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Cosmic Queries – Black Holes and Dark Energy

2020-02-24 | 🔗

Could the Earth become a black hole? Does dark energy impact your life? Neil deGrasse Tyson and comic co-host Chuck Nice answer your fan-submitted questions on black holes, dark energy, and other mysteries of the universe.

NOTE: StarTalk+ Patrons and All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free.

Thanks to our Patrons Ashod Kuyumjian, Tony Biell, Jon Emerson, Zap Andersson, and Ocean & Dylan McIntyre for supporting us this week.

Image Credit: NASA, S. Gezari (The Johns Hopkins University), and J. Guillochon (University of California, Santa Cruz).

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
There's, nothing more predictable in life than the unexpected lightning will always strike. Hale will fall on roofs. Fortunately, there's aaa AAA, has been helping member states prepared for over a hundred years so one unusual storms, fallen, debris or sudden leaks, happened, you'll be covered, check, check and check. Get the home and ATO insurance. You need by talking with a AAA insurance agent today visit, AAA dot, com, flesh insurance or stop by your look, AAA store. Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now start talk best icing here, your personal astrophysicist, we ve got a cosmic queries. Addition for you today and I got with me the one the
drug was a meal? I found your tweets during the Superbowl. They were a Larry thanks man, so you're watching a gamer tweeting. What we do- and I you know I only tweeted torn the half time, because I was absent, wasn't game and enjoying it and then have time came up and I start What and, of course it was very let dino its energy dimension very lucky in every single away. You know I have a partial, latino household. Ok, you know my wife's put a weakening it really. My mother, my wife's, put recommend you know some were sit around and the kids and we're all looking at the porter recommenced, happened three anywhere like yeah. This is great, and then it occurs to me neighbour. So over quickly before Donald Trump supports the whole, damn Superbowl across the board, and so it s gone cosmic whereas today, but I was the topic: it a cold and dark,
I should have sufficient expertise for that, but if not, we will get a general level. Speed down, I have absolutely have to check. It will get a little black hole, blues, buggy and open. Oh yeah! That's her book! Well, blue eyes that we start yes she's, my cosmetology at large. Yes, yes, It's ok, I'm sorry! We then have her here. I love when you guys get into it man, because there's always great information that you too you to seem to its, not quite It's not like it's called resonate. There's a residence, excellent yeah, that's in physics, Linda ok. We actually have to waves away and that one, so they, if they're, not resonating, they can actually cancel out and right. Nothing exactly peaks go with the trough correct, but once the peaks goat, the peaks and troughs, then it magnifies the string the wave and then you have extra extra flow, low construct Interfere o o.
Truck remembered his highschool physics lad. Stop right there! Well, I'm I give it to me array here we go in your angle from Patria because we always start with a patriotic patron because they give us money, and we appreciate that. Thank you, Sir Neil NEO wants to know this. Why are we so sure that there are black holes at the centre of ours and perhaps every galaxy it could be. Empty space, like the eye of a hurricane spiralling out, oh wow, check this out and I love me the sum eyes of hurricanes regular. There was a move, Back in the sixties, really you know that hello programme, was fully up and running, and so it influenced storytelling and theirs, He called marooned maroon. Yes, so there is a spacecraft got maroon, it's like they couldn't, back down out of orbit like this?
