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Cosmic Queries – Hubble Space Telescope

2020-04-13 | 🔗

It was only supposed to last 3-5 years and it’s been orbiting for 30. Neil deGrasse Tyson celebrates the Hubble Space Telescope's 30th anniversary with comic co-host Chuck Nice and Hubble senior project scientist Jennifer Wiseman, PhD.

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Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and STScI.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide dart off begin right. Now, let's start off your host near the grass face in your personal astrophysicist, got with me, Jackknife Jack Jack, in how you re a cosmic queries. Addition absolute and were celebrating thirty years of the Hubble space, tolls, thirty was launched in ninety ninety April. Look at that year there were talking to Crow Someone right here, I know concluding very rude of Edwin would be so so we have Jennifer jennifer welcome. Thank you and I thank you for the first time visiting. It is wonderful that we go way back, but your first times is long overdue and
get your pedigree here. Senior project scientists for the Hubble space telescope at NASA Goddard was the full guys sites and got his gun because we ve got her here where we have to be studied. Yet we have got it is due for persuasive god. He's gotta got a regatta rocket, so you got around so the guttered spaceflight centre in green belt merrily. Right right outside of Washington DC and your primarily responsible for making sure Hubble is as scientifically productive as possible, wow and sure enough. That's what it has been moving to get into that others am and your professionally which what would you say, your special, your cosmic specialty?
I'm interested in how stars continue to form in interstellar clown, so pictures from hobble will stop with the clouds this her, my well impersonal, adding that I always years all this is called inflation, and so now there are people all over the world studying different aspects of how stars an planetary systems around them, presumably are continuing to form Zocor, but but if you're in the in the right place to to be fed we're just where we're blessed to be fed with all this new information from the Hubble space telescope and also telescopes all kinds of their telescopes in space and on the ground we use them all together. Complimentary fashion. You gonna layer, the information it put it together and get a dare I say,
a better picture under that really, I think of it. Like a symphony orchestra, the conductor is pulling out some parts of the music from the trumpets since from the percussion in some from the violins and so forth, but altogether it gives you the full piece of music. So astronomers you some information from the Hubble space Telescope, some from other space telescopes, some from telescopes on the ground. They all have some Frightened me she nodded, they get some different colors earths parts a wavelength spectrum or a different types of feels, a view and precision, and we use all that together to answer the questions we have about. Galaxies are stars or planets, or whatever were interested in so tell me, you don't just happened to be at the gutter spray for sir, that's where hobbles controlled the Hubble Space Telescope Control Room is yes at the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Centre, then watch the Hubble building on the campus of Johns Hopkins at Johns. Hop
as we have the space Telescope Science Institute, which is a wonderful place with hundreds of scientists and other specialists who work with it said Goddard to help us manage the daily science operations of Hubble. To help with this. Elections, of which proposals that are sent from around the world actually get the time on the Hubble telescope people think much about. There would be better to show up right right, but somewhat but it had to do an american idol version. I mean I think that at the next big zeal common foxy at all, I need also show me your proposal right. That's it that's a really good analogy, but it's not done quite the way it's done in terms of the tv shows was done is that scientists around the world will write a written proposal for why they want to use the Hubble space telescope. Why are the observations they want to do so important to advance science? And why
the Hubble space telescope to do that as it has really overturn radically retirement rise like you'd want you'd want to waste the. I think this is true for the Allocation Committee, They're not gonna, give you time for a proposal that you could do on a ground based telescope. So basically tells so expensive and so precious every moment of observing time actually failed to make the case Why is it important that we use this precious time with the Hubble telescope to observe this particular galaxy, or this particular exo planetary system, and why do we need the Hubble telescope? The particular instruments are drawn Hubble to do that in that goes through a pretty stringent peer review process. We a specialist come in and review all the proposals and rank them. And in the end, basically one in four or one in five get time on the Hubble space tell us what you are going to make an idle wanted for freedom. A little bit better
So you bit of applying for hobbled witted America tragedy that you're probably are probably the biggest, although, should add that we're pretty good about storing this data. So once the observations are done with Hubble led, the data are put in an archive and easily accessible and so scientists around the world often go into that archive pull out data, that's already there, but they can use it for something else and in fact, about how for the results. The peer reviewed, published science, Discoveries and results coming from Hubble now are this time, data that scientists have taken out of that archive soaking value. If you use this data was go, then everything that you glean from using it is now open horse, but then that I think, is imperative in order because it I had, my own motives rights observing that part of the sky right. But maybe you have another thing: you could extract
the days I hadn't thought of yet right. That's right! I athlete bright red, nothing proprietary. While there is for some types of observation, and now that's all I care about who gets to look at the proprietor is sometimes that proposal where the proposing t verve recovered, but does my course the right now. Nobody owns anything in the universe personally by foregoing some of that. Some of the proposals, the proposing team gets a few months, have time to do what they actually proposed to do and do it well because we want them to have the time to do it. Well, And then the data gets put in this archive and then is open to everyone. And so- and there are other types of observation- is that are generally done like big surveys and things that make let's say the director of the space Telescope Science Institute decides would be a good general purpose. Use of humble and data immediately goes into public.
