Neil deGrasse Tyson, comic co-host Negin Farsad, and cosmochemist and author Natalie Starkey, PhD, answer fan-submitted questions about Comet NEOWISE, Halley’s Comet, the Oort Cloud, and much, much more!
NOTE: StarTalk+ Patrons subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/show/cosmic-queries-sharks/
Thanks to our Patrons Matias Mancini, Sondra Ballegeer, Justin Yi-Riley, Kevin Carr, Jocelyn Germinal, Andrei M Burke, Brian Lin, and Adolph Guenthner for supporting us this week.
Image Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins APL/Naval Research Lab/Parker Solar Probe/Brendan Gallagher.
See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now this is our talk. I yielded restoration, your personal astrophysicist and your host. This is a
MC queries addition and we
been long overdue to get a cosmic queries on the comet. There has been
the sky, and so I had to bring in some expertise for that. But before we get to that, would introduce my colleagues for this episode.
Dream for some Magee welcome back oh hi meal how're you after your first visit to us, you didn't run away and come back. You can you came back? Are you
Nl my head, getting like larger with facts and knowledge, and I thought- and let's do this- is again wonder your head. We must sit on the screen right, haggling measurement. Did you first
That is a standard comedian, and if I remember correctly, you wrote a book called how to make white people laugh. Indeed,
that's crazy title raised, but I would like a comet to be named after my book
Also you hosted by cast fake the nation. That means.
Yet these are very varied.
The term. She's got a yacht is pick up that book listen to their partly because we want and what they re, where you come from a yell enjoy them that their their fun, but they have, like you, know, just a lot less sites, but you'll still love that an end. You view rights is not every white person.
You write this as a sort of middle eastern heritage person. That's right! I'm an iranian american Muslim. You can probably tell from my voice.
Yes, I was gonna forget
very easy to tell on high so delighted to have you back and we are friends
start talking loudly Starkey Natalie welcome back
I yeah here you're our climate export and your your dialing in Earthward zooming in from Cambridge,
the UK, when England very cool, but welcome.
Maybe they don't know that you wrote our most recent spatial at the hidden,
the term with eyes? Planet says objects and planet is astronomical targets of interest. So, just
thanks thanks for coming in to do that? So just now. I hope also means of his comment as well as how can I resist things in the same light you getting any hobbies now, exactly the exactly sir, when the platter opens back up and maybe you'd come back and visit
The way we did. I gave listeners a little bit of insight about the two of you, the
a green room, chit chat before we started recording was about
helium later fairies. This is why I really do you think they're talking about, like you know, kind, yea, West, or something before we start recording no they're talking about helium before we start requires no everyone's clear people are talking about it all day, long measures at this hour, restoratives colleagues, whose the professor at the open, universally
Actually I met a public engagement offers an adversary. I'm not here. You can give us his way through a lot of physics, public engagement clause. I discovered
Doing a lot of recycling is love talking about signs of the times.
Ok, what actually very excellent, and then you ve got the book and you ve got video.
I was in so you're out there
you try to do what we were trying to do. So we can t find ways are gonna Bahamas you take my place about. Are so your expertise of intrigue, because your expertise in the solar system grew
out of your expertise. Thinking about earth is a planet
as a geological object. So they give you a different kind of angle into what comet are then an astronomer would have
so I started, as a geologist have always been fascinated by volcano, is that we will get me into science and
and what is its, that is. I looked in chemistry on rocks. Analogies
from there and mighty ass. She was looking at understanding. The earth is a planet, how it formed four and a half billion years ago. How it evolved since then
cause, I'm an actual steps when I saw their prices, which is the recent traditional had asked my phd, it was making a communist, for example,
in the same kind chemistry on them, but it was just became space rocks. Instead awful- oh, my goodness, I stay cool, I don't know anything about space rocks, I'm gonna Japan and give it a guy and are just not access by syllable painted parliamentary bodies but spacious cooler than John.
You're just in space. You gotta be careful because I hear geologists can be very violent, so you might get some attacks after this legislation were like actual rocks than they can touch. You touch your rocks. Neil common law break. These rocks. I've actually hit my ancient with my own role come before. Why, when I actually miss wrote, it was sleeping,
The if she can do that to herself magic and why didn't do
I ve noticed it's illegal hinder violence and you said mentally
still have your eyebrows, so, whatever level
Ok, knows you had you didn't leave too far in two?
the very least I've never seen out like an actual eruption, but I've been on an active volcanoes many times and teenagers
a bulgarian caribbean. I works on you can literally here. The thing roaring is your standing. Next to a gas is escaping from his absolutely amazing. I didn't do that for ass. She went one. Actually cuts will have to understand
its temperature and look at it in detail and measuring gases, but they just they fastness Bela volcanoes,
We ve got volcanoes in the solar system that are places other than earth. So it's cool to have you
helping us eyes. You might be coming out next year is all about a spoken. I
so I've written yeah? My second basis, finished sightsee, I gotta be a wildly comes out. It is about cocaine, is in the same system, may divide
all made of rock right. I that's right
spewing chunks of ice. We think volcanoes as hot objects, but it's really just object with a lot of pressure at affair.