that's a lot and nice for graver story. That's all space people go to space is something exactly a blot so so courses in Florida, I've been on this space programme launched basis. Florida, and so they had to ready a craft to get to them before they died. So they maybe the craft and then Hurricane shops Swedes, because if one, so they can't wants a hurricane and someone calculate the eye The hurricane he's gonna pass directly over the launch tower but will be launched tower. Let that problem evident in respect of course, who does like vat because how I learned that this centre, the hurricane, is actually very silent, quiet place right and so the I came over then they launched and you see the the rocket coming out from the centre of the thing, What they're asking is in this quest with Presidio Sunium is asking is
We see all this activity in the center of the Galaxy starts orbiting a big dark area right. How do we know? It's? Not you like the centre of a hurricane the reason why we know that is being caught, as what we learn from Kepler and later Newton is the orbit that you have is the speed of your orbit is completely deterrent by the mass that sitting inside your orbit. The mass around which you revolve rife, so what you say is here these things I can see how fast they're moving run back to capitalism. Asian is. There must be a mass. Huge mass huge mass, like bigger than the size of the orbit LAO. And then you say but wait a minute. We don't know anything. That's that massive! That's smaller than the except for a black hole. Got you okay, so another
if it was a star without much mass, it would be Huey or for some other thing, and you see ITALY, it where's your glowing. Thank God. This is dark and has huge mass and a small. Best three smoking guns right there right, implicating a supermassive black hole? supermassive black hole. Yes, then, Michael is less massive. There the one in the centre, the the Andromeda Galaxy, our nearest big galaxy. We have black hole, ending, I think we do so, but hundreds of millions of times the mass of the sun, but it's a call small for that much man, and so that's why What we do for Argo, you, let me do it for a neighbouring now, in spite of it, because we can't not other galaxies- are far away so ground based telescopes there. You can't Cecily and of hobble, and so we say above we have it and we're not really especial Galaxy in the universe and drama has it
neighbor. Maybe doesn't astronomy, astronomy, think the took galaxies she's. Maybe every hucks right. Ok, because why should we be special right is called the copernican principle. You're, probably not special right, it's exactly copernican! better known, as my father nicely specify what you think your father, interacting with so few wee wee hypothesize that maybe all galaxies have black holes, so you invoke Hubble. Who can see farther away galaxies measure the movement of stars down deep in the middle, and they were moving fast to write and every ex galaxy- and so we not done enough- which is why resigned to the fact that every girl, she's gotta, but even some of the smaller galaxies that might not have they got blacklist black holes rights would know we haven't seen, we haven't measured every one of a hundred billion galaxies in the universe, but every
She remembered the big ones, the small one, her psych taken a poll, the accept even better right, because the universe doesn't have weird People living in back roads think weird stuff, the universe could have some weird galaxy that we ve never discovered before re every galaxy that fits into a category of galaxies that we ve observed. It's got a black hole of different message and the more massive, the entire gowns. Great than the more mess with a black hole is gotcha. There's some that have Billy. The times the mass of the sun as a black hole sitting in the Middle and allowing them to abandon them every Rather it is evidently they want, but only as a great great Movie unseen scene, deliverance, deliverance, that's right! Everybody was so great. I have on purpose never seen at a second time, because it was so disturbing. The deserted the most disturbing ever seen in my life. It's it's delivered really yeah.
Which is why I have it on allusion, attics, lame, Jack play. Sorry so that had a net reedy it had had with my wife, a bird bert, Rattleborough, Reynolds Ghana, serious role at a time he was making comedies has very supercool really good. I I guess we'll move on way, one to another page you to wait too long to answer back. That's not true! I know you always want to answer. We want a pole, but here we have a definitive politics s, we d and you know what they said, what they said. So these folks here we want keep the long answers right up. People said no, we want more questions this Israel, but guess what this right down. Everybody ones that those there's always gonna be people were like. I love you long answers I've its entertaining, I find out stuff. You know Otherwise what about the movie marooned from lighting
This is why I wonder if I was a kid: how am I ten years old I've heard came to light place for as long as there are? No, those are that's what makes the show greater but little right and then here's the thing, people and an just, listen to me. I'm just complaint. Here's the point what you were gonna get your question at some point: have somewhat here's the thing at some point. You raise an interesting point. If I just gave answers, then you know, really need now. You just be black Google meal. Black So these were not Google and derisory sort of flesh. Soggily noticed like again I'm daily myself here. In the old days. When you look sum up, you gonna competing that's right, but you never. It would take you an hour to get to the thing
you look it up right because you start out from all along the way right. There was a whole journey to find your aunt and see kids. This is what you must now by MAD Avenue encyclopedia, because that experience you just said right: there is one that's an order. It is you go look up in your world for faint same with, say with dictionaries right. You can not another word obstreperous right now and as the front in this kind of what we're doing some guy who got Alex, wants to know out very elegant out ass named outbreaks from Omaha Nebraska normal Nebraska. We will really here lies I got married everytime. I hear Omar AL. I think of is paid Manning Can a small we? Let us that's no he's not, but he screamed out when he's at the Lima grimace goes three forty five
to overhaul. I swear to God, you and I have no idea what it means and football or anything, but why was somebody will right and then let Us- and this is where our experts wants to Know- came a small black hole orbit, a bigger black hole. If so, how can it be a stable orbit where it wouldn't her fall into or merge with the law but your black hole, academy, burglary answered yes, ok, here's the thing! I don't think a black hole knows it's a black hole. Really! it's just a lump of mass out there. Looking for love, ok, that's right there at all in all the wrong place. Now I get the blood part, and so so the point is a way to answer that is if earth today turn into a black hole. Right, idiom, many black hole,
the size of a calculated points about about plum. Ok, really here so you mean but this earth damage on asylum in her eyes and it would be deep within the plum rabbit that this problem is the size of our venerate with the mass of the earth. Yes, like all don't do. Ok, let all before we go any further with this. I got you won't know, I'm just room in the middle of nowhere at work, here's, the space come from two: so as you are collapsing, why don't you? I'm out of space inside of. What's collapsing? Ok, you worry, you wondering, isn't there beyond which you cannot compressive any further, ok
hours will get back to your question. Shy with visual judges is loaded with only I just I just gotta know, ok, so there are various dates of matter. Ok, ok,. Why wiser Rock Iraq, because something is preventing it from collapsing right? Ok, so what is it? Well, it's the forces between molecules and atoms. Ok, ok, right! So there chronic forces. There call I got the right, that's why you we all have right up until I can put my hand through my lady, your let what remains chair, correct vocabulary. I got you invisible man something over this and other. So now it turns, under high enough pressure, you can collapse that, ok and close down the gaps that are between those Adams and molecules. Ok, right now they get closer together ranking. And you get something called Electra.
