Is Mars the kind of place to raise your kids? This week, Neil Tyson and Chuck Nice answer fan questions about terraforming, psychology, international treaties, and even the impact of Martian gravity and atmosphere on baseball.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip, the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free, The universe is filled with secrets in industries, leaving us with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time. What what are you, Are you gently Zodiac domain, the brakes? Daddy Glinda? Did you, Graham all South Nasty Brenda, get lab work to start talk. Radio before we start this cosmic equerry episode
I'm going to answer one question from a patriotic supporter. If you haven't heard of it yet patriarch crowd funding platform, where a fans can support us through monthly pledges you can choose to I just little or as much as you want, and in return you get access to things like VIP seats at start. Talk live meat in Greece, with the pan. After the show. Also, exclusive every footage, and in this case our teams One cosmic, where requested from a patriot on Patron Nazi question yet its waiting for me, my email on my computer open it answer it right here. Right now here I go email, Here it is from patriarch supporter Brad, O Brien in Ottawa, Canada, here gifts There are some obvious things to overcome when thinking about colonizing hours or any planet, with little or no atmosphere. I have experience with remote mining operations and mental,
health. A being isolated is always a big issue important. You feel it would be to have a psychologist among the first settlers to deal with. The emotional change is necessary for living apart from humanity. That's a great question. I used to think that would be a big deal and, of course, yes go ahead, sent a psychologist. But I'm old enough to remember these. These episodes of the twilight zone. The many these episodes came out right at the dawn of space traveller when people are talking about it and no more double episodes that addressed the issue of loneliness being alone in a castle and possibly going crazy for having no contact with the rest of humanity, and I said well, The big challenge for these long voyages space and when I became an adult, I met people we'll be perfectly happy, never talking to another human being for months and even years on it perfectly happy.
What we call them. Hermits were worth people who just don't care about other people. You given book, given Netflix account whatever so so the isolation might not be the problem. Specially selected people, but perhaps getting along with one another? Is we really need the psychologist and by the way NASA has an entire branch of In fact, one of the american astronaut who has spent a long time on the space station requested that I'd be his pen pals. Reported that the astronauts get Wheeler. But their comfort food is in advance and to try to make their work in the menu they also free access to water courses, for it the to email, someone that's on the ground. In fact, one of the american astronaut, who has been a long time on this space station request I'd be his pen, pals when he was up in space, and so they gave him. My email address,
I sort of private exchanges with with one of the astronauts and ask me questions about the universe was fun, so yes definitely cinnamon psychologists, but then do the psychologist psychologist thanks bread, My question is: is STAR die, is startle. Your home address Thyssen, your personal and I'm here with my cohorts, Jeff please give us J Neil took my comic. That's right, tents, Khintchuk, most comets, weeding tweeting away. Love have used my covers lobbying.
I feel like I'm, unlike in the hood, when you quickly come, I'm not sure how I feel about. I hope that it has a zip code of nine one of their different herds of I'd heard it's so today we're doing one of our many instalment of cosmic queries Yes, and as usual I don't know anything about the question now you have not seen them and their called from our social media that is correct, star talk, radio dot, net facebook and Twitter, Twitter and so you just pluck and as you see them and put him on the table, if I don't know one answer, I will tell you: ok, but actually there hasn't yet been a question, but I didn't know the. To be honest, there has not you know you, and I have had this conversation where I said that I dont think I don't take any one has ever stumped you, but that's not the point that has not perhaps not the point to study, but of course we also listening quest.
