe, astrophysics were open to anything. Is there we're we're so ignorant?
of so much stuff. We take any you gotta an idea, bring it on and give us ways. We might test it and will test it. Is there a process of elimination
sure like how are you or your rising about off the list?
economic, the hypothesis that has enough detail in your predictions,
that we can rule it out. If we make the experiment, if you just say it could be just something that's bear when you don't look at it, but then, as there is further than Gimme a prediction, if our production unit is not useful, ok, so their hypothesis
these that are put on the table, the more fuzzy Wuzzy they are, the less useful they aren't you just discard them is the ones they say. If this idea is correct, you should find this. If you look in that direction and that we do it, we find a hey you're onto something gimme. Another prediction up that failed. Ok, and should you modify your ipod since or and by the way, if your predictions keep coming right rank, we elevate your hypothesis to a theory. Oh that's how you get to see real gravity, the quantum theory relativity theory you get evolutionary theory. These are ideas started out. Has my policies elevated to working understanding of how the universe works that has predictive value is? Is it possible
but our understanding of gravity is so vague that my bathroom scale could be off so that I'm actually whiter than that's the party gravity. We understand precisely
ok, we're gonna move and were another deny the way people talk about this because the centrifugal force of the rotating earth. You weigh less on the equator than you do on the nor on the pole, could the earth agenda spin you off its? We actually way little less at the equator way less here than you do in Canada.
Really by not only that earth is slightly wider at the equator than it is at the ball. She farther
away from the centre? The earth of you weigh less? For that reason as well, you also way less because you are immersed in a fluid called air. There's a buoyant, see that you have in air air is fluid. If it takes a shape of its container. It's a fluid. You can have liquids and gases or fluids. It's a fluid dynamics, which has an entire branch of physics and engineering, involves the movement of things that would that are, would take so the movement of of water, around bridge embankments, the moving of air over the the wings of planes,
That's all it's off fluid dynamics, so so so that when I talk about that, whereas where was I go in with this, because I asked you a gravity is so vague that my scale could be sorry, if I were you started, features
because I say so: here's here's how to go on the equator. Where you get the centrifugal forces, write you a little less than you would. Then Santa Claus would weigh less money
greater than on the north. All- and you also lesson equate occurs. Earth is slightly wider at the equator than it is.
Multiple and you'd also way less. If you went to a mountain top because your farther away from earth Centre, then if you went down in a mine
For example, there were moving to an equator. I wanna be illegally to a mountain on any way,
now. I know you talk of pizza, everyday. I just six ounces of butter when we come back report material on startup, more cosmic worries
We want to shut out the following people who support us on patriarch and help us, as we make our little journey through the cosmos, thou and
Ella Zol Day Wilson to share
and Julia lashing, thank you so much
for supporting us, and if you want your name, shouted out, gotta to and support start talk, radio,
Free space inside science down to earth, you were listening to start
such a Europe alone from the pole, material shouted did you alive,
self denying outlets.
Get to check the authorities are now. I got myself a car service. Yes, I got provision to be out just for the debtors for the data which, as it pleases Neil, you brought your wife she's in the studio. My welcome tell me your name again Carol. Welcome to start talk, so you got some more quickly:
Four may go barrier we're going nervous, thicken with dark matter. This is Kale honey set Instagram. Do you think they once.
Man, dark matter is discovered and understood what it actually help and space travel, so ugly answer a bigger question than that, almost oh. By the way we ve already discovered dark matter. We just don't know what it is. Okay, so let me what she means that there is once we know what dark matter.
Is made of. We already discovered it it's there. Can we then use it and by the way, but it is a long history of discovering things that we all know what it is that this is not the first time you discover something the car dashings. What is this, why am I watching this discussion about this?