We are basically the ESA golly makes to cool itself down, but if that things already called averages has to be a little bit warmer inside and be colder outside that it wanted to those that heat right away.
Can I say that space volcano is how I described in Ex boyfriend, who was both a part had an had? A temper saw Irene, actually realized. It was a real things. Go, I'm learning allow progress of terms
that way pilgrims remarked this. All that was always weird about of so
Certain again did you collect question for us for this cosmic, where I did there are so many great questions have right in
Head right in with Philip lions from patriarch, he asked under its first cause the page first because they really support. I understand that
NEO Eyes was recently discovered in March, given how long its orbital period is around the sun. How can we be sure that, in a region aided in our solar system, that is there
I was worried, nervous, Jim cosmic queries. It felt like an exact idea. Put that right, hey, say, then think about common system, which would then we pursue picking at your poem.
With which you are a Natalie you of about thirty seconds. To answer this question in writing.
We call it unreasonable. Let's get us a case that I really want to see the same system, so
countenance was use those system that serious
I mean really see them in any detail.
We want of my how small
well, do you went about five kilometres across
three miles if you're, not as aside ass, knock huge,
well enough in the earth and is really far away. We are going to see a very easily,
now, most unconsciously really far. They live in the far out of each of the sciences. Impostor, always the planets
They live in cycle, the quake about and then even further out this kind of theoretical region called the cloud.
And looked rather possibly billions of them
sometimes think it tight the innocent system to bring them closer to the sun, which is what happened with near wise now?
It comes in and ass? She was on a different, also period to start with its attraction with a sudden change is also very cynical. Long working has come from around four thousand news, whereas six thousand years to get around the sun all the way back again, so he said
this alone. Here. Your comment is always say, as this tells us
they came from very far away exist and come from closer to us. It wouldn't take silence, go around the sun
So we were is how is also carried only know. It's not coming back for quite some time, and now
the elder question. Why am I correct? So is how do we know which from the solar system?
Ok? So the reason we know this third system is mostly related to his speed. Now something was coming from another sailor system, another star system way out, then
determining extremely fast you have exited is those the sin and the oaks and into the travelling through and the galaxy.
Now we have that happened before there was an object, was to be removed and which was destroyed
Angel Jack, that we saw very last minute and we didn't know if it was a comment or an asteroid who still not one hundred, we think is probably a dead comment
they came from some other sources. Do any trouble.
Because they were system so quickly that it didn't even get capstans all around the sun. It couldn't care less than we were here. I just went straight through zooming stray passed, some effect.
We can kind of measure the speed of of this kind
in space, New why's he can figure comes within our saviour system. Are we to roughly work how from where it came and where is going back
so in other words, if you calculate in orbit- and it turned out to be infinity
and it's never coming back- and it was an interval.
Right, but the UK through orbit, and is an actual number that comes out of that equation, with six or seven thousand years right yeah.
It is just hanging out in this spot.
No one knew I always is always there is some of them.
Stay out now. Two sailors system, but that occasionally comments get kind of.
Since the innocent systemic, because they might have interacted with a big plans and the kind of origin
asking only three of the happy all back and then Sweden towards the sun, essentially
The sun is really big and so is got tons and tons. I've heard laugh, it pull the herd
The bond street says bag.
Ninety nine point: nine sends the massive asylum system right. I was just going to say that in the United States
poles, everything's moons there and that's what happens with his coming if it has not always obeyed and kind of conserving towards this
You always think very place of Sunday, still some distance away and bugs.
You claim that kinda heated up so much that they just two things a great completely, which has happened quite a lot of times, but this one is
David, you guys and admonition kind of scar on the sun in its time. Account now is on its way back to the outer sales system
right. Wola question. Numerous doze comes from also from patriarch are a malady says. Why is a comics don't orbit in a circular orbit like the planet's do, but instead have a very long gated orbit, even though they all orbit the sun Shouldna comet orbit like the?
