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Cosmic Queries: COSMOS with Steven Soter

2014-06-14 | 🔗
Questions about the science and visualizations in the COSMOS series on FOX? Get the answers from Neil deGrasse Tyson and Dr. Steven Soter, co-writer of both COSMOS series.

See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip? The commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right. Now, this star talk, I'm the other grass Thyssen. Your host, I'm in here, four physicist with the American Museum of Natural history right here in New York City, where I am now and across from me across from my recording table is Jackknife Emile check how I ride back to start off. Thank you, Sir Leon. Haven't you and I love baby here. This is a cosmic queries Edition They tell you that before you came in, I know they didn't know. That's one of my favorite things is the cause of cosmic queries. We pick a topic
and we solicit input from the listeners and fan base and they riding questions. I don't read. The questions in advance is correct. But their handed over to you? That's right. You pick and choose that's right and if I don't know I'm just out there, they go on to the next one which, by the way, has never happened. Actually never haven't. Thus far. Is it's not right because there I didn't know, but I gave a different answer to such mouse cat has how I did raise a rough off. So I think that the other topic near the top a year is Cosmos right, not cosmos, but Cosmos, exactly the shot and shell because Have to do with the show right yet, although certainly do hosted the shah, that's right, so so, We had a hundred thousand zillion other people worked workin on I've, writers and producers and animator Gaffer scattered
So these are all on cosmos and we have in studio briefly. Why don't we haven't for the whole show we have Steve Soldier, my friend and colleague, and co writer of cosmos, along with Andrea Steve Thanks a covenant. Thank you knew so and by the way he covered the original cosmos. So if any question comes up and back there would I'm going to him awesome Arright antennas already, have you gonna go right into desk night? Let's go but to our first from email- and this is a Nicholas, is I won't get Your email address, Nicholas here's. This question. I have a question for Doktor Thyssen figure there. You have a question for me there and starts radio outside radioactive much. I finally got a chance to see the first episode of Cosmos and I loved it. I noticed out that way, ship was travelling through the rings. There was a disturbance in the rings from the passage. However, at Mars and Venus there were no atmosphere of
shown. Even though the ship was clearly in the atmosphere. Was this a deliberate oversight you people are carried on like the way I do when I look at stuff all peoples cases, so I dont want to defend what may have been an over in the illustration and in the animation and in the end, in the valley, positions. But what is sure is that we focus on portraying what is visually accurate anything we are describing. Ok, ok, that's where the true focus of this exercise is so their other visuals. That may be Sort of the visually enhanced just so they made the journey a little more front forward at the best example. Here is we went through the asteroid about and they were like the asteroids
I know all over the place there and then do not that close to one another Grannie actual asteroid about four have Voyager would have been toast added got if the asteroid belt was as portrayed, but we didn't have a conversation about how things are extra distributed an asteroid about when we just wanted to convey we're going through the asteroid about now check it out. That's all that was we landed at the or cloud repository of comments in the outer solar system described as commerce. Far enough apart, far away from one another has earthy is from Saturn that empty there, and so this was conveyed and talked about it. Great detail, sir, but on Venus we did show that the atmosphere looks different because of how high the air pressure is on Venus. The refraction is print on Venus, then it is here on earth and it looks like you're in a bowl. So we show that in the visualization I'll catch itself, so that some there is, I says
some literary leeway or licence, yet some literary latitude languages that keep keep a literary merrier ain't literary licence and let it not so, but what we describe as the real running seem of the show right and that that is tight, it is we decided to make that we ve made it? That's all that then finally, end at the end of the day, it is the ship of the imagination. So if it doesn't leave awake through the atmosphere, you know you can show out on that. How being distributed. Imagination was in the original cosmos and but we totally wrong envisioned it for this one? Where were you happy with the original rendering? ever like one who original certainly. But I love the present when you're, ok, so the right gave iranian there, you go Nicholas. There's your answer so give it. The ship goes a lot to say so that matters that I think are right leg. I gotta tell you he's very detail:
guidance Nicholas, was on every little my new shit, let's move onto Amy, also emailing a question in and her questions about, arabic numbers, Mr Thyssen hate that's Doktor Thyssen, you noted occupation to you that is real to aim at the data was just watching the latest episode of Cosmos love it, and you mentioned Arabic, numerals and the concept of zero. This got me thinking I have often heard of math being a universal language, but would Alien civilization user base of ten. What if they had twelve fingers, for example, if we count it in a different way would pie be rational? Is our method of math a universal truth thanks,