Jack United? I matter forces operating on our culture that Viti VIA has eighty five percent, so once you find out what it is, I can say more broadly that practically every sized tippit discovery there ever was when you have enough clever engineers and other folks in the pipeline, we find a way to apply it to our everyday lives, and this case may be space travel. Maybe we can exploit its existence as we move through space. Maybe we can isolated, dark
better particle here on earth and use it for walking through walls knock matter doesn't interact with ordinary matter in ordinary ways. Effected it moves through it as though it's
there at all it's a loud, and we know that if we don't know what it is all because we can seize because we can see you can log the behaviour of same sex exactly as we say, here's a region
space we don't see mattered, no light is coming out except stuff is getting attracted to. It must be used up. This has removed through it unimpeded with its speed. So
attracted to it? Yet it's not slowing down, I'm not ploughing into any rights, so dark matter and quote regular matter can move through each other with no effect at all. So maybe that's how you make ghosts. Maybe this these are the spirits of all the dead people, give them into the usual. Even anyone know next question, but what it will look at it isn't about
Hundred billion people ever born on earth may be less than eighty billion, sir, and we got about seven billion here now, so that the eighty billion mine
seven, that what is to get you down to so they set seventy three billion ghosts out there. So, for us, as a lotta goes
people to people in Gaza. Nor can it be so many of them they d be ten times as many ghost our people have their higher. I know annoy me busy everywhere. You turn this girl is a girl set up with the girls are very great Caesar's girl. We cannot be so where, where was I before, we train
it was: seventy million goes every three million Gus there's a thing. The total number of humans ever born doesn't amount to that much mass,
This way more mass in the universe and dark matter than ever could be equalled by the ghosts of dead people. See, can appeal to the ghost of dead people or
lost socks here in the washing machine
it is time to do a carry cycle thing up against the begin drier trying to get up nice about here,
by the way in this dark matter. They real quick did the idea that you can define it. We don't
What it is. That's a good way to scare kids like if you don't go to bed dark matter is gonna. Get you like freaking out, oh, never! Think of other. Nor didn't you have kids, yes,
how old are you gonna get a closer look, we're gonna, get a move away from dark matter. Very few of those this is from Might Parker Facebook when something explodes in space, as is shown
where's tv shows and movies is their right,
we a shock wave in a vacuum, so good question. There was this Britain clearly knows: there's no sound to move. You only get a shockwave,
if energy is moving through medium,
and so, for example, in the medium or anything anything, nothing, that's how bombs work the bomb works, because a crater shockwave the moose through air, then walls, then your flesh, ghosts. Ok
I haven't seen experiments and goes yet this seventy three million over you should get on it up billion ability saying I had so so goes.
These mediums and so generally, in a supernova, MRS Sommer, best shockwaves in the universe. The star that was once there had shed a lot of gas into the vacuum of space and deep down is where you get the explosion, and so the explosion happens, sending a shockwave rippling through the gas that it had spread out into space. You see these beautiful photos of these terribly disturbed, gashes regions, the shockwave blown through it by Tommy, gets out the other end of the of the material. Then the the shockwave can't propagate so it what it does is accelerated particles at the end with that left over energy in a very high moving away.
Moving particles, it's fun thing is this renewed, its third law comes into lieutenant. There was always comes in or just ever, not with you. Not laws apply everywhere at all times the as yet my ass put my but is pushing down on the sea
and pushes back where exactly so. You have is energy moving through and it needs to manifest and at the edge of the edge of the gas you get. The six always happens at the edge of the sun is well get these accelerating particles at the edge of the Sun Marine Corps. Many gaps part the solar wind actually does any of this stuff. That happens. I said
track as any their true cause. I mean I I weren't I wouldn't cling on, so I hope it's not a wish vermicular cling on your in the club. I didn't learn. Click on I said now. I will use my brain for other thing. Why do enough back there and that's how I should be using my brain, we're going to do about the way the photon torpedoes or that or the failures that the ship phases yeah shoot forward if, if their directing their energy to the ship in front of them, you should not see them from the side.
No energy coming out of sight when there is like when the speedometer on your windshield in a really fancy car. You can only see straight on August, because it's in a well, ok, that's cause it doesn't. Let you see it from the side coz its inner, it's in it so
trickle cavity. Oh aunt, one went with the gentleman's oh, so what they do is they have a like up a polarized screen, so only the driver would see. You know, that's not why this is the case when you cease, when you see a laser through the air because air,
whereas reflect particles in the air a reflecting the laser like to you on the side. But if this dark ship against cling on ship in the vacuum of Space- and you said a light being forward, you have no idea the light beam. Is there
yeah you so that about routers red nose it it doesn't emit later reflect its reflect I'll, be able to reflect lipid. Let we can allow to admit light when you know everything I've ever written or said. This is a little spooky
just posted, no studies or to rely on I'm sorry is bordering on was the word. You have me up. Look images that in your stuff- and I feeling nation, those something if you nice
you're right which, by the way that we can we,
We are at the five minute mark, which means we have
go into lightning right, ok hearing, so that means I will answer every question. I will
not with eight with a sound bite. Ok, ok!
training for, went on Monday evening, nude railways. Then we want sound like out here and really Omar Game show. This is for a card Aragon, ok, Brian Amro, Facebook kind. You can you please talk about why scientists are so intent on catching neutrinos on earth and what they can tell us about the universe. Thank you in advance, excellent. So every nuclear process that goes on in the center of the sun and the centre of every star every every nuclear event that happens has neutrinos associated with it
So for every hydrogen, Adam that becomes helium becomes a huge amount, losing a train. Omitted and trainers are hard to block infected exit. The sun without any trouble at all, and so you tree knows, are these signposts of intense nuclear activity wherever you happen to be looking, and we think that there is a new treaty blast from the early universe when the universe was formed and we need, we want to create neutrino telescopes. That could see that this would be for New Chino. What the cosmic microwave background was for the Big Bang and the rest,
understanding the payment to take his even farther back in times in a tree knows they. They were the action it I'm sorry, that's not the correct answer. Thank you for weighing my ok we're going to Miriam solemn. I'm sorry if I M butcher
that is why ensuring ices- usually your messes up everywhere at present. How accurately can we intercept possible signals from intelligent aliens? Excellent, here's, a problem. Let's say you assert that they're gonna communicate in this frequency.