Degeneracy. That's what it's called has nothing to do with its moral Compass guardian of election. Right. Is that so I felt a generally there so tightly packed, ok You try to cram electrons into the space of other electrons. Indeed, all allow that right from quantum Quantum Physics, ok right, so they keep their own identity within the structure, and indeed we have matter fear that resemble is called white worse by tourists are trying to extremely dense, ok, where do we go further? Ok, distill, the guy. Between the nucleus of an atom and the elect themselves, let's collapse that gap, and that is the biggest half of them all. You know that the gap is take a football stadium array and then put I don't know a mustard seed.
Think tiny tiny hungry see much as he's biblical rubber stamp like a poppy seed around with that in the middle of the stadium right. That's the nuclear! and the outer size of a stadium is the orbital, the electrons while atoms are mostly empty space in the first due to determine this, his name was, was changed Thompson and life form the experiment by firing particles. Through a very thin film of gold, God hammered so thin. You had practically one layer thick So we had him, you can it's very Paypal is nice chemistry term. I make a really think any fine particles and is ready to see them some bounced back Koreans and left Ninety nine point, nine hundred and ninety nine thousand nine hundred and ninety nine representative went straight through. Like nothing was there. He was the first person to realize that matter is mostly empty space. And the next morning he is rumoured to be afraid to step onto the floor getting out of bed right that he might forth
Why is he alone knew how empty matter words, so the next stage is collapsing. Everything down and your cramming the electrons into the protons. Could there now No longer, can they separate themselves right, but they're, not gonna by the same space anymore, the cramped together. If you combine proton and an electron, what happened to the charge becomes what I don't know written and oral amendment as a negative producer passengers? They cancel out and books and would charge you left with. Neutral neutral? So you put them together. You create a neutron right, ok, so now, So you don't have the electron degeneracy and you have a pack of pack neutrons the densest matter that exist out there. That is not a black hole. Ok, so these were called different stars because in
you're, with tell it like relegating, was right, a neutron stars. It rapidly rotate a magnetic field, they caught they pulse in railways. We call those pulse. Alsace area since the person who discovered pulsars Anthony he wish won the Nobel Prize for it back in and eighteen since the the watch company. Little known fur have always taken. I were exactly what we got lucky way: candy bar. We issues me can we get some royalties ladys? Ok, the Mars I note, the family name, but still and taken it right array many car names urge astronomically. Ok, there's like that. Stroll bears the name of a minivan that was only There is as yet. No yes, I made a whole list is what I will do a whole show. Entrepreneurs are coordinating our I shall I could do a whole. Show, ok, that's it don't get me started, they don't make me go the bear a whole show on names of stuff
The grand from my view, your astrophysical. Yet ok does it promised we're? Ok, so now we're a pulse are no posts are destined to some? That's if you take one against that is: take a herd of three hundred billion elephants and cram them into a symbol wholly crap? So now you calculate how much pressure that makes to stop it from collapsing further ado. And then you figure out in a black hole the collapsing forces even greater So we don't know, we got no physics anymore after that right, so a black hole, its denser, then the density- of three hundred billion elephants and of them crammed into a raggedy Ann.