who still want to choose any it again. Well that there was a base, twelve number system, it's it's so one of the oldest and it's almost certain that a hint with different numbers of digits would have a different based number for the countries affected based walrus was babylonian right. Yes, we at source clocks and have our twelve is really more convenient in some ways, because its divisible by three foreign to the average ten has only been about the data to three or four and six buttons and everything but in any negative, a quarter of an hour, averted accolade, but then reply the ratio of the circumference to the diameter circle would be an irrational number and in an infinite fraction, erase alleys his fingers. You have in any system and any system God s good, so so Now all the irrational numbers stay arrest near ass. It there's no hope for them. That's what would you suppose you went in base pie
you can imagine that I dont think is very practical. The about then pie would equal to we'd be equal to one or something or ignored Tang right. You counting. Eyes. I hope your blue, bearing ass. You guys have last man you have lost to me smokers its base ten, as we have ten numeral, Alexander or through nine, and when you run out a numerals, you start combining them right here tonight one zero one on one to one. So that's how you account in any base, someplace pie pie would be the unit do unit. The unit is pies is pie, and so these common basis
We want to Sera one two three one: zero once you want, we are indigents would all be irrational. Government we have irrational energy. I think that would be a mess. It be a mess. I what, when we come back, wearin cosmic queries mode, everything about cosmos. The tv series will be right back. Got already cosmic queries. Addition I like getting rid of Sparta after ass, come and bring your questions. We call them from the internet fall of our social media outlets. The male twitter are website, and we ask you: do you have any questions about cosmos? Yes, not the cosmos could will take those anytime but Cosmos the shot, a shell.
That's right, appearing on Fox and on National Geographic and so Jack. You got the questions I hadn't I'm not having unseen. I have not seen and I have ensued. He especial guest one of the co writers of Cosmos, Steve's national guest, one of the co writers, Cosmos, Steve, Soda Steve thanks for being Uncas unstartled like you, are right that let's go for a ride. Let's move onto IRA next question in the, and chose says in cosmos. You recently suggested that the furthest mapped Galaxy was among the first galaxies to be formed. I'm curious as to why there is thought to be so if more distant galaxies exist. And their light has reached us. Yet how can we be sure galaxies from thirteen point four billion years ago, were indeed the first galaxies to be formed?
rule. He is throwing down the gauntlet, throw the good stuff, that's some stuff, ok, so here's the thing there are galaxies whose life have yet to reach rallies wondered. Could they be older than Galaxy. That's what he's, what that's? What he's so there's a problem in how we talk about the early universe that I have to clarify. That's not a problem is its a lexicon problem. So when we say we look so far back in time, we see galaxies, farming, we are seeing a galaxy in the act of forming. Ok somebody on that Alex IE to day. Looking in our direction will see the milky way form a catch, all right and so all the galaxies were forming at about the same time, in the early universe, and so when you have a window to the early universe, as you look out in space, we look back in time. The universe is a great time machine has like takes time to reach us. We will see
epoch in the universe when galaxies reforming. So we just say we are seeing the youngest galaxy that our telescopes have yet to find anybody. Others in but all galaxies in our current universe? Look like that back then right. So so we maybe we shouldn't, say too vast single oldest galaxy. I mean that's. I think that would you agree stay where we risk saying at the wrong way. Well, if you were to wait a few billion years. You would see galaxies forming a more Billy that many more billions of light years away from us, but they are still formed at the same time in the past. So, there's a distinction between the get that chuck weight of auxiliary around whether there is any lessons I got nothing, but I I think I gotta get next June that death rattle in it a billion years that freshly born galaxy a billion years old, and now
We see another billion light years farther away right and we see that galaxy, but they all were born and had assessing and as we can, but that's because there's a singularity that gate at this I recommend erect gotcha. So it does make a difference. Because the singularity will be the same ass, the concept for everybody, everybody everybody! You got it. You better hope in this answer. Their questions not breaking out of feel account good about myself I reckon tell your six great teacher. I didn't get do good and science later on arrive actually as every my eighth grade teacher and he would be so jealous of me right now. Oh yes, he were mister. Mc Neill, F, you now just now he was a great guy. Let's move on this is from just in Bristol, ok, subject matter black holes right here we got on the less episode of cosmos. We saw an x ray