On the universe. Sadly, that is my expertise, so we shouldn't be surprised. However, maybe when I'm doing for some of the questions is answering a question that I know and such during the one that was asked all using only when there now and politicians do the level of houses do one day they don't even answer the question. They actually make an entirely new question and the answer that we might have got some real lives resources relevant now I don't think you're doing, because sometimes the answer is. We don't know yet that is the answer. Right. You're still is still like. You still know the answer, because the answer is, we don't know exactly it's So it's a we rather than an. I regret oak, exactly listless rocket zero theme. Is there let's see this, one is theme for all the questions today today. Yes, ok, what's the thing Mars Mars or gas living
living on Mars. So have we not just Mars but there's something up some some questions about the planet. We have all this data on what it is to live on Mars, happy legal dispatches from the quality that they give you throw it. If I wanted, people wanted somebody, Red Plan, as will not be able go for it. So here we go. I right this is this kind of this is from Nancy living on Facebook who wants to know? Did we know whether from I've known whether from now lemme see here, Sir, Muslim, say: ok, lot of em say look out of everybody and I was like normal yeah. Just remember. That is that we can make fun of your home to their absolute comedians deals right. We do that's why comedians people on builders, but that's what can we say hey so, where you're from that in the fact that I am out of cereal house have proposed that a code of advertising but tell what material or mobility
That was not work. So hey where you from I saw Nancy Lillian come to us from Facebook and she wants to know about garbage disposal in space because we clearly have a problem with garbage disposal here on earth. So what how would trash or garbage be disposed of? And if not, what would it do? I here's the problem on Mars. If Mars is sterile, meaning They ve got no life anywhere, not even microbes. If that's the case and we go live on Mars normal, What did you want to do with your garbage? You throw it, we don't we
any more? What about it? We put in a laugh, yet we bury it right, so you bury them. You bury it and eventually decomposes right now. What's doing the decomposing Marlborough, coaxes organisms, organisms and so to be bio degradable means, there's some biological action on your garbage that turning it back into the soils from which a came? Ok, so if you are on Mars and you bury the garbage, it will stay wait forever nothing decomposes, nothing will decompose what break down, because, while not from biological, I mean it. There are certain molecules that won't last forever, ok, but on the timescale that just because of the the quantum physics of molecular vibrations. Amidst, if they were not right, that's a whole it as a whole, rather than another thing we set ourselves so that actual molecular vibrations may cause
the dissolution of some hurrah molecules, correct and its work and the most stable form of an atom were molecules when it's in the form of a crystal ran stable and then it's not good at it. So I dine in shock. Up to now so yet so, unless every much all of your garbage isn't crystalline forward right, it's the larger molecules. Could ultimately decay, but what you really banking on is by Bio Degradable, which would happen on a relatively short timescale years or decades ride, not thousands of years. So you you need another way to dispose of your garbage. Absolutely. Basically, you would just turn to us living there. You have ventured term Mars into a dump
to a complete dump, that's correct loud, actually write an end, and what does it mean for there to be fertilizer in the ground? It means you know. Their microbes, interacting you'd, have to create a whole biota right there and you'd have to tariff for Mars in advance before before. You can actually do yeah yeah. That's all you could just dump your stuff PLUTO back, then the concept Planet native American didn't quite kick in now. That's for Mars is suited the polluter dumping on Bulgarians double PLUTO. Now here's now you might ask them what they did, but you could ask why not just send all the garbage to the sun ugly ideal disposal now I can't leave you just said why? Because when I was a kid- and I was very disturbed by the commercials that I saw where there was an Indian who said one single tier for all the trap, that was polluting our earth. I remember that commercial, yes and I will get so tolerant, united right in those areas where there are no Indians, except for in India
their different anti aids and back then not that we're being insensitive back. Then the concept of native American didn't quite kick in. No, not at all. It was an indian guy with a headdress right and he saw it humans. Americans, gringos greenbacks, writing goes throwing garbage out the window, and then he turned he returned the camera and was a two year. I just one single tears streaming down his his face. I remember that his non indian your face? I would be exactly what he wasn't. India we'll go out. I was italian now tell me I'm not lying. I saw a whole like little many documentary on how he was not an indian, even in the native American, or not at all. He was an italian gather actually took on the entire persona. Anyway, I used to see their commercial and I would go my way, we're going well where the Clint Eastwood Movies role Italians right. Western spaghetti, western swaying, playing and plain Mexicans so tired
they got a thing I will give. You know what it is because their wide enough to be why? But yet somehow olive enough to play somebody else because from the front more than two southern ITALY exact the whole spectacle. Despots will re writers have mediterranean ones through the northern, exert myself with you now the Holly was just like. We can actually use native American an italian gas, so your point was around is one I would emphasise as a kid from seeing this commercial about putting off the track in the world in Iraq. And shooting into the sun, and it would turn up before every Reach, the site right, that's what would happen. That's great! You will lose your leisure rocket to hear so so yet, if it
have to burn the track, your burnt in the rock, and so so this this great brilliant geeky idea you had as a kid the problem is: it costs a lot of energy money and energy in rocket fuel. Just to do that, and it's not quite oh right, because Kosovo, because first of all it takes so much fuel just to get a rocket off the greatest go to Hell, offer earth right so let alone all the garbage that would have to be in the rock and right now it's ten thousand dollars a pound and if we put anything just into orbit, forget about even leaving earth. So it is your garbage were ten thousand hospitals I think not yes, and that is why you ended up being in astrophysics and I ended up being a right. What
great fresh living stuff, the holder. We would get all that I notice or an idea I didn't mean no led up the whole segment there, but also array. Ok, here we go others from Thompson. Tell doesn't tell us where he's coming from blood. How can these people's name la alive? I don't think I'm gonna tanner tops. Did I tell you where I was when so much? I love it when she missed pronounces the names somebody has already said the lad somebody loves it. Believe me, it is not going to stop having. It will continue to happen. I'm awful added that I saw I Bob she first that attitude, so I feel better about. I satanic Thompson says We should already be jettisoning garbage into the son. I'm sorry, you know what forget this question. Sorry tat. Are we just answered your question. So how did he word it has put like this? It was like I'm sure we streamline the process, he was talking about cost effectiveness. I'm sure we can streamline the process, given some experimentation to make it cost effective.