The purview sought, so it can be immediately used by scientists around the world, but anybody in the public can reach the archive. We also An image gallery that I think is probably or interest to most general people in that it in science interested public and that you can find at our website NASA Slash, Hubble or Hubble site dot org, but these have the images, things that you really think about when you think of hovels, galaxies or industrial servers. That's where you go and ask just all free to anyone around the world to use and enjoy an does something very proud of that. The Hubble mission is that we ve made all this data, and all of these images are free for anyone around the world situation in our age Irish every week bag you before we get to the questions I got one more and more inquiry here took
still true that the director can just say, here's a good idea, everyone, benefit, if it wishes, do this, it's not going through the telescope allocation Committee. Ok, So it say directors, discretionary, does. It still exists. It does so that the director of the space telescope science, the two who currently is Doctor Kenneth somebody can has a certain allocation of of time with her each year, that they can use for what they think is the most some scientific purpose that might not come through sort of the general competitive process with with scientists around the world, and usually this time is done, and is used for, let's say as a kind of big survey or a general purpose observation that will be of use to people for many years to come quickly. Could it be used for something? That's a little
a little needs out an hour that were little quirky. We would have to have a great deal of trust in that director well that's what we now believe that earlier and indeed one hour Well, let me assure you that we take great care in choosing the directors of the space telescope chains. An excellent one, and there were various mention a couple of these that I think are particularly noteworthy, even political appointed under the banner of the current institute. Space telescope sizes to direct or doktor can somebody has very wisely allocated directors, discretionary time, to do a lot of observations in the ultra violet part of the spectrum looking at stars and star forming regions that that radiate light in this high energy frequency, Why is that will thus because Hubble Israel,
the only general purpose telescope right now that can see in the ultraviolet- and you have to be above the earth's atmosphere to see in the ultra violet because of the filtering effects of the atmosphere. Unmeasured Jordi, LA forge well exact bets is this- is it this is the important to get this data and get it in the archive while we can and then we can use it for many years to come. There's another directors, discretionary project that I think is really noteworthy in this came from years ago, a previous director, I'm doctor, Bob Williams used his directors missionary tying to just point off in the direction of space, where there weren't very many nearby stars to drown out the image and just collected light from anywhere crazy. Well, you should know where the less regard over their real political look operators and some people did push back on this and said this is a very valuable time on this telescope. There it's a lot of competition. Why would you quote unquote way
your directors discretionary times, because only a director there you go, but basically it was you know, let's look and see. We think there are probably some faint galaxies that will pick up by just integrating light receiving light for four days it better, but we weren't sure. After several days of doing this, the result was this image that now iconic it contains thousands of little smudges of why they are all galaxies. It's called the Hubble field, and we ve done some subsequent ones called like the ultra deep, with one of the most famous average of it. Certainly my favorite young men, but it really showed us visually What we may have suspected already just from the first in the end, the cosmic logical theories, but that our universe is filled with galaxies and come in many different shapes and sizes, and
the intriguing thing about the getting. These feels. Is that you're, seeing all these galaxies in one picture but of course, the ones that are actually farther away, seeing them as they were farther back in time, so if you can somehow tease out which of those galaxies are closer to us and which of them in that image or farther away and compare there there differences. Are they different in their morphology? Are they different in position. Sometimes you need other telescopes to get that information. Why does this look like? I could see how galaxies are changed over time, so it's a true time machine that You can now see visually and Hubble really set the foundation for this kind of kick study of Galaxy evolution and, and I think it's just a wonderful accomplishment that, but that was based on a
very wise, but brave use of directors discretionary time with the hungry? They worry wilderness areas or all along and also once the Hubble sort of pitches tent readier other telescopes can say I now get different kind of information from I've got aims, namely, let me go to the same point, and that is why one of the most observe spots on the sky, TAT arrogantly is right. Now have deep. We have other positions on the sky. Also that have been observed in these kind of deep feel ways using different kinds of tell like the Chandra X, Ray Observatory poor when it feels favour telescopes on the ground in all of these telescopes have different capabilities and so they compliment Hubble and are giving us a tremendous understanding of how the universe, changed over time there. That's really cool very, very much want to think about what I was taught me over. The second. Don't almost hundred have learned this opening up our atrium on members? First, yes, we do a patriarch member for