They billet at particular frequency. Now you build a telescope, isn't a matter on their cell plan, it's exactly international, three or four. So so now,
listen, Annette frequency, but which, where must appoint two Tosca on appointed this way. Suppose
they are giving me a message on a different frequency. Oh I like it was that about a different frequency from that supposed it not in that direction.
There behind. You are wheels and message ten minutes ago before you started
running right, you're in the shower. You call the parameters space of communication and are they using your frequency at your time from
direction and if it all has to match up so you need ups detector that can listen to all frequencies. You need to look in all directions and you need to look at for all of time and we don't have waited were not. There were not. There will be working towards that. Its heart
how can you talk plus suppose they sent us a message and it came during the roman empire and no one caught the message.
They didn't invent radio waves, discover radio waves yet and the nobody sent back a signal. They might conclude, there's no sign of intelligent life on earth. Yet we have the entire Roman Colosseum statues in what we call intelligence, so yeah too, which is now ok,
More yes, looted entities will answer to war. I gotta get make him even shorter, no Luke, the inventor Instagram. Do you think of people travelled closer to the edge of the universe with a huge telescope. They would be able to see past it to the other side and Willie
the giant foetus and then an old man and away bedroom. What does that mean no space out? Yes, if travel the huge telescope edge, we be able to pass. He passed to the other side in what would they see? We are bound by the horizon established by the speed of light, and so, if you could travel faster than the speed of light, you could then get a head
of the signal that came from your past and then see using cyanide
There is a similar right now we don't know how to go faster than light, we'll have wormholes or anything so you're stuck in your present or end in your future. But the moment you can travel faster than light. You can get ahead of the light being that you created in your past and be able to see your life unfold before your eyes
next, I want to see that you don't know what you're brilliantly executive sharper bello at Emma.
Louis Instagram what obstacles Ethan Space Tourism will face. Here's one! No one talks about. Ok, I send you up in space. You are weightless how many of us have experience being weight,
none of us by the way is the experience you get on aid and amusing park ride, except Morceau, and so in space. If you throw up all your vomit can t
is to flow in the air and doesn't go into a splatter diagram on the ground. Ok, ever go you see, you note three. I am
you run out of everything. You walked the streets outside of bars. The slot pattern is very clear:
it's very their dinner, but there also generally and all the different, but they have this general recurring.
Hundred pattern. There's always some carrots and there in the middle somewhere around.
Eighty eight seven years. You know that rights, so so we trust gravity to gather this, the vomit in one place, but in space when you're in zero g, it's everywhere so
Have all these new be tourists throw up everywhere? It was smell, it'll get in your hair. It had been banana having to put him in his centrifuge get em. All you like this
That thing get him, you think, there's you extra gravity when you send me how I really astrophysical Amazon sound thing that you would not hear inspects rights, so
you really do ruin everything. I have one last one right: click, ok, Julian Garcia, okay, we know where the center of the galaxy is, but does anyone know where the center of the universe is there? If there is no center of the universe, the centre is in fact every
Where you want the center of the universe, go back in time mean three point: eight billion years
as my way, I tweeted that what I said there is no center of the universe. So you can't
ok cigarettes. So if you want to think of a center of the universe, you have to go back in time when we were smaller thirteen point eight billion years ago, when all the universe was in the same place at the same time. Think of that is the centre, but then we're all with the same place at the same time, so that, as we expand, the center of the universe is everywhere in places like a fraction went on to say it is now everywhere that set of the universe is now the entire universe, because we will all in the same place at the same time. Now that being said, just because a thing exists doesn't mean it has to have a centre
Where is the center of the surface? Tell me the corner of eighty eight, if possible,
ended there from
What material shall give thanks we're ahead of the upgrade thanks to come to our show? Thank you for having this is really mean you you ve got. The cool is given the world warming up the audience: first, even Colbert yeah bs at solving theatre, yes,
really cool there. Yet is always good to see you there that the several times I've been on the edge area, mine, say: hi, David nice enough. The ban on the show feed bunch at times to its great yeah. I've been Stephen. I go back to the daily show together. So ok, it's it's is really great to see other shows.
They gathered here here. Exactly as is his groove Yang
because he's not a stand up. Is that sort of thing any really like he got? You got it and you're, always so great on the show. Oh thank you issue Covert announced that it has a high compliment by the way. Like do you know them all? Oh yeah, you know cause. You know when a guest is like the staff hangs out around the tv,
I'm not a big fan know they do and, like you know,
are you? Are you work on centrality lingering who's on the show that only gonna Ladys beginning is like a job right leg? I just you should know that
their ideals on, and everybody stand around without even try to say some interesting about the universe, I'm glad sometimes absolutely right
Similarly, I wouldn't we're done there. You been listening to possibly even watching start. Ought I your host photographs. Thyssen has
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.