I think you just told us that that is not the case and another reason just what I did make clear is in orbit around the sun. We are not. We are not falling straight towards the sun you're in orbit around the sun in an elliptical orbit to okay, you showing off now don't do that while I'm drink Dunaway spit lie? I think I'd better at that, and so you, in order to send something towards the sun, you have to undo earths orbital speed so that it has no orbital speed at all, and then it fall straight in so you have to first move it against the orbit of the earth right and we're going around the sun. What is an eighteen miles per second, something like that? Last I checked space, yes, where eighty miles distant so take a garbage launch at eighty miles and a second back Rask once and I ain't it'll just fallen to the sun oh my god. So the answer is this is never going to have. You have to value garbage
much to want it? But it's not right. I will then a tanner. I take it back. That was actually a useful question. We got a little more insight, so we approach this solution is make biodegradable stuff or stuff that will degrade under Ultrophone light and on Mars there's if there's a flow of all hundred out there. They don't have an ozone layer to protect exactly this ultra violet light coming from the sun and ultra light is higher energy than other kinds of light enough energy to break apart molecules, if you make the molecules the right, so you if you were able to you, know creator facility where you can magnet. Maybe more fi or just focus the ultra violet light you might be able to just break there. Could you could tell the garbage ice right so be uv degradable rather than just their biodegradable uv degradable? Yes, that sounds almost like you burn it. You made a great deal and that you be degraded
Excuse me a correct that rats. Antibiotics, that's not! You bleed degradable! You be degradable right enough of that here we bought hurdy bonneted, like thirty ignited out and bring it back, from a John Huggins John wants to know and preparing to go to Mars. Are there or will there be a need to be international treaties that did take the governance of Mars? If, yes, that will be the what will be the key aspects of those trees? In other words, do we haven't first, while we bid on the moon?
so I'm sure there's something that governs that not solely no, not really cannot say no, it governs. It says that you can't own cosmic objects, so the inner space, the outer space treaty, has provisions in it. That says this, but the universes frontier right and you can't on it you kid there's. It does no sovereign control over now. At some point s going to have to change right because we have lots of mere Putin, hurt you go to Mars and people start pitch in their flag and they build a home. Will you can't say that no one owns the home? I built a damn home, that's so what is likely, or rather what is has been proposed that you put a homestead in kind of rule. Place a right, the homestead. It is if you pay the money to get there and you build your own, damn house, that's your land, so bill gates will be owning. Mice, basically is what did you just told me just that probably s bill Gates and Richard Brand, while they try to do that region, written answers on island right, that's you can
but you do not already did a right, but what it means is on that island. He hired servants and gardeners and everything so there's a business case for people to do this, and why did the United States promote constituting to spread the frontier? I've had the frontier and- and this is how you grow- cities and communities, and so it's I'm thickened it'll go that route could dont, say well earth we own all little patches of speck called earth the whole universe. No one owns it right. I don't see that as the natural consequence of human exploration a human nature or that's like ITALY, made today that occurs the real deal from the time that we are little teeny, kids, the first one of the first words we say or sentences is that's my ass man, s, mind neither was not your Etsy as yours. I Anne and especially in America. What's the one of the first games, we learn how to play we know how to play any good game its monopoly, that's so turn and who win?