image of a black hole if the gravity of the black hole does not allow light to escape the. Why can we see x rays from black holes are x rays, light waves? I going to tell you right now. I am so excited about this question, because this is a great question and I really don't know the answer and you didn't think of it at the time you saw that episode exit steed. Well you're, not really seeing the light coming from inside the black hole, you're, seeing the light coming from a disk of material which is spiralling into the black hole and that is allowed to escape. It was not in the book Oh yeah, I do have lack political, it's that is that it's the last cry of matter that has been heated to such high temperatures. It still it's the it's. The death cry, its biggest leads the way
asked gasp of matter in its death spiral which has been heated to so high temperatures. Eighty mits! No, are you stole the turnaround in a glows red hot right? It's a red, hot hot Bigelow, hotter than that got single white hot. Why hot blue hot lot by then it melt, but it can still glow and anglo so hot that it can be glowing in x, rays, ok, and so this is glowing matter, just puts any law become and find me Mathilda, and then it's gone, oh my god. So it's not in the black hole is just hate it where it becomes x, Ray because he's actually life becomes copiously emitted. So it's the Fred Sandford of Material, What is needed is a brave comrades honey. That's it let alone. So that's what new young to remember for recording Sanford observed Elizabeth here is. The last budget is the last man that very fascinating snuff, excellent, excellent. Let's move wants this from
Laura Nugent Lara wants to know about light years, guy, just email, together, Z, email, sorry, the email from large Laura says I was watching the latest episode of Cosmos, a full, a sky full of ghost and had a question. I understand that every time we Look at the night sky? We are looking into the past. I also note that a light year is the distance light will travel in one year what I would like to know, is how our eight years calculated for example. How do we calculate that the centre of the milky way approximately thirty thousand light years, is it some sort of triangular is I Stephen. I get that it be with triangulation. Yes, we determine
the distances to the nearest stars by basically triangulation and then when we knew how far away those stars where we learn something about stars themselves and how luminous stars of different kinds are, which is up depending their particular spectrum, the kind of light they put out and then, when we could see those same kind of Spectra in other, more distant stars too far away to me, thereby triangulation? We would know how far they away they whereby how bright they appeared to be, and so on so was a kind of boots. Trapping operation to extend these distances eventually to know how far away the centre of our galaxy was and then to recognise individual bright stars in other galaxies too then determine how far away those gallic southern effort, the man of other may have about twenty zero, but it did begin with triangulation. Ok, ok at whether it is a huge effort has called the distance ladder, regular
Google distance ladder you get a whole when Wiki page on it, and it was a major triumph of twentyth century astrophysics and was many people working in consort even competitively, trying to get this the distant scale of the universe, the yardstick of the universe, and it wasn't much reported on and in the news, because there was no Eureka moment burning a midnight overnight right. It was just this long drawn out effort to find a how far away things are in the universe, just to be able to calculate distance that it has actually exactly so. She picked up on one of the greatest challenges of twenty twentyth twentieth planetary physical week. We got that we're onto the next problems here. Ok, so now gas very quickly. Here's my follow up question. Has there any ever been an anomaly that would create the appearance of a brighter star, longer distance, but actually was while there is a set of observations,
of galaxies sitting right next to one another and one? You use the same method of distance calculation and you get to very different distances for these two galaxies that look clearly right, one right next to one another and so this would be the anomalies in the distant scale. There's a professor at Caltech Name, Polton art chip. Europe was his name whose a big proponent of these anonymous cases, yes and closer scrutiny, scrutiny would ultimately reveal that these these parents of galaxies we're just line of sight. Juxta positions that they were not actually interacting with The claim is now that some of them may be interacting with each other. I am not certain that this is solved yet controversy, and now it's pretty awesome. Ok, ok, thank you! Steve is always for the, You are right. I think we have time for one more our equipment, here's a quick when this from Trevor Bradley
also by email and dark matter: Dyson Sphere, I had an idea one day there, all the dark matter in the universe is actually Dyson spheres and all the aliens are hiding inside of the latter pick this one for last. While I think this makes for a good science fiction, I suspect it isn't true. What do we know about the distribution of dark matter in the galaxy and so in the twenty seconds left in this segment? You want me to give the full the position of Dyson spheres and whether dark matter is hiding out and then with helium, so so we're gonna have to pick them up after the break. About your cable that you are now I'm ok, we have you could stay here. Ok with that arise where we come back more of start off cosmic wearing.