Planets, though way out in the orchard cloud you mentioned the or cloud just now, by the way who names these clouds and stuff, because why isn't name like Brad or Larry or something like why they all? I have
these, like you, know, silently nerd lame. I think I was named after a young. Oh yes, it is, I think, a passionate discovers discuss zoning Orson. Then you get your name to a quite often, which is that's cool
weren't going oranges. I can add out of respect for you if you make the discovery than other people talking about your recent research paper will then coin there term
So your word did not say: I've discovered the workload he didn't say that it is paper. He just did it
population and showed through all these comments. They come,
some very Lord Warburton Little spent much time here, but if you look
the gravity of the situation when you're farming-
Henderson you're moving slowly, so then he did
some mass on this and figured. There must be a place out there. That has billions of comments
those in power in all directions around the sun and then that paper gets puddle,
It was said: hey there's this cloud of comments that, beyond what hypothesis antigen candy workload,
apparently there and talk him in a circular orbits Nellie. What's up with the same
Most of all, though, cloud comments, arches
out there and they basically forming the shell around as those systems. If you might have all of the planet's unasked Rui sales in a plane and ass
but where we can have that ground on the rule the same playing pretty much anyway and then the quaint about comments.
In that time, but then the old House promised so far away. I know
sounds the same system by the gravity in the same way to the planet saw sedation,
found and ass pretty
How we noted that you ve never been there, we ve never directly, observe them in
look out, but sometimes when they come in the same system, they could tie versed in the ends up on this very day. The kind of ellipse coordinated brings them
today around the sun much closer and that's how he ended.
On these- and that are, we know because I come from a visit us and then they disappear again out of their home and shall around the same system
Are you suggesting that, if all comments in fact did have circular orbits
We would never know they were there.
Because they will never come closer to the sun rendered visible by the age by the heat of the sun
definitely they all cloud ones and caused quite about we ve. Now, because we ve highs and we had a voyage emissions have gone through the coy about now, and then we have the new horizons. Nasa mission went to visit Plato. We statue
pointed out, objects is not commence. Its distinct move planet sitting on
wait about those are fighting worse, you just sit here. Did you go to a game of PLUTO to cover about object, grow up and put our notice
slipped out of her mouth
think about new horizons. It went to look at another object in the quiet about it. We got to see this icy object that sitting out there, so we are now getting out there and visiting these things and seeing them in their high. We have two weeks them come to us, but those missions are really shrinking because by the time you get out there, you gonna be travelling really fast away from from the sun as Eu Data a very long time to look at these objects. We just literally zoomed past PLUTO into a million images was due to that, and I still
being praised ass we drink at long. Look at these. It's really hot engines, all their run. In one of these things to say far away, we are going there now that we pursue, and would you say then that most of the average in the culpable
are on roughly circular orbits, and so will never.
See them unless they,
He jostled and set loosen plunged down back towards the sun.
I think you know that, don't you think is the same in millions of them out there and there are we to get money from numerous comments which are the ones are diverted towards the sun
come and visit us, but they're, not that frequent
We have quite a few of them.
Happen that often the Ebay we're gonna need to worry about it too much
so soon again near earth. Comic at code for
How could one day render us extinct clarify that it's funny, because it seems like such an innocent terror men me at a slower, deadly and horrifying it wasn't my new earth object? They took out the dinosaurs near the earth. Would I
I you to say that the reason comments go in. Sometimes these oval shapes or whatever is because of russian trolls. You know that
aid like their russian trawls.
Be attributed with a lot right now that this might be one of them, I'm just throwing out there. I want you to look into it, prepared top people
on their right.
Try for one more before we take our first break
Ok, let's go to! Oh. I love his question
from Julia Casey. Also from patriotic. She write what unanswered questions about comments? Do you most want to see answered in your lifetime? I hope not
questions. I think one of really hot topics at the moment is trying to figure out whether what
What the role of commerce
what was the role it has played in life on earth?
we don't know where we came from. We don't want
and her life got here, we do understand how it started on earth we,
I don't understand what our water came from. These two things are really linked and we think we
water to make life, and we think we need water to sustain life on our planet or anywhere, and
I understand. Will these things came from an occasion, a comments and the last rites deliver
Is this the building blocks alike,
and also water to our planet. In the past we know they collide with s four and a half billion years. Gonna love, collisions and of communist reasons. Why
people that can deal with them and someday
he's goodies, we're world material and a water. So it might be that they live in the building of life. And then we need to understand how. Then we got life, because it's not good enough to say over the coming months. We have life, because it's not that simple. We down the Senate next step in science
and how we produce organisms like us. So Natalie you have you.