the one who has or property overall I waded. Ah, yes, I own everything. You have another ain't right. Oh my god. Right talk about time. We re knowledge rate. They celebrate that we say while That is like a height capitalism. You trust me, I'm a complete and utter pauper. Now I was when I was in graduate school there's a fellow, a graduate student who is from Russia right and I was describing monopoly to him and when I got to that point, Winner has all the money, and I applaud, and while this is that this, like before the cold war, ended right right and it was like it was not planned well in his nerve. Yes, he was looking at you like your capitalist pig, because there's that's basically, if I've never look,
in that way, but that's it while not limited. My favorite monopoly joke I was by was a deuce names from Boston, was kind of surreal steam erect human right. Yet so he said, I'm angry. Only one company makes the game and that's a less. It is negative. That's how gets out there like the irony of it all right. Let's move onto Ok here we go Joseph carbon dioxide and auto synthesis, mutagenic and releasing oxygen as the by products and the Arctic.
Joseph that has at anything you say it just says: greetings. Will we be able to one day grow vegetation outside the conventional greenhouse on Mars? If so, how long would it take em? What what we need to do to make it so yeah? So I cannot claim myself to be a botanist or an expert on this, but let me tell you what I know as a physicist, physicists, ok, so plants require carbon dioxide are taken and the carbon that's in their becomes fundamental to their to their molecular structure. Lignite. So what did that's why tree can grow right? It's not taking soil and turning soil into a tree. Now it's taking carbon dioxide and using photosynthesis and then releasing oxygen as the by products and the oxygen is its waste right and we
and then other animals thrive on that waste, exactly okay, so basically people you are breathing in the earth's pope. Now you get. That is what you do you breathing there. Belches ripples requisite that Africa's gases, its gas. We have solid, liquid and extra ethelwyn, so get your breathing the earth belt. Is you breathe it exactly? Just like honey is be bar for recalled right, so so Mars. It Morris's atmospheres, mostly carbon dioxide, ok, so it's got the carbon dioxide very thin, but it's mostly carbon dioxide. So what you need is new, reinstall soil so it needs the nutrients to then enable all of its chemical processes to occur. So it might now, but we have to watch out because of the heavy duty ultraviolet like coming and ultra violet is hostile to molecular two to two biochemistry got. It is hot, so, in other words the lately the photon of ultra right light comes in and it Caesar
An organic molecule hinges absent, adapted Rachel apart, so so you would need a filter. I feel that a filter, uv filter and Sir and talk in some new tritium nutrients of soya, and I think that the seal too might be enough to keep him walk off grow fast rank. Was this very thin, but it's going to enjoy to see eye to eye, so it is possible and if you do, that, then outcomes the oxygen and then you wait long enough- and this is the beginning of terror forming rang and they're. Not then the cycle than that's when the cycle have you got a sway, Chuck I bladders for that ports. As regards two or three questions answered, I'm sorry, when we come back later speed up answers and look more. The questions come through on startup no.
Hey. I've got no secret for you, I'm gonna to consider singing all of the ads on this show there's just one way to get out a hearing, they're good patriarch arms last started tall and supporters at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free. You can download all current episodes into your favorite parkers player and never hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me seeing if you're supporters Patria Dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just sing it I'm just saying. The future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal STAR Die
Rebecca startle astrophysicist, don't you know I serve as the director of the hidden planetarium right here in New York City, which is wholly owned. Subdivision of the American Museum of Natural history and Chuck is here with me into yes, I am Chuck nice, yes and Cosmic queries Edition of stock absolutely going to Mars and if I don't know an answer, just sat alone, but that's not gonna happen, but let's be furious. I breathe yes, that's not gonna happen. Bring it aren't you. We go next question next check. Okay, so this is somebody wants to know about the atmosphere and the gravity on Mars and I love the weighted Stephen Matt low.
