What lies beyond the edge of the universe? Neil deGrasse Tyson, comic co-host Chuck Nice, and astrophysicist Janna Levin, PhD, answer your fan-submitted Cosmic Queries about higher dimensions, the multiverse, the Big Bang, and much, much more!
NOTE: StarTalk+ Patrons and All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/show/cosmic-queries-edge-of-the-universe/
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Photo Credit: Image Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/G.Schellenberger et al.; Optical: SDSS.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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From the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming all is based and start were science this,
is start talk. I'm your host, neither grasped ice in your personal astrophysicist today, we're doing cosmic queries topic the edge of space time, the edge of the universe.
Chuck alien join me there. I am probably learn that shirt, which you know you know where your watch here, listening that I wear cosmical colorful yeah but
Sure I'm wearing today is particularly cosmical colorful yeah.
It's in your face smack down its well. You know
but the girl to patriotic they will take a picture of it and you have to see it on our website or maybe you'll see it on Youtube. But you gotta see this shirt seriously hit separately
this last year about is going on there. We have general em to help us out Columbia University. Welcome back, I loving we needed you greatest topic, because my
your cosmos little and yours is big,
that's, not ass, big ass, many times we we do. A cosmic worries rang. We bring Europe that we bring. The bigger this Indiana is the big guns right. So what you have said,
cosmic reasons as we glean from all over the internet and of course, we always start with the patriarch patron, because logistically check you did suit your book, black,
blues Renzo out there you have it stood at their truck, we gotta do it.
By law. I've gotta learn harmony, goby way we showed up to it,
blue energy more say just every time you are passing on the shelf. You just heard I felt that it was a little rough when I lay behind local stand now, so those about the discovery of gravitational
waves and yeah so moving through the universe? Yeah exactly so right right before that succeeded in the fifty
it took them always exist. We measured. Oh yeah, re Weiss was what he regional architects just was shaking his head and saying enough. We don't take by calls. This thing is a failure so like the tight,
this is kind of like it's a black hole blew? It would only regulates everybody, dialing, durable robber, the Nobel Prize Jim, said all the way to break our marijuana
Alright, alright I'll ever gets think that list.
Further with a bedroom patron this Chris Hampton who supports us unpatriotic once no this. Could it be that the universe.
That we are in his actually finite,
However, the universal structure is infinite.
The size and relatively
the universal structure gets infinite
smaller and vice versa, kind of like
gently dividing and have I imagined it would look something like a very complex fractal,
he's going to be real agenda.
However, I want to I'm gonna rights and I have question for Chris Press. Is it city
ended up in this area, which is the one that he would have fallen asleep before making it to the end of the two
It is entirely at the lottery. Just all revealed are later when I, when I actually use their substance, it was called we did it. I didn't put any other name like if you would be too easy to put our right and removed every ray. You would see a dealer, you were so now
evil or democratic life
the market does not get out anyway, so you gonna. Take
shouted dimension, as it is so my first because about
they're, not the universe is infinite or finite.
The question we don't know the answer in the title that yet how the universe got its
I remember that too, how yours go
This is about. Could we tell the
shape and size of the universe. By looking in the hot and cold spots in the big bang and the light left over from the big Bang backed by the court.
It was just take it really. Theoretically, we absolutely do not know that the universe is infinite and may well be that its finite way. The earth is finite, that you know we leave New York City. We travel in a straight line, is maybe we'd have to swim alone.
On a each other in a straight line: you're gonna come.
To New York City again, and so it could be
we want, you can travel forever. I was gonna, say its infinite in what you can track, where you can travel infinite in you, don't get to an edge right in that area,
get to an edge which is beautiful, so exactly the same thing with the universe: you're not on a sail off the edge of the earth, rightly Yunus Spanish, explore
we have to buy it under debate, they just go off this.
But now we know that's what happens in so. Similarly, we could leave the milky way galaxy. We could watch it received behind as you could travel.
Straight line as possible and find ourselves coming back to the milky way again, you know and
a planet of the apes right, it's like you leave it to my interpretation of that is that they were not going around
I fear answer the interesting thing. Is that also means that if you look at distant galaxies, the law
It is also travelling all around the universe. So could we at some of those distant galaxies, are the
and we're seeing the light from the milky way rap all the way around and come back to us. We ve seen the milky way in the past
so it would be hard to know, like maybe you'd, see, an active black hole quasar with chats find out in the early phases of the milky way, and we think it s just a different galaxy
wow yeah. So we galaxies the young galaxies, look very different from mature galaxies gray and we
to think that there are different kinds of objects in the outer universe, likewise hours, why they all
How come somatic ways are right. Next door with these
stress nuclear emission.
And we had to like figure out that it's it's likely just younger galaxies.