Expertise coming from a volcano a volcano background. We
they put water into the atmosphere and now you're thinking about comets, so you could have the pact
edge of how to make all the water we ve ever had
Maybe I hastened yeah volcanoes release a lot of water. There is a lot of law of gases into the atmosphere. Some of them get some impact. They don't actually have a negative effect on the climate as such
The forum is maintained without once came from within the civil painters, wrote tat material from inside the planets and inside the material.
Inside the planet has written there, either from the start, when he s fault, or it was lived later on in cool praising the inside of the planet, so that condemned erupted out and now
we may have started Luna wars when our sun forms and reformed the planet slowly coming next right around the sun. It might be that we have no water from the beginning that were actually we ve got interstellar water flows and my actually not be basically from our side. It might come from interstellar space
you re, really Orson to think when drinking water is older than our son
We just don't know, because the ass was really in hospitable. When it fast food was boiling, it was a molten ball of MECCA.
It's hard to understand how we might have maintained water within that really hope that might make it probably would go boiled off.
Is why signs is sometimes say: ok, maybe bull that watchman later on maybe came from these
first have a bit of ice on their media. Came from these call. Mister Tebrick icy
Nice. That's one of the major questions we're trying to answer the moment where it came from and
can bring a filter. Water, that's older than the sun, is another provider, but I love I would love for you to figure that out that exploit it.
Of light. Was her we're just like just a small answer to that question, because that it explains everything like slots? Why are they
such a weird animal and cargo pants like literally eggs, then explains everything else is the key
Everything the expire, we're gonna, quit break and would become back. We will return.
To my clothes and again for a sword. Am I a special guest madly started coming experts who were meter? Well, you know we love to talk about square space here
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start talk by Georgia? My college degree for Third Magee: were you ever Twitter handle begin to tell anyone. It's Nicky Facade any Diana Faye. I Ain t broker address your name. It
I know what I said. Yes, I do feel it is Christmas Eve unexpected hours out of its. Maybe I was ready,
There are some other very out in a word. I really set you up for like his usual legal, forty three it out now, and this is where the real murderer recycle someone stole women,
Natalie Natalie. Are you also on twitter?
Yeah, my name stockier seem again, that's how you do that beginning, but ok, we're taking notes. Starkey, start
Ok, so we're in cosmic queries mood ever talk about comments. Of course, inspired by the recent appearance of come near lies in the sky. So what what's up next to have their up? Next, we have a question from Twitter at fault
the eighty three asks would you expect to find amino acids on NEO wise and could the NEO wisest of the universe be the life
Strip, theatres, which you kind of mentioned a little bit about that,
four year. Every touch on this in the last question, but ass. She yeah we're getting a bit more detail now, so we ass. We know that we ve got amino acid some comments. I would very much expects commandeer wised contain amino acids safe, we
I'm just gonna want e commerce, which is pretty much the only comments we ve studied in detail in size. The first one was come it built to which
the visit by NASA Stardust and they like to was to bring back to earth and they found
The amino acid guy seen in Nagoya, seems the most simple, the most simplest amino acid, but it's there. So that's very exciting.
Now we worries about finding with DE resisted mission, which is the European Space Agency Mission and it went sea were common, sixty seven pay. What it was
on the surface of the comment, actually I'm for the land down to the surface and analyzed all sorts of things by suggesting gas coming off the comment on it and it also
amino a on the comic angle. I
We know we have to. We know comments complies with the planets, and so they were all the inventory of amino acids, possibly other amino acids as well. We haven't found yet, but it might be that they vote.
To our planet? In the past, there is every chance that they deliver life here,
be cool knife in inverted commas, but obviously today from amino acids too complex
organisms is a very big step that we don't cry. I understand sir.
Only. What you're saying is. We were too for two in the comic
we could have known whether they had a meter wessex, Sir we're say we're good, with the same way that we found him. You know acids an asteroid, the last they meet right, some of the rocks at come from us
There is a lack of our planet or they can come from other planets is loud and they asked Rachel. Meat should meet rights.
Who's, the half tonnes real ass is in fact one particular asked. For example, we found more more amino acids and we have on us.
Send those more variation in space and we had no need to account for life. We have here
You mean more kinds of amino acid
yeah, also life elsewhere could just have could be,
interesting that we were at my reliant a friend you know, and as a minimum to make life? We have no idea. We actually have no idea about the vast and it does the great thing we haven't. We call the evidence that all over these signs,
but now we just got to understand next step of how we get life.