Cosmo. I have a you, I'm gonna considers singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there, go to patriarch arms last star talk and support, Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free, You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here. Another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying:
We're back Sparta Cosmic queries addition, the cosmos without Watch tv series, yes, a little self serving as item posted series sharks, I feel for fuel. Awkward in there. I don't know why. I'm an oasis is no reason to feel I'd. Say it's a fantastic shell. Your great hope there's nothing wrong with that, make you and who gives you paychecks here. I believe there will be plenty of work this out. Does this. Those are here. Yes, Chuck is paid for his appearances aren't so so we left I'm talking about Thyssen, Speed, Dyson Spheres area, so there's a colleague of mine, a free man,
I send us rather senior physicist who heads thought that if you were in advanced civilization, you would need energy more energy than perhaps your home planet could support on a tone. So then you go to your home. Star, well how much star energy gonna get only the energy that sort of headed your way correct. The stars. Meeting other planets. But if you were greedy, if you were just overcome with greed, you would say I want every oh Tom emitted from that star and you'd build a sphere around that start, a capture all the light and channel all that like to you, our planet, wow, that's what you would do and net and whether not you approve this with your neighbors on planets exterior too you can reduce. Then you would be snuffing out there. There lie. Would they got here? Light would be gone. So if you now control that much energy, you could have an awesome civilization is imagine you'll, be there
Mr burns of your solar system gives end you. So you wonder, are these aliens in Dyson spheres? closing off the distance of matter, and could this be all the dark matter and think in the galaxy? And I know no, because that sphere actually still radiate. There's no such thing as a free lunch. Can't take energy away and I have to come out another than another form got it and that sphere with heat up and it would we would glow and have a kind of infrared glow. You wouldn't glove visibly, would glow invisibly in it red, and so so you'd We see that with infrared telescopes and we'd own plus. There is good reason to think that the door matters not made of ordinary matter at all, and it is that remains mysterious, but nothing that we know that I protons neutrons, so everyone, if you put in dark as electoral photos neutrons in the big bang models. You don't get the universe that we currently live in
Well there you have a good we're good on this area without makes perfect sense. I check what are you all right? Let's move on to a question from a nine year old and what this says. Let me the press has been a fan for nine years now. It means that she is indeed years of eight nine years of age old. I was when I discovered the universe, or rather the universe discovered me there. You haven't called by the numerous ok Gozo, ok, Sir Knight High, imitate a nine year, our alone, I gotta, give it a high. My name is Sally Ann. I'm wait for nine years old its family universe. I was a family for your tv show, I what's cosmos by the way I listened to talk with you a car with my mom and when I grow up, I won't be just like you. In fact, in February I wrote a report about you for black history money. Anyway, I have to
just one you said the most meteorites are only its biggest blueberries. How come they look so big in the sky to question? How can spaces of vacuum? Why isn't there any oxygen or anything else? I have for now, but you'll be hearing from me. That's a threat, though this me on this one but she'll, be there probably be all then, in nursing home. Remember me how I did my questions so so, for so one of them was how spaces of accurate well all the air that would be in space has attracted by gravity, so falls down to the surfaces of planets, and so it's really just gravity Cisco
It's really that's all sides it and, as you go higher up in the atmosphere, the air gives thinner Northanger, because his lesson, while you're further and further away we well yet. So all the air is correct and an uncompress down right near these earth's surface. So by the way, the thickness of our atmosphere is to earth what the skin of an apple is to an apple. Yet so the grab he's really. Greece and stuff down. So most of the universe is a vacuum. So the saying nature abhors a vacuum that should fall. Nature do love it and rail some value its. If that means you ve never been in space, if you say nature abhors a vacuum, got because on earth does so much pressure in the air. If you try to take away the air airs, gonna try to fight your honor right, oh by the way. That's why it's hard to pick up upon a a section cup right. It's not because it sucking itself down it's because the weight of the atmosphere,
pressing down on the rubber, because you removed you remove the area. What about inside arguments about so that's, what's not says, look, there's! No suction. We call it section it. Just a weight of the atmosphere was leaning on right, so there's nothing pushing backs their values it out and with the other question, was what here's this. The other question was. You said, although the area so most meteorites, so so so it's meteors, most two years. These are the things that are rendered to glow moving through the atmosphere. There about the size of a blueberry, yeah yeah, and if so, how did how I looked so big because they move in fast tens of thousands of miles an hour and all that energy widows ago it heats up any can vaporize the meteor it can render. The atmosphere glow and see? What you see is the glowing trail of this moving bloom It's all a light shone like lights. No bigger ones come through and if their big enough, they won't burn up and they hit the ground. Then there a meteorite.