Maybe we used to look like a quays. Aren't we don't anymore that even a distant galaxies, looking back at us is seeing us in the past, given the light travel time, so we could still look like a cat.
To a distant galaxy,
like where I had this huge active galactic.
Equally it they are not. As we now know, they are not what we were more violence and war.
Guys and they are due to be seen as a writer and then it gets more because there are reasons for people start to suspect that there are extra spatial dimensions and that they are not only finite, but really
technically really small like that journey to go all the way around them is something that would would happen incredibly.
And it's too small for us, like literally, struck her hands in that direction. In some sense,
we were looking everywhere. This extra dimensions are everywhere, but we can actually notice them.
And so Noirtier dimension to be smaller than another dimension,
yeah me so think of like a straw is a good example. Words are two dimensional surface
One draws remaining,
I'm gonna go with flax,
you're, forgetting that now. As regards the only reason, I wouldn't know its cause flax in here- oh yeah,
That's the only way we will have your connection between flax instead of your father, so so a straw is small in one direction on the surface rate, if you, you think, there's a direction which is totally wrapped up in small,
and then there's along direction.
Stronger, mostly long there, mostly long and you could go
the top down to the bottom of a straw to make that long direction. Also finite send Egypt traveller.
There can be really big baby. You know that
mile around air still be connected, but it's only
few millimetres around Nestor action. This other dimensions are literally the length of travelling before you come back to where you see.
It is small most of how you use a straw does not access that other dimension. The lengths catatonic
the liquid from here to hear tat already of yours.
You use in the long dimension catastrophic in we done. The question we start to ask is: what does the universe is a kind of
space time origami when its created in the Big bang, that all the dimensions are wrapped up in maybe in very complicated ways like the dimension of the strawberries
job, but one dimension, just gets very, very big or in our case three,
Gary very, very bad? We have three big dimensions. We have time which has a fourth sweet
there's Uptown North South EAST West. That's it you specify those things and you
definitely know where you are in space, you specified time and we can actually meet right here. We are but those
extra directions, just maybe didn't never expand, and so one of the things
then our gone and string theory work on people is wow
why would only three dimensions get large if those other dimensions exist, interests
It could be that way.
You stand the large connected nests finiteness
our space by looking in,
really high energy accelerator experiments cause
people have asked at the large hadron collider. Could you perceive these extra dimensions of exist,
well that there are getting Chris. I wouldn't want to show that it and people will retire shows. We would like to think about their opiates weeks worth about allowing that is big styles of Venus, higher equerries as a fascinating savages fastening. Our let's move,
onto Paul Love, who says given that, because you can browsers name that we're going to learn size of these as America after I'm just gonna call everybody Paula pulses this.
Given that our universe expanded from a single point and is
spending in all directions. How does that not
fine, the shape of the universe as Spherule. How could something flat or saddle shape come out?
that, while it is true, if there is an explosion in space, it tends to have a kind of sphere a call cloud leftovers.
Greece, when a star explodes, we will see often
you're in there they there like sphere, often spherical NASH, Evangel, two beautiful, very beautiful Adelina. Sometimes they ploughing staff are changes, shape it, but basically yeah. Then you can point inside this debrief point to where the central the explosion was. That's not how it works for the big bang.
For the big bang, you cannot imagine that space exists first and that your exploding into the space-
rise. Actually, a creation of the space itself right so everywhere.
Right in the universe was once at the centre of the explosion there,
you know ploughing out. It says, though, and you can think of it any shape. You won't make some crazy people like the balloon, analogies dynamics from crazy balloon, twisted up crazy thing and poodle,
a poodle balloon Bruno Universe and the whole thing stretches and the whole thing was once a light. So every single point on that
Yasser Arafat servant help people to travel fabric. If you want to call yet Peter Centre is everywhere, the centre is everywhere we are. We are the same thing as every other points in space
Listen as if that were the case, I can. I say that if we allow me to save the railways, can I say there is a centre. The only way you can access it is to go back in time to the beginning of time. Well, you can say
Oh ok, you're way out immensely so now the centre of all of this. Only
one way is important. Just exactly and zero, I would say:
Is there if timeline is just what we hire? There's the centre yet
there be really you know, split space up and very
I am grain terms. This point was at the centre back at technical zero, and this point was at the centre back articles here they just world
Paul it's just the collapse of those points at you
I was here again, gotcha yeah, but
What you said, the wood, which I think is what people have to really think it s. The space itself was creek aid it yet at
Second, not second Luba Millisecond microsecond, whatever nanosecond Virgilius recycling seal, the artificial, fractured raw material billionth of a second, the gaff towards that's that space
was created, then, along with everything else in that sector,
minus forty three seconds. You can be a trillion lightly and try and try and an issue. Do you know the right then? So that means that, if you think of it that way, because what what you're thinking about is these distances
the twin these stuff that we see,
Yeah and we think they're empty, but
It came from that yeah from the big there on the big yeah, so
another reason why people in charge of google- I love all we just lost, but if there is an actual steamer out loud
I'll go zero years, where people get tripped up at the balloon analogy, because its flawed as are all analogies is that
People merely want to point to the centre of the blue were empty space inside, but you gotta give up on that. All that exists is the skin of,
Nowhere is all that exact. Ok with a shell, the balloon, because that's where the balloon was a typical zero rights, he could think of that's good. I can only,
instead of the centre of the balloon as snapshot
like movie frames, so it once was there and then it was
the same over here, but this same balloon is still now at the outer reaches the balloon because it came from the centre of the below
Imagine you painted dots all over the little infinitesimally small balloon and they were glued to do another stains on the skill to burn the dots themselves. Don't move
push all that down all the dots are together and then you
from a part in some sense those are the galaxies that came later. The galaxies aren't moving right to stay on the balloon doesn't move it's the the skin, the strict
thing between spots.