Phrases. This question somewhat inventive came over which which have this came over Facebook. He says: ok, Neil, when the New York Yankees road series against the Mars Cosmos. How big will the out field have to be to prevent every body from hitting home runs? Also well the pitcher throw faster in the atmosphere or slower? and will he or she skies very liberal guys, got a female pitcher in the major league interstellar humanitarian aid, interplanetary now Aristotle interplanetary baseball, whilst will he or she be able to throw a curve born and take back Stephen is coming from Livingston Montana, Livingston Montana. Yes, yes, flat country, now hear something. I've never seen a mountain in his life
Let's go Montana here, so I was in Montana recently I gave a talk in Bozeman Montana: oh really, six thousand people showed up all night. I do know that many people live in my I think you have the entire state media and by the way, joking about mountains, because there are mountains in mind too. That's why it's called my exit mark that big side I biggest got it but go ahead it so here's the question had gotten worse number read it. I got it skews also memory than three It's a girl, I know so so a couple of things. Don't change and other things do. Ok. The pitcher does not throw faster cause. That's just their muscular. Skeleton
Capacity to do so, the ball will not slow down as much between release of the fingertip and crossing home plate because the heiress thinner- and there is a resistance to the ball right. That slows down maybe ten miles an hour, five, whatever it is five miles, and it's not shouting for very long so it, but it will but on a little bit it does that in the majors it will do that on arts but It will slow down by a little bit less of it. But that's not the major thing going on here. The martian atmospheres very thin, like one percent of our thickness and it's the air, the movement of the ball through the air that enables it to curve right so curveball to be very hard. Mars, because you don't have the air or the thickness of the air for those those. What do they call stitches
stitches? Yes right, this ethical stitches on a ball is this? Is the core of this nature? This that's a lot of other plaudits. Did you know that was I assume that rotation, while it assisted, even if I didn't, have stitches you still have them. You can still move it well really area, but the stitches help it without the the thickness of the air. You can't get that movement. You dont get as much movement area. You don't get as much will now. It is windy on Mars, so you could throw an awesome knuckle ball. Nine does not go balls, dont, rotate and so they're not stable moving through the air. Like rotating things, are stabilized. You know. That's why footballs a rotating cassandra, stable binning spending, so much about, does not spend. Therefore it is susceptible to any possible puff of air that comes across as you can use a windy day. Knuckle ball to create the the
fact of a curve bar, but yet, but it it'll it'll curve in a way that you can predict and that's my catchers are always droppin knuckle balls. They don't know where the hell do. You know the balls Jim. Linen wig linen comes in, and so the number past balls pass knuckle balls buy up by a catcher is huge relative to other countries. Surprise, bomblets of survival for everybody right, even the pitcher, a curveball, the catch, our calls for the curveball, so that no one knows what he's doing it. They know it come in so so those and I love this- is well. I value, and I mean this- I swear to God. I see that this was great, we're talking about baseball on Mars, but yet you know all this crap about Bay
look it's how this lab? Not you noted, is it's not what I mean by unlike router, I'm a red blooded American. I like me some baseball and hot dogs and apple pie around just start there. Ok, so now the rest of it is just cause. I gotta based we're gonna curious about it like. I just asked questions of the game and of myself relevant to the game gatty. So, for example, I say to myself suppose your hit by a pitch on board for Re European,
got a second base, a hacker right, exactly Josiah drew up just say: no, it makes sense. We heard about this there's some kind of questions. I asked about the gate, that's very familiar! So now we gotta get their role in baseball. That's us! So now how far bigger stating what you have to make more martian gravity is about. Forty percent of earth gravity. Ok! So if you re a hundred pounds on earth, you weigh forty over thirty eight pounds on Mars. So two hundred pounds you eighty pounds, which is great because the muscles that you have for carrying it, two hundred pound body will now be operating in an eighty pound body to be able to jump higher, ok, Not yet so. There's so maybe you'd make the and feel the little beggar, because you'd be leaping you'd, have to sort of adjusting the basin trial and error on red tape
the ideal field size now when you hit a home, run the balls doing two things it's going forward and it's going our it's ok and then a fish is going upwards and then start coming downwards, while it still going forward rife. Each of those have a different effect. Ok, how far you a fast you can hit. The thing going forward has nothing to do with being on Mars architectures how how fast going right as Europe? That's your swing overran! It's your swings right now, the Mars, the ball going up. Ok, this same force will have the ball go higher, correct, then on earth, which means it will travel farther simply because it will go higher right, and so you gotta do the math. I haven't done the Marathon Sonia