Just imagine trying to do the yellow with your definitely need a crowbar, because it's not something so wow. So, yes, you are get you to the neutron star density after that is black holes, all black hole is all buckles. So now earth becomes a black hole. Just continued orbit the sun, the gravity between us the sun is determined just by our masses amassed in change. Right, ok is still the same ass. Who cares we're a black hole, gray right now, he turned the sun into a black hole. We don't if it has the same ass right so weird, the black hole or ably buckle and EVA. So we just orbiting the little many black hole? That's all now we be the many black hole orbiting around say emphasised became a black hole. We would just continued We're that little black hole but but we littler so where the plum sized black hole reticent on it is the big girl like all right so
point is the reason why we see black holes have such high gravity? Is they have high surface gravity? but if you step the same distance away from it, that you were before became a black hole is not another gonna. Have that right? Is it you get close to the centre of gravity and the power of the crowd. He keeps getting the force of gravity. Higher and higher and higher and higher and higher candidates how that works? That's all the answer is yes, the answer is yes, we think first break when we come back more cosmic queries black holes, dark energy today show sponsored by the athletic a subscription, they sports new site for we'll fans through in depth, coverage from local writers. On every team
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hey get started right now for forty percent off a yearly subscription to the f, let it go to the athlete dotcom. Slash start talk, that's the athletic doc coms! Last startled, hey start up fans on March. Twenty fifth starred taught live is back where returning to the historic I'm centre for the arts in Red Bank, New Jersey and tickets are on sale when right, now for you to join us in what sort of be a fantastic shell visit, start operating dot nets last tickets to grab your tickets before they're gone. Now some of you may be wondering why the one the only Chuck nice be at this star talk live will. Sadly, the answer is no. I seem to have luck myself into a recording studio and have been stuck here for about three weeks
I now come to the conclusion that this money home- that's right. I live here now, so I won't be there, but near will have some other fantastic comic cohorts, along with some very special guess, to bring the universe down to earth. So once again visit STAR talk, radio dot, net, slash tickets, to get your seats now and will see you at the shell. Well, I won't see you at the show, because I live here now Back cosmic, where Jack that decide that the basic ingredients view me cosmic wearies, start on that That's. It was taken from a single permit array topic again: dark energy and black hole Lester. I think I think I can get through that tub.
So far so good. All right. Let's jump right back into this with the question from Facebook and can't buy better yep. Can't people would you please give like fanatical pronunciation guide for chalk? Yes, yes, reading as fundamental geyser screwing with me to be honest, Aurora anyway, he goes like this cha cha cha. Please ask Neil. If a black, coal can reignite into a star once it has lost enough mass through talking radiation or you re going to introduce them no aid because if somehow, the black hole could stay the same size and you pulled mass out right. Then I don't know how to think that through. But what happened
You promise at the black hole, get smaller and smaller and smaller to be the probably of size, black hole for the mass that's left over. Okay, so that's what's happening, got into the black hole. Just continues to shrink, keeping all of its parameters, the sort of black hole, proper gotcha. So that's why gotcha, the latter there you a right, is pretty all. This is John that mean that make a good suffice story. Someone in the future figures out away to run a do. Black holes are concerned and back into soda masses that they once were right here. Ok, that's That, too, is that why you are you, if you could do that, you ve, probably just create a black hole yeah once you controlling black holes. They they will bend your whims. And then the first thing people do is weapon eyes it of course. Yes,
What humans do not that's a great size story instead of some stupid, like death, star light you actually have a killer black hole, not as they did in a star trek. They do yes, it is this a drill that withdrawal down to the centre of our planet and then drop red matter and then it would that's right plan into a black hole. That's right so tat they ve been there tat what I would term laid on late. I'm lean on that one. You write, that was the red matter that you write again. Why destroy the whole planet when you want to keep the peace If you, if your enemies with whose, on the surface, get rid of them by some I means right but keep the real estate yeah. What would you do, and it's always about like revenge. Like you know, it's not gonna bring your wife and children back, get here we go John Filtran, a black hole warped space time around it, just a star! Does the say? Yes,
what happened to the gravitational? Well that star has form if the star began The fall in the gravitational? Well form, the black hole. Does it disappear? at the same rate as the amount of mass being stripped or do oh Wells combined unloved people this, there are some good. This is so good. John. You just showing, as The two went to see I'm Joe We were right here at the music dance said it as the right. So there is a lot to do So, if you think of it as the classical distortion. Like a rubber sheet right, the reference year rubber model, so the I call is like a very deep hole in the rubber, but everybody's got it
people in the rubber sheep and cattle gang yoga You have your! I am I a little domino, thereby air adorable the bit any impulse depending on the man exactly depending on the mass determines how deep dimple is in the fabric of space and time, Ok, as you merge to dimples if the black hole and if it's a blacklist star if the black hole begins to lay the star as black older known to do than its dimple will get deeper and the black can we go deeper, Andy Stars, dimple will get shower in response to this. The cooking with black law is today whether Fillet STAR ahead that decisive, for. I know you Why flay? That's it! You know. That means a means to do so.