So in fact nothing piled up the way it does when a supernova explodes
you think actually just gets more more diffuse, as I always expense,
shut up, shut up a civil life. I liked question wild man a right that was great thanks upon our. He would go. Let's go to a random Rico. Swab, a
you'd. This girl would be branded. Ok,
Brennan was, though this I've recently heard of a new study that states the universe,
is thought to be in the shape
a loop, whereas previously it was thought to be flat, but
the explanation, given the nature of the loop shades states that it travels,
are not in one direction that you'll end up that we started, which is what we talked about the earlier. My question is whether this house
regardless of actual shapes of
on this point. Is that no matter what shape it would that happened yet, and I think that you can say
that we have to take a break. Why does everything that is going to be when we come back
Janna Levin, is going to tell us. Do we live in a loop universe or not? I'm Startalk. I've got a little secret for you.
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Rebecca startled submerged work out that you read gentlest Fred colleague up,
Bernard in Colombia who do not physics thang.
Someone's gotta do some some people's causing one
So so tell us, as the question had asked, do:
would the Universe Lou back on itself, no matter its shape.
So not necessarily mean was shaped universes in the first place yeah. It's really, we doubt ultimately no the shape. We know that
you can see. The distance light has been able travel since the Big bang cause. We can't see anything faster than the limit of the speed of light travel time
the universe is expanding. So that's actually ninety two billion layers across about that. We can that's what we call the observatory.
Now it's possible that it's not ninety two billion light years across it, even within that right,
instead the universe has folded back onto itself in some way were actually seen. Repeats of things are starting to see it.
Like a hall of mere thing, we're starting to see the light multiple time, Algernon, yeah how'd. You know, I think that is very, very hard to figure out. So there have been extremely clever ideas and most of them manage when we look at my she took weaving, don't mean exactly right when he was a little baby. What about her
It's true. We're looking at ourselves in the past is very hard to distinguish, if whoop, for instance, for looking at galaxies. That's right.
To do, but there are patterns in the hot coals, boss left over from the big bang if it fits into a specific shape
imagine something just totally platonic, really beautiful, crazy that the universe ass I could dodecahedron, all of whose faces are good together, so that crazy
regarding that day is, I mean there has so many loops and build a money there. Yet that is trying goals grain, as that is conceivable kind of what we call topology or connected news of the space there. It would actually start to improve
tat the patterns of the direct hatred in the light left over from the big bang, so United,
tiny little hot and cold spots that you would start to see in the distribution of a hot and cold spots vouchers,
shape would be reflected again, very subtle at really yeah. So with the reason
You mean, like a literally you mean manifest manifested so so,
leopard got it spots is actually very similar. Mathematical problem, because you're asking about enzymes being higher low in the
hoping embryo, and it turns out that the shape and size of the animal eloquence
its tubular or when no spots are hitting it that it will determine what kind of spots animal gets direction
leopard in an actual leopard zebra stripes like these things are things you can predict by solving for the mathematics of of things,
above, a certain threshold or below a certain threshold that that pattern of stripes were spots, will refer
the geometry and whatever the leopard. You knew that. Yes, I did not like her spot now that
but his game. It has bought one
If you look very carefully, you can see the spot
oh wow, amazing. Well, so how the universe got its box is a similar mathematical problem solving for hot and cold spots,
in particular geometry, when the universe was like a developing embryo. Basically missing
both to Alan Turing, whose hoo hoo solve some of these problems for the animal.