paying fans get their questions that they support us on patriotic and, quite frankly, were easily. But thank you, MRS brought. You took my Rome start operating anyway, is this land as Kay he says Doktor Wiseman hand he chuck there is not what she's there now others? What are two or three discoveries that lay persons like myself can reference when talking to others about the fantastic contributions hub has given us right now. All I can say is it took some really pretty pictures of some stuff and I need better ammo, for Those of us not literate in astrophysics, love request is right, ring science, where we go along with making a rank rank
because there's a lot of different neuronal Esther, no fun. I would say there are some profound discoveries in indifferent realms of astrophysics. That Hubble has really made a ground break if you will or space breaking, if he will a contribution Jane legacy that very wicked, where would you desire is breaking? I think the one of the first things Hubble did was to confirm that there are in fact supermassive black holes in the course of galaxies there It was theorize that that was the case a perhaps, but what one of the first observations Hubble did was to look the core of another Galaxy M. Eighty seven, for example, is, as is one of these other galaxies that we knew was kind of active. We could see that there was like a high speed jet coming out of the core, but we weren't sure what was causing these these types of things couple, looked at another external galaxy and saw that the gas
moving around the core. That Galaxy was moving very fast, and so when you have something orbiting very fast, but you don't know what it's orbiting. You can pretty easily calculate what the mass of that meeting. It is based on the distance from the core that the material is moving Anna's velocity and the only thing that could be that massive in such a of volume had to be a supermassive black hole was so how? well, then became we call our supermassive black hole, finder cause with subsequent instruments on Hubble. We actually looked at the cores of some other galaxy he's an confirmed over and over again that supermassive black holes are often, if not always, perhaps in the course of galaxies. So what were with women imply, but much stated there is you needed hobble to do that, because Hubble has very high resolution, examine other telescopes, it's just a smudge and you can't find something so close to its citizens.
Exactly that's, not the point in history made. The reason humble is there at all is because we are hooded above the atmosphere. The atmosphere has a blurring effect on line coming through and it even filters out some types of light. So how well being above. The atmosphere gives us very high resolution, rattles relation exactly and that's why we were able to use Hubble to just to discern this gas right around. The cores of other galaxies on one side seem to be moving away from us very fast. That would be the the red shifted, a gas and, on the other side of the center of the of those galaxies we'd see stuff. That appeared to be moving towards very fast blue shifted light, and so you can tell that the material is orbiting very fast and from that calculate that
only thing that would create orbits. That fast would be a lot of mass condensed in a very small volume, and the only thing that answers that question is are Salaam as a black hole. So now let me ask you where you too, as you talk about this process, would merely comes. To my mind, is the process how long the something like this take, or is it that you are doing mathematical, interpolation or making extrapolations from a period of time that you're looking out the the information that Europe is ours. It would take just a whole covering discovery and observation deal with lively proposal. Ota republish paper right, however, to take well, I have to say it all depends sets out an observation depending on what you're doing like I mention that deep field took several days of observations. Others,
it's something bright. If it's just one pointing you can do, it may be in an hour or two, but then you need to go through some processing time for that the data comes down, but it needs some data, processing, You know in that case, usually we can get images out if they're just simple snapshots within a few days. Well, but if you're doing scientific analysis like you're, you you're doing a proposal to answer some questions. That requires quite a lot of analysis. Maybe comp comparisons with data from other telescopes. These kinds of things that can take me once or a year sometimes even year. So it just depends on the complexity of the quest then that's being asked and and and that's being in the data, how the data are being used as an instrument for paper gives purity, Yes, there are right, then maybe they want adjustments to advise. You didn't doctor your crusher tee, then you do that satisfy the they reviewer Vatican
Chapter four publication, then it gets scheduled right, and so that that adds a chunk of time at the end there as well, but we now have a sea. We got a rapid up right, I know, but now I got another question which is an I'm with eyes. We will have time. I've got an ant s, reopen it put it real, quick. I gotta ask so with that being said, considering the process. Has anyone look for something right? and then peer review finds no, no, no, but then something even better was found from the information well sure ain't around round from the press that out, I can't call them mistake the call have time to answer your question. Ok, we'll come back. I re I'll, give you remember it a breath. Cosmic queries, hobbles, thirtyth anniversary return,
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I use it all the time, and I can personally vows never had a problem, and it is a pleasure, makes things so simple, just open up your banking app and look for Zelle. Looking your banking up It's their welcome back dues cosmic, where thirtieth anniversary this with us lift off. With chopped the middle of the question, what happens if, whatever issues the first proposed research paper confronts right there, they. They discovered something even better. What about the pyramid?