Worse now now, what's me? No, I thought it might like to know. Pull apart it's to skin Guy Humphrey. Sure I'll die less gloomy job checking to pull apart, but no one could be generally. If you point for me, someone apart, you would do it with the skin. First, the outer layer. You may I could have led to you're you're hypothesis that I wish to do this. And we got an early actually looks it up. Instead of just going Hale Theory, ok area fly to strip. Off the skin correct, so was our covering all right. So it's not really pull apart in a year. Indeed, skin for stripping is guinea. And then you? U metaphor it is right to criticise or sculled with scathing severity. Yoga you just a there's, no one to deprive or strip of money or pay
that's my girl. Outer right? Who tribute exactly that's what are known as the workers? So divorces are legal flags, legal flying ass. We see anyway stars, laid by the bitter dimple of the black hole? Yes, and so, if you flay that the dimples change size relative to the mass that has changed hands right, so it is possible for the start to slay the start date for the black too. May the stark completely said it no longer has a dimple added is consumed all of its mass scotch, and then it is the sum of the two dimples together. That's right! otherwise You can have a star this getting flayed, while its orbiting the two ends, I have two dimples just in orbit what with us
no change in the two that until one just disappears simply this kind of fun to watch right. I'm you can imagine that right, yeah, ok, you got that they have it. So that's how it is all. Let's go. To love marauder, you know how big impact does dark energy have on my everyday life. None Let us not always about you! Love marauder We are about Ok, something is dark energy. Is this This mysterious still mysterious pressure in a vacuum. A space is for in the universe to accelerate in its expansion against the wishes of all the galaxies your gravity trotted, Slota thing down right. And so so,
People, five is an anti gravity forest. Could we one day harness it and make it ships. Out of it, So there is an interesting sigh five frontier there, but but I can tell you is because its madame Staying in the vacuum relative, the two where there isn't a vacuum: there's not much vacuum here now, right, so gravity electromagnetism. All these other things are really dominating. Where you happen to be so, no there's. No known, visible or measurable effect on anything we will do in your life right day in day out, just just if you're, not a gal so dont worry about right, you're, a galaxy among other galaxies in the expanding universe. Right just chill just to chill on that, I will there you go! That's love, marauder! I hope that I hope you find sufficient continue your love, exploit gray, eyes.
I'm bull and he wants to know this. Does black hostile produce light or other radiation that just can't escape the black holes gravity, so yeah yeah there's a lot of energy and an matter inside of a black hole up. If you are in the black hole, Yeah he's, probably right as I'm right we're right as like no place to go right got no place to go here, and so it's all in there, so that we don't have direct evidence you want to be sure. Your call me- and let me go get on this- gives you I want to feel what you're my desk in the money Matthew MC caully in there very movie, damn what was that they would have interests dollar. Yes, let me that string theory granted to interstellar. There's a guy with the programme, I'm. Only medication is really bothering my memory are, so
there's. No reason why you wouldn't still see light and other things inside the black hole right is just not getting out the cool as an excellent, excellent. Excellent. I write. Ah you don't you see if you try to look outside the black hole use, all the stuff come in, Abby really break. Oh yeah, that's kind of cool, actually air, not a bad. Yet the only problem is reviewed. This bill don't come on, there's no way out in ways that I sent them right. This is our. Why pay? Thank you are why pay for just using your initials. Ok are widely wants to know this good. That's his name rip like yeah. That's Britain, that's cool rip once this could dark energy or matter dark matter or dark energy. Is it possible to manipulated
to use it as a fuel of some sort, interesting, So here's a problem, dark energy. We don't have to interact with it. We were just measure its effects on the universe, dark matter. Reveals itself to us through its gravity? but it doesn't reveal itself to us in any other way that we normally interact, so we can see it's a bet, but not what it is itself not material material, that's correct because, materially what would you do? You do touch right you pinching right! You weigh it right. I mean Youtube, you put it out, you grab it piece of it. Put it on a scale. You do all this and dark matter in order to have something for you, you're this person, culture, he's all your atoms are all attached to each other, thank God
Kay saw their right dark matter. Not only doesn't it attached to your Adams right, it doesnt attach to itself So, as far as we know, there are no lumps of dark matter out their little dark matter. Planet saying no. Matter galaxies in the cosmos that is oatmeal. There are no lumps of dark matter my glimpsing, you know I didn't have I was a kick ass. You will put role in sugar, then the Eba Like Oatmeal Candy Booker, had sorry It was early you, out of the box with granola yeah, those railroad and with dipped rolled in sugar, and he told me I love you rollers sitting here again, so data are right, yeah, so no, we have no way to harness it. In that sense, if you