Like a black panther? Does the universe care about injustice, legal black? If I don't have it and if you look just related modern reverie ready more closely
We have our brain. You say about you know. We can hope that, where the bad exam
and then I ll swear in the universe are a better example. Nice well well well well said Jack. What Austria array here we go. This is TIM braid who wants to know this very recent study in the Astor Physical Journal found that galaxies may be
we're taking in sync with other galaxies millions of light years away. Galaxy
separated by six mega parsecs were found directly into acting with each
there. What is your opinion on this? First of all, is that empirical that the fact that these galaxies were actually
inter acting with one another. I think that that studies probably still controversial and probably still requires other horribly wrong hydra under your travelling. I cannot tenaciously story. Probably won't have probably wrong. These things can happen, but it just sounds not that likely that there will be a lot of people doing observations, indifferent, wavebands, with different perspectives, to try to break any possibility that it's a cork
particular observation, but six matter parsecs, you know that's pretty far away.
And- and so you would think that you would be dominated there by the expansion of the universe and not interactions. We deathly interact with other galaxies. That's not have expressed
so in the islands and dramas we're fine clothes Andromeda, that's a happy future like a manual to Germany, gets much closer. How cool the night sky is going to be
I've got you like right. I really like see a whole. No, actually, I won't be cool only at the end of it.
To be cool because its
Is it coming and John Nano ties are involved. It's a disturbing reason lies
Well, I'm gonna become as one now you discuss cycles on yeah all over the place, but I gotta get this in before we move on. So speaking of as
and so, if you're, looking at something ads on, how do we flippity get the imagery to know that we were looking at the desk from the
so we do that with our own milky way. We were in the milky way, so we're seeing the rest of the Galaxy John right. We ve never seen the milky way as human beings from above, but we have these beautiful.
Instructions because we just map things as accurately as we understand where they are also in space. So we just we build an atlas of that. Basically, you, girls, em. You build a numerical model based on all of your observations, of the milky way to cast the dust sties everything
where the spirals over the gaps are, and then you just allow yours,
off to move in that digital world and looked down from above, but it's in it
environment of map making monumental exactly what you have and which you have a map you go anywhere. You want three dimensional map, you go anywhere Yang plus we,
all the gas and were gotta flattened in the sky and there are other galaxies out there.
There are flattened
We can see them at all. Not one galaxy indifferent
we can live within Germany that one of the things I took south end, but I feel like deals about mommy me very uncomfortable already, but a wholesome
look, and I already had the right- that's what we look like until we collide with Andromeda that one of the things I took south end, but I feel like Niels about lobbying,
Companies are already, but the whole solar system supposed to stay together right get knocked around. We should stay together, so we might end up in Andromeda before we fully,
they think it pass each other, they could collide move through each other and we could end up in an drama looking at the milky way. Nobody way, I wouldn't leave a forward looking
so what will happen is to be a lot of sorted dissipated, energy and the system of course pass through each other and back and forth. We done this on a complete,
It's like a rubber band kind of Magna Carta size down, and it settled,
into one double large massive system?
because there were two badness, so
the breath, electrons goodness to Amerika. So we ve been drawn
There were a hundred times closer. You wouldn't be any brighter on the sky.
Ok, I'm lovely you ve! Only last month, you're, ok, yeah, tell me like
not obvious between here, and we don't I'll, go, get it
so Andromeda has a certain size on the sky. Grech brigade has certain extent
and on a very dark night, not in the city, but where those moon is not out. You can see this.
Does thing in the sky so that an interim Andromeda Galaxy, two million light years away,
There's a certain amount of light coming from Andromeda in that patch on the sky. So we we references something called
surface brightness. It is how brightest Andromeda over that patch of sky over that surface patch on the sky, surface brightens! If we bring it half as far away, ok.
Make it only half, for it is how many times brighter its should collect the square
swear, but then the enemies are four writer
others there by a factor of four young.
hey system is getting brighter, but at a surface area,
remaining the saying that Sir
It is not going to be more apparent to you in the night.
Sky, then our own milky way is on our own nightgown, a very sad to report.
But look at all.
Now it will be further, can I see you gotta get out of the city now I see the colliding galaxy now already very sorry about. Ok, I'm starting with this to you now
just like our own milky way galaxy
yeah I've read Roma right here. Next to us, you should look like our milky way. The average got gonna cannot see from the original cannot be concealed,
when those acts like you can just
are you going to let my vote and it could be laid down there and it'll. Show you like a beautiful young jobs. Are honoured Republic to count the right. The intensive who needs eyes
we are practically blind. This illuminato for astronomy die Zeit coming Cyborg she's all right on this chalk truck. We call glass as the as the centuries when we discovered how blind we actually were yeah. That's amazing! Right there we go
Ok, let's move on to David right away those Hubble photos. Yes,
if you go to those objects, you know
see what the Hubble so because a hovel
he's better than you do- run
about a lot. I mean if you could just like stare at its intended, a war. If your eyeballs were let I, like God, dance with our dance. You would then look like what the hobbles we re
This is David Eduardo, but Martinez,
once we have good they're gonna bag. I am I welcome you here. My wife is pottery, so arrogant, David or with would be levied at one.