And you dont want to be where it fell, as that would be the end of use away and we need you to come back and be, nemesis later we gotta run just for this segment, we'll be back with more cosmic queries, because. Rebecca Cosmic wearies addition truck nice. Yes, the question deliverer correct, Sir girl for man. Here we go this from mats Schroeder. All about cosmic. All about Cosmo's show serious events which you are the hospital in case. You didn't think for that port. I needed that programme. Are you mad? What's it all about singularity in subatomic particles? Can I recently washed,
We enjoy the lids absorbed cosmos. As I have the previous episodes, I had not consider the possibility of multiple universes on what you described within a black hole. This raises the question of how does this theory bit with singularity these, as well as what happens on the atomic level in a black hole? Does call physics still obeyed the same laws. Inside of a black hole ok, so the other way I put the inside. This isn't a brilliant question. So if you look at what we call classical relativity so relativity without quantum physics and you do that space time diagrams, for what happens inside of a black hole is awaited. There's a trajectory you can pull off for yourself through a black hole. Will you where you will end up in another space time, and that is what we portray in the series? Okay and we do know how to draw cause. No one's ever been there to come back out.
What about it. So we just imagine going into whole other universes that are their whole space times are allowed inside of black holes. No doubt about it. What? Let's put it another way? The general relativity equations have been accurate for everything else. They predicted right, have we been able to test so we're not given reason to think that there are wrong when they see it as a whole new space time they can open up inside and outside. Why? I think it would be wrong, maybe right everywhere else. So that's why we give it some confidence, however, dont know is the day we marry general relativity to quantum physics. Ah, because quantum field she's, the signs of the small right and general tvs. Signs of the law are right and they never really had to talk to one another. When is the large small at the centre of a black hole when whatever was the progenitor became little ray, and I a big things being little same problem is at the big bang itself with a whole year
earth with smaller. So there's some kind of shot gun wedding going on there. We don't know exactly what you don't know who gonna wind was. It is a third theory you need that encompasses the both of those, whether quantum physics absorbs general relativity. We don't ok, what only when that comes out. Will we be able to say with certainty or with much higher confidence, whether this space time is real or whether some quantum phenomenon kicks in so are you so you eat sailors? Actually, the right question we may have. Let me follow you here just from it. We may have. Indeed, once you married these two different laws of physics, they may be created by this shocking wedding. You talk about us, not not not. I mean some new understanding of nature that supersedes both of those two got to now be done that before we as in other ways with these magnetism and electricity, and we found hey this. These are the same thing right,
or larger umbrella that we call electromagnetism exactly yes, that that words was these two concepts staple together in the nineteenth century when we discovered that they're the same phenomenon, Oh yeah, yeah, that's great question. Matt! You are of very astute young man. You had a question too, when you were watching cosmos. I certainly do his ankle big, because my emailed me, let me try truck first. It is so easy chuckled get I let's get to this one very quickly, metric expansion of space from Oliver Smell and Oliver's emailing, us, ok watching cosmos, and it was so amazing. I spent the entire following day reading about the universe, galaxies black holes and the local group, as it should be right right. I had the metric expansion of space here's my problem. I wasn't ready for how depressed in the metric expansion of space
It's the idea that eventually everything in the universe that is not in the milky way. Gravitational range will be on Terrifying and said: do you the same thoughts. If so, how do you deal with that fact? This we owe on our website, will put a list of councillors for better balancing of space where I live in in the accelerated expansion of space, there will come a day. We're all galaxies will have. Bandit beyond our visible horizon and can we look beyond our galaxy, will be nothing there and everything we currently know and except in love about cosmology, that book will have been discarded because they ll be no evidence that there was ever a passed in the cosmos, because we get the information about the past by looking at galaxies from one or go right. So if you were born into that work, You would be reading a book of the universe with a chapter missing and you would not even know what was missing wow, who that is
world. I dont want a little know what well, maybe you already are, and their chapters missing from this unit that makes sense and that you have yet to consider its impact on how we know about how the universe works will recover that more cosmic, where, after this brain, we're back cosmic start. On that last question, he wondered if I had some kind of existential annexed the expansion of the universe? How do you do accelerating the galaxies out of our horizon? Leaving just a milky way emerged. Milk? Way, Andromeda system how to deal with it. When you don't I trying to invest. Emotions in the universe I say it is not often that there will be a