Some again ass, the emigrant export economic aliens. Let me ass, I ever multivitamin that contains amino acids. Is it
that same amino acids?
On this. I never really legs. The multiple and one is in sight,
men, because it gives me good, you know, nails and hair, so so yeah. So comments have great the up. Do
going you're so narrowly what's gonna happen is machines. GonNA visited the meteorite Hall of the museum is achieving licking the meteorite running violence, not only via these supplements anymore. I just like the meteor. I gave an excellent point again step away from the media. Ok, I just put before the next question now
Could you tell me how near wise got its name,
oh yeah, another. She really interesting topic. I mean I can talk about ass ours by way of trying to the shore versions comedy of first
converge on earth is named after the people will find them all in the case of new wise, the telescope that they found. It is good news
rises in spaces space telescope.
The protein greed for people working on it? And we can just give it one name that previously, when it has been one person looking through telescope and they found a comment and they got to name it after themselves,
safe, that's when they tend to have. You know how you commented all vessels Edmund Talley,
but it was really boring designations areas. Those acount sees lashed twenty twenty three
we show you a little bit more about the type of communist. See means its non periodic, so it doesn't come round the sun. Very often this move in two hundred years it takes to get around the sun,
twenty tells you the year was out of discovered and early.
Three tells you a little bit more about the exact month? It was discovered so it took.
Who is the end of march that it was discovered. Tat was the third com
at the end of march to be discovered so totally tonnes information, but we just pull it new eyes to this much friendlier. I think you're under selling it a little bit, because I see slash twenty Twond
a slash, F, three, I think he's gonna, be a very popular baby name coming
Its ranks born
were conceived and so now
We actually I'm in a hurry
didn't discover, Haley's comment
no, he didn't say always learn from you knew, because what we did was he took newtons new equations of gravity and applied it to a comment that was in this.
Guy and noticed that it was the
same comment that had come around in previous records, because now we
understand orbits. You can now think of com. It's not.
Singular objects but as in some
Is. It is nearly solar system so using that he made a prediction of when it would come again
I we just waited with bated breath
It was. It came right when he said right where he said it would come and from then on it was named after a long dead by then, though, that's what what had happened,
the key back in my twenty sixty? I guess so.
Our hope until around to see that you're twenty sixty? I think that it is because it was in eighteen, eighty six as every seventy five years or so yeah right so Nicky
Got another question: we have another question it comes from Instagram. Is it passed?
bull to measure the rate at which a comment loses its mass as it travels across the solar system.
Let me add that an early, if you do their calculation, can you tell us when it will disappear, comply
I hastened the answer to both questions is nigh. Well, not there's no simple way to do this by swift. We ve done it sort of one Israeli. We ve done it with the reservation, the European Space Agency Mission and the only way we can
without mission is because- and
within the lander. With the comment a whole times. There was a kind of approached it when it was around a bit of Mars. Deep, it's a kind of place, then state without comment
we passed the sun and
and came out. The other side's while they were able to do is look at the prices is happening at this point. Was
ices with supplementing into space and it was experiencing every hole, environed near the sun and it came up,
the size and they can measure how much material was coming off. The estimated
a measure of the surface of the comments with lost during that all around the sun is about three by five kilometres of a similar kind. I am sorry
come near wise, but they certainly factors that will control how much it loses all depend on how much volatile material has within it, the stuff that the streams off into space
It will depend more, exactly is its composition. How much ice has compared to die,
the old man on how close against the sun the same factors
did we couldn't simply apply? Not one meter rules everywhere that guy's name son, because that will be different.
I think this is a good idea for that particular comment that they lose love material and that's a veto, huge amounts of every time they go. My son that happens,
eventually they die, we cannot say that they die. They don't have any volatile material left, the ices all gone. They got no moment to lose if they go via the sun.
And then they just have a tale. Any longer comment really say: buddy, it's hard to say how long is going to take and how we always that takes happen my day.
Away from this is that comments are always dieting. Body shaming is happening in the solar system, no way that I had no idea how you're not on board with it, using a meter that those precursor to move the chrome is little is being waged by the sum that that's
then said. I know I know, but then we went to see them otherwise can, unless aphorism happened is coming when he reached the always around cheapest.
Stars, heated ass, one else stars produced what we call is Keimer, which is a kind of the atmosphere
surrounds rocky nucleus, and that makes up the comment?
Saudi heated and the ice within there is lots of different types of ice and common could be wards rise. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, lots of different types of ice like the rearing of entering on you, but they use and bar yes With- is that in their two area through common we got drawing is that we need a carbon dioxide stuff, so basically they all and get supplementing, which means they Tavern fully to gas and different stages.