You can't grab it because your hand goes straight through it and it doesn't make itself given is of any kind of density sweet you can't. There's nothing. You can do this it up at the right, so you can see it. You can see everything that is in fact you can see its effects, but you can't see it and you get him interacts with, is literally invisible. Why, because not all do your molecules and adamantine interact, light doesn't interact with it, my God, right and molecules and atoms all related to each other. More correctly, all interact they all you reflect light right. Some! like goes through you like, but gives inside of you, like x, rays, go into your bones and see this on a map, the shadow, your bones, I absorb a little more light, the most with nets. True guess it's a very urgent call, albedo I'll, be a wait, a minute, a word for the hour. Beeder! Yes, Ok, if you have an arbiter of one right. You reflect a hundred per cent of the light that hit you not to be confused with lip, be done. If you have it
I'll, be don't ever look veto of nets albino of zero? You absorb everything that comes to that. What we have learned, how libido of zero? You are married I'm going to be no job easier. I thought you were minutes could help it. I dont know what it is but go ahead. I'll beat. I thought the point. It is your arbiter, so so I'll beat I just the ability of a surface or something to reflect not like I'll catch up and its that's a one would be a hundred percent nice zeros you're. So The moon has a very low albinos bright as it can be it does it reflect much light. Ah, yes, liking them. Like ten percent of the land, I've got, the exact number was really is absorbing most of the rest of it yeah. So where was I all? I'm saying is if you can't grab something and put it in a box
You can harness you care what we get evident, atta, hardly rhetoric that we leave some other way that we invent, which we fear what it is we might be able to find. A dark matter track. How do you figure out what something is, if you can interact with I know that is most welcome. I know that this is the longest unsolved problem. In astrophysics- has been with us since nineteen thirty six wow Do. That is amazing that really cool. I do say so. Guy who, for example, put the person approach I'm sure you're right, I shouldn't say dying. I don't know how to save their lives, two thousand twenty nine. I see the person who figure that out is gonna win a Nobel Prize time, tat gap. The person who figures out with dark matter is right in and then we are deeply. We can control, have been evaluated, put summit, a box that, before I swear
right here. We have a break. Ok, we come back more start or cosmic queries, black hole, romantic what's your startup burns. Japanese here, do you love listening to start
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the cosmos and anyone else. If you would like your very own patriotic shall make sure you got a patriotic that consular star talk, radio and supported us Rebecca start off where yes, jackknife reading it took my skin Thank you, sir. Yes, that is correct. There were good, so it turns out, you're like luxuriating in these answers will die. The executive privilege and say we will not do lightning round excellent. Ok, guys continued a luxury, continued a basque eyes, then the cosmic knowledge juxtapose with cosmic ignorant,
Sweden therein, I presume you just described the two people who are on our part but wait a minute. What's your high more self confidence describing rigour, then? Ok, ok, I'm right! A right is the intersection of cosmic knowledge and cosmic ignorance. That is the moving frontier of cosmic discovery all eyes at that's a lot of data we should treat that. Let me go ahead and we pay. Are you sure? That's that's! That's quite eloquent an elegant. At the same time, aren't you go. Martin, Quibus and Martin wants to know this. What would happen to the earth if it came close or directly in contact? with a black hole, the one being hypothesize to be perhaps the plan. And at nine orbit. So I didn't realize a planet. Nine was actually possible
a positive to be a black hole. I thought that's why they call it planet nine, because it supposed to be this supermassive, object that a new now behind the piper about, but its new to me, too, is it ok, good, I got that I'm not alone, I don't know whose hypothesize where we have external black. Orbit. I don't know right. Maybe it's maybe I miss that Ray. I mean is that a new developing that morning edition re astrophysical Journal might have you know, but so it's still a fascinating question. I think about this all the time. Really. If earth happened upon a black hole that was traveling through space and encounter between Earthen a black hole, earth loses gotcha. Ok right now because we know about this title force that will stretch things where the Side of the earth nearest the black hole will experience a much higher forces gravity than the side is farthest
That means they side closer to the black hair will pull towards it faster than the side and so you'll end up. Stretching earth can have the proper the word stretch? Is you know? Earth is not Gambie right bore elastic man removed, dammit, I'm sorry it's! So it's not like it's an earth has not made of rum. It is made a sort of solid substance. So if you're going to stretch put under stress, the solid sphere that is earth earth will basically be into crumble into, smaller and smaller bits of rock, so did you're. Looking at mass of earthquakes, oh yeah, haven't entitle ways over how we do it. If you follow straight in re, oh, oh, sir, oh yes, the earth will distort become more and more oblong until this that the strict
Other materials can't hold that shape any anymore right and then illustrates what a crumbling apart and we call spaghetti vacation is when you start Becomingness long strand, but against areas is one continuous string re right, whereas this will be a stream of particles. A parade of particles as they? So is this? application occasion. Instead of do you petticoat networks in there streaming, now I am going to flop one every worker that cutting out that one was there for me you'd nested we material we test and whether it is for me you to pursue favour was beget. If occasion, if I'm not mistaken, Nigel Popularized- it really it's true, I thought I thought you would. You actually talked coined. The tonight know I'd I'd pocket, wiser, but the the