your time where we won't even have cosmology cause. We don't even have any access to the history, the cosmos, that's kind of interesting that anyway, we wondered today, like I said, is any chapters ripped from our book that we are currently reading to understand or inventing and to understand the nature of the universe. So it's all cool for me, fantastic, but now we are in the lightning round. Yes, it s, my friend testable there. It is there it is. I will give speedo answers to your speed or questions right ready. We know this from Adam and Adam is emailing in about the moon, kneel and cosmos. You said the moon coalesce from debris. I thought I heard you say before that form from Mars size impact of it. I heard that theory before just not sure if I heard it from you by the way loved conversation with God. That was the earlier episode interesting thanks for that God Twog. Yes, in these show in cosmos, we showed the impact of the more size object that then made the debris. They call us to form the moon, so go back and find it you'll see it. So yes, there still
Besides object colliding with the moon, most of that continues. Mass goes away, but there's a hell of a lot of debris, mostly from earth's crust formed the moon. The moon is made of largely earth's crust. Next, that's why it very little I in most of the iron and earth, is in the center of the earth having fallen there for a bit way. So much more than the rocks it floated to the top down a double answer this from Christopher Fletcher and Crisper wants to know about cosmic calibre. I think the cosmic counter is a great idea for limiting the scope of deep time to history as we know it, but is there some version of this concept that uses the quorum called end of the universe is the final date with heat death as midnight December thirty first, or are there estimation of such a far future going up in the end and having the current moment something absurd, like the first fraction of a second January, first hearing up there's a book,
call the five ages of the universe check it out. Ok, I might have even written a blurb for that book, sweet and in that book, written by colleague of mine. That book talks about the death of the universe and is intend to the hundred years from now or more. Ok, I'm fine. Now so Google years from now that is so far away. It just doesn't make sense to start making calendars out of it got it. So there you go there. Ok, this one is from Alex Dolan wants to know this high meal every model of our solar system, I've seen
shows: are the planets orbiting, basically on the same play? Why is this the case and not something closer resembling a model of an atom with many planes, so like electrons is had a famous nebular hypothesis differs came out in MID seventeen hundred la plus and can't both independently, they may have heard of each other's work, but they, both brilliant people, came up with the idea that you start with the gas cloud that started spinning while its collapsing. If you spin, while you collapse, you make a deal. And of all the stuff you make is made in the disk everybody's orbiting. In the same plain in the sea, direction day he added the work cloud. Comments that surrounds us entirely. That tells us that the orca did not participate in them, collapse, left over a few collapsed, a pancake and make your planet and moons and the star in the center gotta go bang that was great. A k need rather abundance the need wants to know about faster than the speed of light. Doktor Thyssen regards I'm ready for real cook eczema, key
The environment is well below what people came from a Royal Oak: Michigan, ok, fine it can the energy of a supernova increase with the speed at which photons travel from the star. Thus, essentially, increasing the speed of light No, not just an explosion matter comes out. Light will always move at the speed of light. No violations of anything of any new laws of physics there, but it's nonetheless quite the spectacle in the castle right. Now I write by Hickey once nor about the origins of life. Pat emails eminences. This says this. I next question next question: the origins of quick avenues, Cosmos our humanity's journey started that nine forty five on New year's eve. What do you think the earliest realistic time that advance life could have evolved on another planet after the Big Bang, given perfect conditions? Not so the point is: if earth was
born at it. At the time of the Big Bang, the universe would have life. As we know, it is early as you know, a billion years after the universe formed, but we had to wait. And of heavy elements were formed. The kind of elements that make life in that make planets- and that was not formed in the big bang- been very pure. Hydrogen helium trace amounts lithium. What are you made of carbon nitrogen oxygen? I get that from inside of stars that had to be born, die, spread the guts everywhere in which make the live later on. So here's the thing what you want to do is form complex, intelligent life. Earlier planet gots, because earth was really slow about making that happen and still as soon as it is so that would have been cool. How, until five intelligence was this moving force? How intelligent would we have and had we evolve earlier ago as complex life, then, and just a couple of million years I mean forget about it. Got
we have time. We don't need more time for another question. I get right here. We have another two. Others were love droughts, release about artifice selection of dogs, cosmos. If we have a couple of Libya to spare, will we be walking cats getting them to french Guiana breed cats to fret? Yes, we do. We have a car fetches? It's called a dog all right. You been listening to start on radio Cosmic wearies addition Cosmo's chuck thanks. Being on with me, my plagues earlier. We had to do so to my colleague to segments help me out answering these questions until next time. I bid you to keep looking we should listen to talk commercial, free, joint start compatriots for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com slap star, talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.