But without a guess you know make it forty percent bigger, I mean just as our yes, I for general rules is a first step for us, and probably if I do the math there's some adjustments in their so a foreign trade dead centre field of forty percent greater than that would be a hundred and sixty more feet and that right, if we're twenty eight hundred, sixty four feet so be five hundred and sixty four. Dead centre. Where are you just to recreate the same ain't sayin labour law over that of a home right now that now that means outfielders huge, which means you gonna, have some fast. The authors through one of the add two more outfielders to it there. It is a out from home plate right. So if you, if its rivets five hundred sixty dead centre, you know you're, you may miss a lot of balls. We get be like Little League fourth I'll feel that might lead to more. Our voters did that's amazing and catch would be awesome because you would jump and you just
he's got his keep that just out of the stadium logger regrettable Lenny Centres shower dense, fantastic, where Sway Stephen. What a fascinating question that was great great great great stuff let's go out, I don't if I call on the Martian cosmos what wanna call em like the Martian, there's gotta be a better name for than just cosmos. Plus, you know Finally, the world Series would apply to some other than that of state. Some, the Mars Reds heads We have the Cincinnati read about the Mars. Rumours are much more justifiably. Models are exactly great unity with recover comes from its comes from rushed on the martian surface is edges While I am not iron, the glacier oxidized iron sophomores, the Mars Reds day ago, can lead buy tickets attacking took,
bring oxygen. Exactly I write I right this is from MIKE draws. Dont go on my coat. What is the potential human offspring on Mars? Has a bit any research done return regarding a child's physical development in an environment so different than ours. Even if we manage to terrify Mars we'd still be living in different gravitational conditions. What would that do so? Our body has evolved for earth, gravity and cattle what's interesting, and I think we have the answer to this is if you're born and forty percent gravity and you spend your whole life in their graves. When you come back to earth with a body say thanks. I'm back to my own one g force, and or will it say wow this is not good is terrible. This is terrible.
We can't crushing under my own way. We cannot do that when you send an astronaut in zero g for a year and then come back to earth right. Ok, we already know the effect of lower gravity, you're, bound density, drops and other things and then come back to earth and they don't die. What is our right and also so remained, might not be as bad as you think, but now with that changes I mean this is a biological questionnaire, but with that change over time through adaptation, so that so we come back to earth after being, and Euro G and your body always seeks an equilibrium. Ok, so that's why we go back. Ok. So when I get a straight on, Mount ran right right, strange, I'm not ready life. Kind of people fail. You know me black people, Linux guy, but I thank God, no regular, regular humans right, as we currently know, ourselves doesn't work out well on Mars. But someone gives birth to
go and blank because I got changed the way I think about every right adaption implies that Europe, an environment, and then you go to another one, and then your physiologically adapt to it. Ok that no they're so does not happen. What happens is any genetic variation of any generation right? Some people have certain properties that others do. Incorrect, ok, you go into a new environment and everyone does who does not? Have the properties to survive dies. There are some merrily removed from the gene pool and the one person who had that property in advance in advance survives right and they so therefore they did not do Right they were spit to survive in that environmentally correct. They worthy fitness of survival correct, and so, when the word adaptation, it's true in the broad sense of a species great but there's no active,
adaptation ever going on at all. So you go to Mars and you know you might grow accustomed to it being overcome via you doubt, vile, genetically adapt regular combat with three fingers in amateur, because you need only look at our modest exact right unless you came here with their huts. You started up sir said the three. Lingered and attended the people. The Mars just adds ass right yeah. So why we get ten seconds left here to. Let me answer most of this girl So it could be that on Mars, certain our kind of people face You know me black people, Linux guy, but I thank God, no regular, regular humans right, as we currently know, ourselves doesn't work out well on Mars, but someone gives birth to a kind of human that can breathe a different mixture of oxygen or you know,
variation that is just natural and what goes on, and then they become the dominant strain of the human species. There. That's how you of species right could. Then they have a variation, that's even better Brian, even better any of these genetic mutations. Eventually, it's not an adaptation and it's a genetic mutations, correct that happens to be able to be good for the environment and then run it through and than others die off. And then you have just species the human race sway. This is how you get all the weirdest frickin creatures in Australia. Real this is why you have like marsupials. I thought I was gonna stay on starts in Australia. It's an writer isn't continent. I went right that hasn't touch mainland in millions of years and the creatures of Judea.