double to Martin Reese, Martin Luther Martin Reese. In fact he got. It is now Lord Lord Reese Gallery Where do you go for low full of himself You gotta law, very modern reason that law recently knew what the hell is, that we might just Marty body for industry corner. I offer you my Lord now one little problem. I will not improve Mary Board. I commend the took. I command you to bring me my spaghetti publication. All right, so ok are well yeah. The answer that we are so we just so we re capacity here on earth. It would just be an interesting phenomenon to behold there
that's cool man, I'd know, Martin Graeuben away. It would break open to the very hot liquid core of the If not it doesn't. This is a sound good nor the current state of our life, I can only little glowing iron nickel ball of molten iron, radio, the bed- That's the air! That's not go right on. I just got it Toby men Todd, Sir, how does I call not consume space time. Itself and just go be as crazy, back crap crazy. And destroy the entire universe. Wire a clause running a muck, did he say BC crazy, he's back. You know,
with an eye to save your bad bad that bad. Where did he say, crap reducing? Oh, yes, tat S where you you were translating for. I guess I was you you're, acting as your own spawns. Do you know why? Because, as far as your own sensor, these little kids, they write me and are just like him sales would listen to this, What you shouldn t tat are trying to learn, stop and give up your dream. The damn you jerk report is that it should go there anyway here so he's a beer screen back rap crazy, and why our black holes running a monk it we're. So so he say why. Why doesn't the whole thing just like? Why On the other hand, why aren't they just like consuming not only towards widely consumed space and time itself and just just eaten the entire universe, aided away because black holes
not any more voracious as black holes than they were as stars before they became black holes interesting. So it's really about mass. The man is just man, that's all if you get now so the thing is how to think about it. Think of the sun before you How can you get to the sun? You get near the surface ages, vaporize! Ok, Why is there so now that serve the sun surface atmospheric surface has a certain strength of gravity there right now crammed aside into a smaller volume. Same about him ass. It just answer. Can now get closer to the sun's centre? Mess it serves grab he's now higher cravat, smaller. The servant, how even higher black holes, are fun to think about a torment because you can get close to them. If you get closer to Earth Centre, Matthew leave have earth behind you
It's not interesting the good of the funding, black holes as you can get close to their centre of mass. And their retirement between you and their centre. That's why they become interesting. But of it back up to the original size is no different. Nobody cares right this way black holes are just there there There they allow you to get close to them, without you knowing how deadly they are in such a state. My dear little else nap. What's the difference? Ok, guys so and botanical s girlfriend like that they are consuming the space time around them. Space for back on itself, so that you cannot even come back out. You can think a black hole as completely consuming the
volume of space time in its vicinity. I have no qualms with you. Thinking of what's inside the event horizon as the black hole haven't, having eaten its own space time. Continuum have no problems with them. That is to recall right well. What a great question then, is an old ancient question: what happens if a snake start eating its tail? and continues to do so right. Will the snake one day disappear. I don't know, but it certainly won't be hungry it this this where's through. If we just give it keeps even recycled rats, but then how does the head eat itself? if it comes from buying ahead. Ok, if Imagine a completely flexible snake right on it. Just keeps gonna drive, either the lights and there you go
That is the down. They make end of the meal and it's gone, no more snake that's a black hole day gallery. I that's cool aright Christopher Carnes tyrants once another's everything in Spain seems to be spinning and rotating the Atlantic. An emerald dates stars start us just to be clear. If you right here on an ex, if you turn on an access, we say you're rotating. If you move around and of abject, we say you revolving. Ok, I get so just just most people don't know that puts it the language can distinguish it bright. Why not rather not weird words? We ve all use them before. Okay, so go silks. Our spin and revolve around gap? see centre of sins rotate anyway, while the US even galaxies are spending. Yes. Is there any evidence that there,
ah rotate that they are rotating around something they spent but do they rotate or a revolver ended with a new vocabulary? Revolve real revolving around something else, in our neck of the woods, no wow well, because we don't have enough galaxies. Where we are to be able to cross. Eight and one system right now, whereas we can tell where one we collision course with an amateur that light when on warbling each other. I too high, however, their places in the universe that have hundreds and, in some cases, thousands of galaxies in a sort of a beehive configuration. You can track those galaxies. Those would have orbits around the center of the Galaxy supercool, who called super cluster super clusters right. So yes, in in not all cases, but in some interesting cases you do have stars that rotate
Orbit the centre, the revolve around the centre there galaxies as do all the other stars in their galaxies, and the Galaxy self is orbiting the center of the super cluster, now is it possible to see the to see them, of the galaxy and measure in such a way that we could possibly see, if there's something there, we ve being around like a black hole, words, something that's at the centre of the super costs. For all you know. Centres are superfluous. It s an entire year, I'm showing us from say it will be a nobody really cool thing to find out. If the super cluster is actually revolt, around around a black, a black hole itself. Interesting question: I don't I don't know. Cool will please go find. My silence is renowned. Ok, you're, right, you're right, argued on imaginary, embody.