But at last month
Who says this? Why is it so hard to prove the exists?
of other dimensions, thank you.
David from Mexico or medical.
I ask that a slightly different way if there was another dimension as big as the three there were in, would completely manifest to us. Probably there is no hatch, so you
Think! Yes, as long as that dimension was very large than we would be talking about a world in which this did not confine us right,
So so let's say I have skin, which seems too,
a break my inside of my outside. But there was rather right inside you if,
there is another dimension. You could do like one of those spooky surgeries without your hungering any scan. You can just like going their intent. Pupils organs like this would not be acceptable to us
I didn't outside school is also an analogy to that is if you're only live in two dimensions that
you only have sort of heightened with the heightened you have height and with, but not debts to veto have depth when I
look at you into dimensions, I can see organs
for you really want be aligned lean. Whatever you haven't, you can. You can see you're in.
And all you see as the outer skin, which is why
there's just alive now. Our outer skin is a surface right right, so, which is why they know you can't actually probably have a very effective organism in just two dimensions, because
Let's say they had a mouth and
a two going all the way through them. It would actually cut
besides in half year, so you can't have what
it considerably normal metabolic functions of ok. Anyone would
you don't have you'll, have porosity into dimensions.
Time, however audacity, so if you'd drop order on soil,
and then it just socks and right where you drop in on a sponge and silks and again in two dimensions. There's no such thing as disposal
he's not just looking em right, so users have a ball
of water above water, decorating on top of ferocity, enables you have to listen to rocks retouching here,
but then the working just go around another side of the rock great, but in two dimensions where they touched there is no way past. It really just stay
Is that, where you're able to smell what the rock is cooking? Ok, I think
they're like worth. I could tell me if I was don't here. I will tell you this: is some people argue that the reason why the universe is three dimensional is because
where's tries to be many different ways. There may have been an infinite number of big banks in the past in the future can really talk about it and temporal relative nest, but if the
first created two dimensional large units?
but all the rest rolled up and small you couldn't have.
Prism's in the universe, to ask the questions
wow? You need at least three and then let's say you have for spatial dimensions. Then you have the problem of things drift.
Way from each other in such a way that its heart
they have organised systems. So, just like me,
describing two dimensional creature isn't aware of the third dimension, but if they became aware they could just
float away from their city right, it becomes. You have more volume of space to fill in the cross. Section for interaction goes down,
So now, if you had another dimension, the cross section for interaction goes down again. Today
Nobody needs. We successfully exist in three dimensions. In spite
The challenges the two dimensional creature would face upon accessing. A third comment
right. So why Monday three optimal? Why dont for dimension preachers, piteous
a hum right. Well, that's that mean. That is a good question. Could the complexity like I'm just I'm not seeing their true arguments, but some people argue that you couldn't afford dimensions, get the successful complexity and some of those arguments are they get. You know complicated based on string, theory, cry
sections and annihilation into photons and what's left over F,
All of these things in the big bang. It turns out that a tiny only
I need tiny bit of stable matter is left over already in three dimensions would clearly be waiting.
Let me kind of agree with what I just said even like just yes agreed what you're saying is in three dimensions:
the optimal for party.
To get together and make molecules molecules to make macroscopic objects. If you add a fourth dimension,
adding a degree of freedom of where things can hang out
possibly never then find each other
yeah ever gave way. If you think about the volume of the universe is going up radically with the volume of dementia, yes, then your diluting
we think that the situation of what it could be
but there is relatively little the fact that you're even asking that quick,
means you're a being in an optimized universe to even pose the question in the first place,
so the two dimensional people couldn't asked this question right because it couldn't be two dimensional report, because its structures are too
and to allow for. Dementia is too much to do much more for space,
Let's take it. Take you to your first question was: would we know it? If the other dimensions were large? Here's the head? She would think we would but here's a hitch, even if all those problems
we're solvable there.
An argument that we could be glued to a kind of a membrane which has
three dimensional surface floating in
higher dimensional space and really would lose elsewhere
farmers are always the way the fundamental forces work between the peoples on the membrane any online that happily goes off. The membrane is, is gravity itself.