Is there going towards the sun. The first ones come off is generally carbon monoxide and that kind of glaze blue
So, if you often see images, comic nearby cycle is kind of blue halo around the common you and that starts to dance
off into the tale that material, I'm so
the comet losing its mass and that all that materials stream out behind there, along with dust particles coming.
At the same time, so is its current can be avoid an environment. On the surface of the comment as
a cat of the heated up differently and then steps of gases can shoot off an it. Can quite crazy
So now we everything I know about that. I learned from the movie army.
The only way that, on the surface of the comment- and it rotates into the sunlight and then geysers
dark popping out and no one has any actual paw about me. You have immense limousine reasons: Ledger, viper synergy. What else?
Kay, and we also have from
Twitter. Oh hello.
From Cape Verde, which is such an exotic location to be sending a mass arrival, islands all night
to take my dream to go visit. My dear friend,
theoretically, can we harvest water from asteroids and comments to solve water crises and famines here on earth? And if so, when they see more
important slash, Patrick Olive and starting a colony on mice. Read before you get to that now. Let me just say we had an entire livestock live programme on water, not only on earth, but in the solar system, and I had not fully appreciated how much rarer potable
fresh water is becoming on earth yeah, you know what a water all around and not a drop to drink,
So what is the name?
true. The water on comments, and why can't we just last, who won and bring it and make a lake of it and then dipping in
well yeah S first rule.
Obviously we're gonna be much better place. Looking after our own water supplies, making,
for ass, clean water, for a thousand, not polluting the rest of our planet and
having low social problems those you don't wanna drink salt water. Now
space there are other moons and stop the have. Rules will know that it tends to be salty water basket, followed
in that light, can survive and never results of that we want to drink short ass if we were said travel out into space and we would
it's a guy and you don't have a law was not
that's gonna, be a good idea, but anyway we days is neutral Mars. We don't think there's much anyway, there might be some,
its observers, we don't know so
we can conduct traveller homey on the way and in Gaza
What are we just Maoist? Some of that comment separate out the water ice from you know these other types devices that it contained a shorter visa in space, and we do think that that is one of the ways we might be able to explore further into the solar system.
Have these problems we it just. Is someone be very easy to do just kind of flyby comment and grab? Some water is not that simple and but he's dead.
You know, something we doing to bring back to earth he's not gonna, be practical to transport water back to our planet, and even if I live in space, we better off looking after our water. Here,
so there's an interesting corollary to that because is still cost
NASA about ten thousand dollars a pound to put a payload into space.
So if I launch you and you want a drink, sixteen ounces of water
If I set up a mining colony,
refurbished asked from asteroids incarnate melted, then I sell it to NASA, but for on space activities.
And I felt an answer for seven thousand. I can do that
if some advocates cheap on sale for five thousand whatever, but I can
imagine a future, however distance where the
Order that we do harvest for comments goes to other activities in space, rather than
I agree, be impractical just to bring him back
at the moment. Anybody that guy's upping Gramps an object in space like an asteroid will comment, can I think, the prince
american citizens. Anyone can own wherever they find in space. I haven't seen the rest of the world is catching up with those laws
you can't do that. If you could go in mine, a communist rule, you can control then sell it. Whenever materials you get from Anti, whoever wants them with the veterinary
Murchen rule ever since the beginning, provided it is ours helper how they can actually was built to expect that even those who used as propulsion for rocket fuel say you can you can spare the higher the oxygen out of the water water being each year molecule?
the highest in the oxygen and you can use that as proportions. Wealth is not just for humans living, but it will say to get further into space, because I
he said launching anything of our planet is incredibly expensive because we have a lot of gravity swiftly
our fuel is able to take it with us from here? That's real awareness as well. The picture I write,
we all know the effort. We ve got a question from Instagram from at Gabriel Joaquim. How do different come
We'll compositions change the color of the comment,
a question because I've
seen pictures of the comment and is all these beautiful colors in it. I want to know where that comes from, except we have to take a break
all learn from Natalie Starkey, how comets different colors
we'd like to give a patriarch shovel out to the following patriarch patrons material men, see me and sundry Ballinger thanks so much for being our bright shining star. Without you, we couldn't do this show and if any one else listening would like their very own patriotic shout out. Please go to patriarchy.
I'm slashed star, talk, radio and support us Rebecca fairies. I gotta get facade nor I, and at least Starkey their resident convicts were adrift she's in the UK.