So funny. So you have a species that is a mammal where the baby is born outside the womb and draws up into the pathogen. And then you have the doctoral platypus raise eggs, but it's a mile away. We're stuck up, we will come back to start talk more cosmic worries with gentlemen
The future is space and the secrets of our planet reveal this star die, Rebecca, Norton, rest ICE nicely, yes, I am you hope of cosmic work, we are. The order was her son questions and they get soliciting. Did this topic this week? Is large go to Mars hanging out are living on Mars. I got a few answers there. I think I am I doing. Ok, I think you don't worry. I gotta tell you of it. This has been fastening the whole baseball thing. I when I read the question I was like. Ok, maybe
it's. That was amazing, ok now so, who just tuned in now. Now they can't going. I know what that's why you should listen to the whole shark feel bad about. Turning to an end in a meadow, and I shall look, it stand back. We talk baseball on Mars. And, yes, we get back to show up and listen. Ok, here's the deal! Let's go to Tony Williamson only resumed written his question. Could you component man's name. Totally wrong. No, he started off this. Hey Chuck, overhear lose gotta, be you got is over now to my name. We would it be more practical to sin, inflatable, habitat or artificial Habitat
or send a large scale, three d printer to make the habitats. In other words, how do you build your habitat or Mars? So I think initially you want to send the habitats ahead renewed and then you get people there who can and then you know, ship the ingredients for three printer and that I think the three printer comes later. That's what that's what I think right! You don't want. The first paying the Friedrich Treaty printer makes. Is your housing you'd want to test it on warehousing right? You know it's kind of, in this maws house. I'm taking you want. Only with a known have module habitat module Rousseau later on by the way you could answer, I can't imagine life on another planet without a three day. Printer hope something breaks, a fan, blade or a circuit board or ice, and you just you just dial it up on the 3d printer
put your poor in the right ingredients and I had as its silicon dioxide is it. Is it some other ingredient to make these metals of some kind iron, steel, whatever and then it printed out? And then you ve got your tools. So then you have to transport. Is your ingredients, including you, don't have to transport the actual stop you Roy ingredients and I saw ass. They call it a Threed printer, that's what it was its hold, an in situ ports utilization machine at NASA River as more syllables ray I as an hour you right, which means it's good reason way better than the one you want to celebrate. So in that you poor in aluminum dust and it takes it and if fuses it by laser into the shape that the cat drawing tells it to make as so they may. I that's why I have examples of this at home, I haven't a screen. I have a fan blade. I have other shapes that are not even symmetric right and there. It is so yeah that I think that the future
so send the habitat and then make sure the next thing you bring is a three d print with wrought angry with raw ingredients erect. So you can make every who knew that we would actually have replicators like STAR Trek that gene run very was a genius on many levels that are in many dimensions. It's unbelievable, our right man, hey Tony Williams. That was a very, very good question. This is Nay owns smaller, o w and as a z out of you and owns all locations, what he only my last name, rosy from anywhere. We need.
It is from that sucker? Here's what you did they don't say whether from say this is from earth. Ok may owns from earth. You got that ties in with the financial cost of going to Mars being so high. What are some of the advantages of this mission over sending a dozen other missions to find life when the moons of Jupiter or sadder? Why is Mars more important or less important or equally important at Jupiter or Saturn poos? Moons, we think, may have life so if you're only going to explore, then we're sending robots and the robots to Mars or a couple hundred million dollars. That's actually cheap in the big scale of space exploration. What when we say Mars is expensive, we're not talking to send in rovers paternal sending people that's what's expensive. You know why, because the people generally
combat, guess, right and so, and they want to eat and not die while there there does self his passage. Sippet click always think it up. That's how you think about that's where they had a trillion dollar costs come out of. You only quote. Only exploring the solar system you taking robots to do that and yeah that permission to Mars with a large robot is about the same as a mission to Jupiter, with a medium or small sized robot, Europa, Iowa and sell it is this year celebrate its together? Celebrate that's the planet. I've on the matter swell.