So that all other forces are glued to this membrane. That's where they live, so that you would think,
a part, a call to you interact and without membrane could be a string and the higher dimensional space ass, a threerd race whose right as a particle, manifesting as a particle. So I imagine
being a string you and they would look like a dot right,
they sent strengths and at how is so. I only where third out national dimensions him. I think a passing a a hollow sphere through two dimensions, but without look like to the two dimensional people did she adopted, so that's cool. Oh then it becomes like a sort of gold
and it gets bigger and bigger and bigger than it maximizes out at the diameter. But they don't know this.
And then it s more than gives a point and disappears and- and they have no idea, no adamant, sphere engine, Al Qaeda, mystical, manacles hypotheses come out and the scientists to analyze it would, you say, stop pops in and out of existence. We don't know why. So what
and of their absolute. So one of the things that we have worked out with extra dimensions that make them not just an oddity, but maybe something along the observed, the things we worked on extra dimensions, additional. What have you done? Superhero, never rapporteur, measuring
My superhero character, name is John.
and it's a prime number- I mean I've gotta work that you know when I needed we're gonna, be the nemesis, more green, diabolical with asylum sector as well as my evil to it have you, while you were so the interesting
thing there that were people have thought about it,
that may be something like dark energy is
actually quantities, phenomenon trapped in the extra dimensions that we can't play.
Ebay interventions directly but were indirectly perceiving them through the dark and wars or dark matter, is regular matter in the higher dimensions leaking over and of rain, which was this membrane when it is the trend? Is
mysteriously there tat we people?
definitely one or the rabbit you haven't it, as is the medium is that is that the draft treaty is space time, so gravity can't be confined got to. Otherwise there would be no meaning to the extra dimensions stupid. You know. That's, not. A problem could break ok, where we come back more with gentle Evan, on the edge of the universe and be restored
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we're back start off because of the very edge of the universe,
one person in arms reach out there. That who could do this gentleman Jana he's our go to,
Yes, I love, and only who pressed brass totally to buy, have actually written papers on extra dimensions. It is in general,
Hundreds of further action in my present bone in them in to think about what she disappears
It will not just be cell sizes,
got up and the like went into the fourth dimension and send me
says here monsters ink yeah. Now you think he's adores yeah
came out of the factory in re. This was an and celebrated fact of that movie theater,
Three dimensional report, basically wormholes there are days each door. This is the door to the kids room,
who takes a home at the end of the day, they opened the door and saw the door, the kids closet ray,
ok and then they come out because it scare the kid go back through the door and their back at home is a great, maybe
loving horizon. Let's, let's, let's go to you know what let's go back to a patriotic patron. This is
Sarah, thereby ok who says: what do you think
without that you, like that? What do you think
about the idea that matter consumed by black holes has been recycled and manifested
back into the universe is dark energy?
matter. Come not the other side. Maybe right, ok,
is there any correlation between the matter consumed by black holes and dark energy?
Could black holes and dark energy dark matter be different sides of the same coin?
I mean where it
again with this, as our I led off rendering there's an urge to take everything. You don't know
I assume is related, so I got
We'll talk about
mattered. My consciousness, God
dark energy eyes. One thing right Sunday:
content and quantum smokiness yet somewhere
we when they take, I Alaska is it possible that they have gone to a higher dimensional space danger and my answer to win in chapter.
We totally dismissive was to say will, if it's a platonic form that we can learn about by exploring the mind than in that sense, maybe right right, like
Perfect circled doesn't exist in reality. Nor will a perfect circle ever exist. Anyone the universe, but you can touch it in your mind right and it's an experiment. We can all perform so that in that sense we go places. Unlocking
secret? I'm lying undermine the physical universe. So, yes,
in other words, you have
everybody about dark matter, dark energy so accustomed to let's just get on with the falling in coming out in a further
very early on people who sought a black hole could be bigger on
Inside than the outside, it can be as big as an entire universe on the inside it could.
Surely lead to Whitehall, which is basically a big bang. So so you
oh into the back hall, and you know that is completely confined by the event horizon. Nothing ever comes out, but inside it is like something as big as an entire universe and
the universe and not unanimous hearted down on his right eye, exactly that's just like doktor, whose Titus too, and so we would never know about that Universal would not can communicate. Workers should have trust street grid tortoises an acronym for what oh, no,
murder phone booth in larger-
and a relative dimension in space relative
It has been hard to have. The final usually like found, doesn't make it into the acronym. I'm just gonna, be ok, so so so that was an interesting idea and a lot of people objective, because it in some subtle way suggests an unstable missed. You big banks that might make it so that this world couldn't be state.
That would show. But, honestly, it's not completely off the table. There's lot, you could talk to some very important early, relatively stable, still say: that's what happens. Motorists
as an expert relative and relatively
So then there's a separate totally
question about dark matter. There is a suggestion that the buckles themselves could be dark matter, meaning that
They are invisible,
The matter is technically
and and they could populate the universe, almost arguably law.