Now so she's arisen of somewhere. Yes, us begin. Somebody just asked about comic cars. Is our right? That's right. They asked why it like
Different chemical competitions change the color of the comment. So how does the leper get it spots and how to combat give their colours see? This should be the same book.
And yet, as the great question, because it's one of the ways we can figure out, war commits the Meda, because we can look at their colours, become in the USA, the system and its head,
This war is literally coming off their surface, which I see as a sublimated and turning from solid sagacity. They get hotter silent. I mentioned earlier that the first gas and the tenants come off its carbon monoxide in that place, Blue and Neil Kinnock,
We explained the physics reason,
the Heinz all the islands wrapped in that place. Blades you want to know
then I can tell you like. I can tell you, sir, these. These molecules have certain sort of energy states that the existing and, if their fair, another energy source they can. You can kick.
Trans half of them are. You can bring them up into a higher energy state and then they
release that energy back to you, but in a very specific part of the spectrum, and then you ve, so indifferent compounds, different different molecules. Different Adams have different cars corresponding to what their energy levels are.
So the it's? It's not deeper than that and that's going on all the time. So yes are gone,
isn't that exam question isn't that I should have asked what he should know. Nobody where'd, you remember the glow in the dark krispies. You know you you'd put it under a light and then you throw
for me, it closed this kind of pale green. While would you put it under
regular light and it bumps up the energy levels,
Then, when you take it away from the light the Lee
trying to send and be met this green light corresponding to the material that in the in the in the four.
I'll be at elf so and it doesn't do that forever right, you only get to play with it for ten or fifteen minutes before you don't see that that signature at all, but the cam
constantly getting stoked by the sun. So you get these color
sustaining a wrong. You thought I was gonna green color, which I think is related to an elementary common cause. We noticed little carbon and comments and just ask who tend to be made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen, nitrogen particles they all the stuff for life is pretty
an inclusive, sometimes get a red and which it says he
we call it. She turned to her to maintain or the first one is, is made of dust and that can be quite diffuse that tends to be saluted
Why gray, yellow colors you get this
I can tell which is the iron tail, which is these gases it'll come off and that tends to be blue
rainy colours and as someone
as the sodium tail, which is red. I think how she was saying. We commandeer why's that with three different tales coming off. This comment, saver
common travelling with the sun in these tales all face away from the sun, basically.
Where's, your tail is a misnomer on its way out of the solar system out of that of the
It is also right if it goes out tail first,
we think of tail is something the trail yeah exactly.
It's only trailing on his way here. Yeah detailing up ahead of the comments orbiting ahead of the home is not in line with each other is obviously the destiny of iron gas. If they get just to be too differently and they reactor for me too,
gravity the man and the state of winds everything. So they end up being separated. That's how you can see them and I mean
the images, the people of Gaza. I have been asked
aren't they beautiful and everybody's got a grey camera. You don't need full telescopes to do this. In our cameras, a good lambs, young poverty, the old
If I saw an old man, my long reminder of the sitting
can we go to lightning rod, lightning round, you're sure it's not up to you it's too narrow for question time and that the statement pretend you're on the evening news, and they just want soundbites this, so your sound by quiz, so they gave what you have all right, rob Kirsten from the Netherlands Rights on Instagram, let's say by the way, but wait yon or was from the Netherlands endangers the
the Dutch, have had a long in the twentyth century. Very long and proud history of participating in cosmic discovery. Just thought. I'd give a toss out to the Dutch but go on
does. The comet Hayley always have the same, tell tale color every time it comes around the sun, the chemical compass,
burns but cannot comic, gain other chemical compositions on its way to us,
yes, very ill, I think is shared caressingly wooing play the same colleagues, it will have the same ices within it, but as they are depleted, I guess it can change color with each over the sun, but exactly isn't gonna gain any material, as agreed by the sun alone, I'm losing stuff
good short answer. Let me ask: could you be a layer below that different from the layers above
revealed as a new chemicals should network committee. We have no idea because we haven't studied enough, commits a place and we haven't study enough. I would, of course, is an all back safe here. We should now be. They can be completely different as they go easy drove down into them. We its great, we have no, I lost a fanatical cycles. Odin layer, nachos dip, already discovered
we have from Oxford, comma twenty,
on twitter? How many outward com or twenty food is a leader in person here? How many encounters with the inner solar system do comments from the cape rebelled and or cloud get before their totally steam clean and become plain old, asteroids right back?
a similar question earlier and actually is again. We don't know, we don't really know any individual comment. How long it's gonna take for it suggests die and lose are always ices, so we just
The study, each one in detail, a man once we see what it does on his first or whether we look we gotta wait till it comes back and see how it reacts again. We really have no idea, but we have the comments that all then that so we know the fact
happen, but how long it takes
what we really don't know. At the moment.