Solomon S, my planet I had suffered so so yet so that's not it s about the issue yet so Joyce and people there were the expensive I so now. What is more important is more important to to explore these moons that you know either through you know, the gravitational pull or through
you know the fact that they have these oceans. That's a great question: you what's more important when you design emission, you have to you kind of need to know in advance what questions you want the robot to be asking right right. When I say robots, I mean space probes and I don't mean like humanoid robots. In fact, why would anyone make a robot in the shape of a human we're? Not the most efficient way to move to? Thank to us so give me something that works right, because he wanted to look like you. It makes you feel better. No. Now here I never felt that no account America's Dennis, like your child, like it started to dismantle your bade release of should be wearing one right, efficient, ok, so so the real costs of sending humans and about with robots, explore the rings of Saturn or the magnetic field or the
the radiation levels or the volcanoes that are on some of these means. You have to know in advance what package of experiments you're gonna put together on it and my colleagues that they live for that right, so cause they're planetary, astronomers, I'm an extra galactic. I worry about Galaxy, CS the area they do planet. Yet many go him. Do you plan to do your planet today? I'm worried about big may lie about galaxies, so check weapon we had the foreman mark. I write, or you know that means something to me so chuck we're under five minutes. We know tat means The lightning ran like I will give sound bite answers to every question you giving ready. Go. I type then or mcgown wants to know is their GEO geological activity or Mars, and if so, what would its impact. On a station there. I don't remember the latest. I know
Mars is more dead than it ever was in the past at and cause it's. When you cool down from your formation energy right, then there's there's no turbulence under your crust. Rag earth still has energy do within four from some left over energy, a lot of energy from radioactive decay and elements in, and so we have convection in our mantle that moves continents that we have continental drift and volcanoes every. I woke up the mountain building right so Mars, not so much today. That's it! Yes, so you set a base camp there. You don't worry about come back later and have it being flooded, with volcanic lava or but shifted in some new place and only about four Mars sweet. Alright, I write is largely cause. Mars is smaller than earth and, of course, faster. Because of that. Ok, yes, yes, that's why small potatoes cool faster than large potatoes? oh really, even if they come out of the oven at the same temperature. Well, that explains my. Rear,
This is more. The pavement baby favours. Is there anyway to revive marriage is magnetic field? This is from a power power Powell, power power, car, picky, rigour, use half our time, listen a new pronounced people's May. So the main Eric field on earth is sustained and can cause earths, Earth mantle and earth core is alive and well I mean by live as theirs moving material and in our iron core. If move iron, which is itself conducts electricity or at you drive, what's called the dynamo and you create a magnetic field nice, so if, but, if you're caught, if your planet is like dead, raise, not this geologically dead, so you'd have to. I go down to the core of Mars and heated up and
moving their own in liquid would liquefied form again. Ok, so the answer is no. Yes. Answer is no doubt that the issue is a girl it would have to have one more here with our bread Smith once again, What's Kali were established, would it be possible to connect the computers and networks on both planets? In other words, we have internet on Mars. So this would be into planet net interplanetary. So by all means. The problem is to be a time delay when Mars is close, that that internet signal would take maybe a few minutes and when Mars is far it can take up to twenty minutes or half hour.
I have to do the math, but its many many minutes. So yet you can, you wouldn't be able to do like a massively parallel, interplanetary war game right right, because you get shot before even knew that you got shot right. Could thereby timely information got to you to duck? Is too late you? That's you dumb gotcha rocks Rex, so it would restrict what kinds of instantaneous communication internet maybe
choir, but other kinds of doesn't if he was watching a youtube. Video sure go right ahead, so modern combat no email- yes, yes, yes and and the there is talk of using pulsars in the galaxy as a kind of gps for wherever you are in the solar system, no longer requiring on the gps satellites of one planet or another, because they are that d pulsars rotate very rapidly and they sent out a pulse of radio waves, and so they are precision, timing devices of that sit outside of everybody's atmosphere, and so you can have an interplanetary time keeping system that will serve almost the same capacity as GPS turn left at the brown dwarf TAT day. We go about a bad things are as they should be as always
It is always a pleasure man. Rock in these countries were always buy. You been listening to you start to agree. As always, to keep looking like. Devil may, adopt the organs We should listen, the star talk, commercial, free, Joe, STAR talk on Patriot on for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com. Last star talk, radio.
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.