Urge enough to explain this missing mass dismissing matter? It's on the edge it stuffily under pressure right, but there is a problem with like big Bang nuclear synthesis if its ordinary matter
black holes don't have to be made by collapsing stars out of ordinary matter, but you're. Absolutely right. We don't know how to make enough ordinary matter whose rights are there not made from star stricken through my black hole, much more. Let's do it. I want to know: what's inside the lunchbox, I'm not I'm for never line. You didn't remember my hand goes, am whenever an inside of it
the black old Aramis, but of course it is confusing fond her black hole like this. I guess you can see your hands. You can fly
yeah. You know you'll disappear in front of your sir ok, so you have a
farmers- and it is filled with okay, so liquor,
This is an inversion of the known universe, because in this particular case,
in such a black hole. I have the milky way outside the black hole. He just a job here. That's all you do not see as knocking way out above all, because the black holes always
the milky way, I'm just going to say that that was the most committed joke. I lived up to exercise. Might for those of you who have a camera rang, I'm just telling you we'll have an actual milky way. Candy bars inside of black hole, farmers. Ok, that's black hole! Inside of this whole months, patents, okay, the rigid jealous before a little jealous, doesn't black hole by television. So vast question, which is pretty hard, is: could they all be connected? The stuff the thousand incomes
I didn't classically, would say no way, then HORIZON supper,
everything from the inside the outside, but then there's a quantum entanglement grassy verifies. Maybe some particles on the inside are also the same thing as the particles on the outside, though the same particles.
Because of entanglement wormholes and some crazy staff at nobody, real, it's all just very conjectural now, but maybe we'll come back and twenty years will be out of them for the follow up to this conflict worries twenty years from now, yes, but only in wheelchairs, uber, meaning has already do in my regenerative medicine. So we got a lightning around here Jack,
without Jerry going to answer you soundbites, ok, empt! This is blunders, eighty five on Instagram and wants to know this. I know it's off topic
but one of your last shows you were talking about the information on the surface of a black hole. What do you mean by
information, dreaming temperature speed or what what is inherent in the autumn
We are completely definable in terms of quantum numbers, he's just list of facts about as information about us and relative locations and an organ
one. Another gonna worry too. Of course,
You don't even simples your mouth allows. You have jobs, atoms of my boy, you gotta, take. Let's take a single fundamental particle, your body, it has mass charge span in its identical to every. Let's call it an electron in this case, every other,
such an identical ones, model of a heavy once a little bit later. We're completely definable in terms of that information, and you cannot destroy that information interest and so so in quantity. Can
to start stop thinking, and we, if I'm melt chalk
it is apparent only all of that information is still in the universe regulating a ray of light, just arranged rams. Oh my kind sensible. Where one way we don't know how to offer me, though, that's right, there's a puddle on the ground, that's a different truck from the chalk, I'm talkin to right now. Has it information still there yet city and I will never to attend for having information preserve, doesn't mean there can't be local change right. So I can do
fortunately change things locally, but I still have to have the same information hides a total sustained. The total system, so I have to be able to reconstruct something it doesn't mean that their rich extreme, the system with what's in this, has got it lets you don't have to serve,
but to reconstruct the exact same thing,
we'll just have to be able to mobilise the aim information right in principle
should be able to. If I took a page of the encyclopedia burnt, it should be up to reconstruct it in
Of course nobody can ever really do that will take longer than the edge of the universe and we don't have a kind of computing power. So there's physical impossibility
despite not complicated, ignoring foundations, but in Sweden are solved teleportation further black. All the argument is that what you actually
might be happening. Is that the information as its falling in which is basically all you know, everything
everything right? Never
actually makes it inside the black hole it
comes encoded on the boundary, which is the event horizon, so it's actually a hologram are around like lightning. I was now I dont get off. That was. I woke associated with those letters Eliza eighty two from Instagram says not reported the boards or to discover,
who knew details about interstellar space how's that change our understanding of dark energy beyond our solar system, or does it
it probably doesn't, because it isn't detector of dark energy dark matter we have no detectors of
dark energy or dark matter, yet none, successful and so white, but it is amazed,
That is the first human made object, that's gone interstellar and that really is quite spectacular. It's just broken out of basically sons. Magnetic influence was able to get cosmic rays and things that that are protected in the sources
By this I mean I think the solar system was how far out of the planets, and then you have like the Cairo above economists. Then you have the floor. Cloud of any say will really at what distance does an object
no longer know that the sun is in this direction, right
because the sun has magnetic influences, they go very far and you reach the point where all
sort of in this soup the permeates the entire galaxy?
and so it's a transition from the sun is this way I got star
in every direction array and certain moving so slowly than it will take
ten thousand years to reach another, no you're, not of seventy thousand seventy thousand years awry liking Renoir Robert Wieber, who says thanks so much for educating.