Their turns out. You might ask: could a super cluster the orbiting around some other concentration. Of cement a massive of galaxies right. Here's a problem! You can look at this, bead of galaxies moving in are just the super clusters. Is you can measures with a doppler shift? economic sense. What we all know the dog worshiped intuitively rights exactly you stand on the edge of a of right, you bet I was glad to be way. I was at the end, No one ever asked: why doesn't sound the same coming towards you as it does going right? Wasn't near you no further pitch changes which it Do not teach here. Do I love it? So so it's a higher pay
if it's coming towards you write a lower pitch has ever so it's like compression- An expert exactly gods, and so even though its only giving the same sound the car parked in front RO. The engine is making once out right side. The car are you here is every bit, as you know, ok guys so so If you measures a kung FU movie ever If you measure the chair in the frequency of sound right as it comes towards you write and compared to you can then know what that sound should be. Is a break so before that was developed by Christian Doppler. Was a german physicist, it might have been a chemist actually, but he was. I think this was a century figure. This out and he did it with a rubber train, the whistle of a train as a came by creating have race car. Right! So you measure
first the galaxies moving. Then you look How big the galaxy clusters gray say? How long will it take at that speed to cross the cluster got? that's just it fits perfectly honest questioning the worse, not ok. For the biggest of these positive longer than the age of the universe So the cluster has not had enough time to have everybody sort of organized into their orbits statue, so for its many these measurements, you can't use the speed. As an indication of other stuff. That's going on here yeah. We live long enough to know dammit. I know that time doing is like those dreams the boy tweeted that it went on. I do not you not. Each I've read your tweets it'll, be my tweet, Now, I'm a basque, all I said was while you're watching. If, though,
hundred yards on. The field for a time line of the universe, ok, fourteen billion year, universe one end zone? Is the big bang right in modern day is like the other end, then the thickness of a blade of grass, the width of a blade of grass at the other end. Is from thirty thousand years in our past to the present just one, the thickness thick, not not the width of thick, just she's right, the thickness, yeah cave men to modern time. That's our little that's what we occupy while humans uniforms, Romagna Romagna humans over their time so that's the entire history of our species. On a hundred yard long football field, so but not for computers to stimulate, what's going on over timescales longer than we live, we would not anything about things that lasted longer than we do tat,
that's pretty wild and our our ego historically, as we are. They know everything. So why should earth be much older than our history blankly right? Why suit it? Why should it This is all about why she did your eyes. Not see things that are suitable in the universe, light when I'm only when it matters right, so the telescope, there were first constructed only brought us visible light right? So we are better version her eyes, but it still like that we can see these governments X rays, ultraviolet extra gamma rays, the whole rested a spectrum. You can't see how dare the universe communicate in ways at our senses cannot detect. You know, is really fascinating because it starts as you look at the fact that we are indeed one chromosome away from you know. The other aims At the same time, we're the only or are we Other animals think
this kind of stuff that we're talking about new right now are the. Just like yeah Tell you right now, man, there, something more than This ocean loser will end. We got em right like right now, but there is a Gary larceny remember the day I was right. There was a chicken a horse, a a cow and some other farmers in the barn, having a conversation, yeah, ok, I'm the says but if you divide by the square with the mass you get the same result, and then the council, but missing the basic premise of my fear. One of them looks out the window: Father, ok, performers coming towards the burnt and informative The blog as club, you don't move.
I talk in that way. We do not look and now, I'm pretty sure, they're not likely refrigerator. Why are you all right? You know movers oily. I we gotta go way overtime here. This is bad and start or cosmic queries. Jackknife needed rest ice in your personal astrophysicist. As always, I bid you
Transcript generated on 2020-03-07.