So we say dead, you don't we destroyed, you mean there's nothing to evaporate to render it visible evacuees in Asia sent up like a hunk of rock in the end. What I'm gathering from all of this is that comments are really fickle lover. You know what they're gonna do, how labour being reaches its out now leave from again to go.
Right. You got the tumor. We go like one minute, we're. Ok, we have two million animals on a role should be she's, coming from a real tired hours on instigator of I want to know if com its orbit all the same direction in the same way planets do and if not, what would it look like if two comments color
it had while visible from earth with the naked eye. I knew you would be so cool. I hope we ve seen caused us into great when they drew near the site I mentioned earlier. When you know these things are very volatile: they they over
fragile, french, all a basically a snowball with a bit of time,
in three fingered. She might the Sunday can explain and we have thought of sea not with a telescope before and bar too was cool
I need to happen, but if it were to happen, we weren't, basically serious things would have collide. Disintegrated might be as exciting as you might think. As life we have two rocks coiling. They probably just live Melanie
each other? We know that if they were quite in the outer solar system that going pretty kind of this kind of far pour out there and then not kind of and hate each other with,
much force. So if they were
way out and ourselves than we wouldn't really see much Google's. There happened anyway, but it would be very exciting.
Romeo Burma, so this is a request under you turn it into like. I am I like. I was geared up for like the Macy's firework, dad you're, like our noses like the sad like Larry Outsiders, boy again doing fireworks off his roof. You know that has so far only thing, nothing if they come in, they can go on the planet and they have done in the past, but actually anytime, you never kind of himself is happening in a kind of explode.
Is the country the atmosphere they just can maintain their shape oncologist, not consolidation of the know how
It's gotta very well and they said
late in the day before they even reached the surface of the planet, say yeah, I'd, be very exciting
all right. Here's your my one way last question. Go last: question is from due to pre on Facebook. Is it possible?
Sulphur probity hitch arrive on our common baby, an extra solar
That will leave the solar system, loving question. I say you ve done it with the European Space Agency mission. There that's measurements mentioned a few times. It was his where these groundbreaking mission to a comment it landed, a little landed on the side of the command was inside. It follows that comment than ass. It went by the sun and came out the other side,
still ass. A new common is now heading out in the outer sewer system again and that laundress do with it and also without comment which thief basic.
Crash, landed on the colleagues they relate. We can't do science now. This may sound
We need sunset uproar, solar panels. What we're gonna do the spacecraft would crush land there or decelerated into the combat safe than are women.
Now? If you did, that will comment like me and it was going.
These services and a great state than sure you can then hedge arise. You have trouble with power and is very cold as you go away from the sun spacecraft. I really like that, but it is possible to be feared that it's not so much the true hitching a
because if you matched speeds
The interstellar object, Amour, then
once you match speeds, you don't have to attached to it.
Because you will have the exact trajectory that a moving more would have such interesting fact. It's not like you just hook it and then it
if you'd feel match, will you marry me you're there you are with the comet, whether touching it or not, and whether this kind of
the judges, the physics of it? But now I think it's it's funny to think that
We ve got our hard were sitting on a common so that, with the with the was admission to the next time it comes around it.
Jostled loose. There's like a spacecraft like getting
off the back of a home worry about when they call me when I understand the latter may have just been throwing off,
the space of a region of gases. It shall offer comment. When you go heated up safe with room. We had no idea. What's gonna happen, you never done it before.
Super prone to motion sickness, so the idea of hitching a ride on a comic just south horrifying, maybe just like our vomit bag, a constant use of Armenia and Asia as well. Thank you should be more web, worried about jerk spirifores under you,
asking you back out into space. Rather than just being on the common worry that you might need some drowned me,
so we gotta ended there again, it's always
to have you. I've always is the second time hoped to see more of you as my co host. So fine, I learned mice and your book how to make white people laugh crazy title and even crazier podcast title
What is it again, then? He said,
then, nation, good luck with those and we hope to see you
and Natalie always good to see you keep going all the way when it,
I'm back to New York, and maybe we can arrange for another comment for you to talk about noise emissions coming up and then I'm going to ask the same. We want to talk. We want to learn about. Those is definitely definitely so say.
You and the title of your next book. You working on fire and ice space, bouquets firelight, very nice. Very nice he's been startled cosmic queries near the gas station, your personal astrophysicist, as always to keep looking up
Transcript generated on 2020-08-10.