Inspiring us? What news inside
Do you find most interesting and important right now with respect to your
wow, that's great question. Well,
we do little soundbites. Yet we are in a very lucky time because we have discovered thereby
a calls in this room miraculous way I'm so I do things
most exciting and one has a new way of one of them is- is eating smoking it or I do think it
where the small meets the large and it will be that that way for a long time, meaning what the big Bang tells us about dark matter in dark energy and the universe on a larger scale and why those things are folded together, thinking about
the interest on the bigger scale and on the small scale, so we're Quantum physics meets general relativity fresher
is an unresolved territory? That's
and so that's why we use all israeli despair settings. Are you if you want? I, if you want to understand what quantum mechanics meets gravity you gotta, do it in the big bang or black holes are right. I will go. This is Pablo Grist,
I don't know Pablo, I'm sorry. Can you please help me put inside my head? One
dimension. Three is fine.
How can I grass more
That's what you do with willing. I would people than to let the man. I think it is absolutely imperative that everyone-
Hence it nobody can just blankly visualize higher dimensions, we're
to looking at dimensions from the outside. Looking down, we can't do that, so what we can do with the kinds of things that knows describing earlier, which is imagined three dimensional cross section of things, so visualizing a hyper sphere, which is a higher dimensional sphere as an entry.
Section of it with our three dimensions and it would be a series of comes. It would be a series of sphere as drawing rights that would max out
and thence years would go back, but didn't the one last thing is to do the age. Do the difficult example of
in a flat lander and you will see actually just by going down a dimension to get it. You know I can add that if I've citizen a cop
our talks before with another moment to do so. If a line is bounded by points and a square is bounded by lines.
A cube is bounded by squares. Then a hyper cube is bounded by three dimensional tube
the size of a hybrid Cuba or three dimensional Toulouse right, you just
he was all mathematically work. Your way you keep going ass, I'll, take you there there that's their mass set, you free. It is a real example where the math makes it a lot easier. Innovation, as they had no one ever privileges to master, make it easier to agree about higher dimension differential geometer aroused ok, this
is Eric, Spencer Mark, arrogant, Svensson. He says this
Neil, you have said before the dark matter should really be called dark gravity and really stuck with me and help me understand a better deal
a similar, an alternate name for dark energy.
Better. Some arises the phenomenon given in shock, but I
wanna hear what yadda yadda yadda. I would say, I've just call it dark
Fanchon stuff. We don't always. I wouldn't Russians, treachery stuff, but doubly dark gravity is worth dark matter. It is literally dark gravity and I'm
we call with it? Are you till you call that political will? It isn't a tree? No dark gravity adds a form of dark matter like we have examples of forms of dark matter that we have detected they're, just not plentiful enough to explain so much of it.
But there are things called neutrinos which we do detect and they are dark, meaning they don't interact with light.
I wouldn't call neutrinos jar gravity person can laugh, which messages of metals rough may. For those who, like, I got a call from what is good, and I welcome them with a dark energy that what if we thought of it, is like an invisible ocean.
Sort of work done during energies around us all. The time and its it says, though, were
storm of dark
because in it's just ask you it's really that its invisible is the thing you can see right through it is not.
If you had it in your hands, it would look dark
so he s a both dark and energy really don't apply
yeah, ok data
So it's really on the vacuum vacuum bad connection.
We met last week: robots, ok, ok, ok! I gotta do a half a sound by this is had through sellers are, who said
This can other universes influence or overlap
our own and is there
any evidence that this might be have. This would be the parallel universe, very speculative
if you consider a universe, let's say we're floating on a three dimensional membrane and higher dimensional space and there's another one of those floating,
also in the higher dimensional space parallel or in some sense,
they both your dismembering you're talking, remembering she's have a member's pneumatic transmitted to call them universes and yes, it is possible.
But they have interacted in the past and that there would be some archaeological record of that or in the future. If they intersect. Is there an interest
action wine, the three
Reginald line in which you live in both Universe Party. So technically, if view mean by universe the Galaxy
everything you see and not the whole space is
and technically yes to universes to membranes can can interact?
and can coexist. Someone on what I like the idea of living on the boundary between two universe is only of the people. The other universes aren't a holes and as long as the laws of physics, there are the same. Every Lars you'll want to decompose. Islam grew yeah. That would be bad. There would be very much harder. Electron is different, bad, bad, very bad. You to stay away. We are called
There is always good to have. You always want to be near you enough thanks. So much for general Levin, professor physics, up at Columbia and Barnard College
I'm real digress. Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist signing off for start bidding you as always to keep looking.
We should listen to start or commercial free joint start talking
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.