Who says? Oh, no, that's not the case, and then they find something. So what are we to peer review is where they were both either lilies. Anybody goes whether MR remiss something and then I go. Oh my goodness. I just want to know if that ever happened, like I have a thing for that too late like radio cared taught me like that cut design? It goes way that can say now who know like the lover: ok, you're, ok, We tried hard that so again need these observations typically go through to peer reviews. One is to get the time too his humble in the first place. So so that means that did did they generally had a pretty good idea of why observations would be useful, and there's the second one when they, after they ve done the analysis of the data and they submit their analysis to the the professional journal of what they think they found.
And true enough, the journals can actually say you know. We don't actually think this is this, is writer, profound and maybe choose not to publish but usually they do what entry to buy now by then, but what's interesting, is that that data that may have been used for the initial proposals purposes is now available for other researchers to use, and as we discussed about the archive, they can pull that data and find something that the original proposal and even think rise with this data, and that has happened quite a lot. Let me tell you, why becomes a whole other research area and the reason is because Hubble has been around so long. Thirty years now I ve often taking sometimes repeated observations of the same areas in the sky for different purposes. We can now look back and see things that have changed over time, which very interesting, in particular in our solar system, looking back at images of let's say, Jupiter Overtime year after year,
then starting to compare these images and saying well, as we look back at this day, that may be even taken for different purposes in earlier years, but we can see, trends. Let's say that big great reds It's on Jupiter, it's a big storm, but as we look over the decades of an old terms, no jupiters spot just so you know, because you can stay with the lingo, I don't want to lose you am I gonna get our fancy. I think we're trying to make it clear that great for its is is there, but it is relatively small. Ever it is shrinking as look at the images year after year after year, like all this storm is changing, is changing in color. It's good smaller. We see new storms cropping up, so this one of the benefits of having a telescope operating so long and be able to look back and that our kind data that may have been taken for some other purpose
but then stringing it all together, and we see how things have changed our changing over time to do for the models in the rich world that macro, none detectable curling around their gladly mounting the conspiracy robber Weaver from patriotic wants to know this. What is most interesting on explained thing we have observed with Hubble. Is there something that astral physicists are still and to work out, love at hobble, readily old Robert Weaver Robert, we ve we'll go Robert Euro. You have impressed the room, a rabbit. That's it you! If it question- and I add a couple of things- come to mind hobble
is observing a lot of effects of what we call dark matter, and so we can't really see dark matter and we don't know what it is. It's a mystery, but Hubble can see where it is because its distributed pretty heavily in these cod stirs of galaxies. We can see the galaxies, but we know there's a lot more stuff in their because Hubble sees was called lensing of light coming from behind those clusters of galaxies, it's trapped. Through that cluster and it gets distorted it gets, magnified and stretched out and so background galaxies look kind of strange when they come through these regions and weaken because tat. We can map out where the dark matter is, but it's still a mystery ass to what it actually is. An even more mysterious is something we call dark energy because this is
a surprise. We were looking at. We ve been for all our troubles mission. We ve been measuring very carefully the expansion rate of the universe. That was one of the original goals of hobble, butts Justin, a few years ago a ritual reasons. Why was named Hubble while exactly hobble himself discover the expanding universe, exactly that, if it did, this telescope was the wall in on that you might, as after the guy who put it on my exit, Visa Hubble was one of the first the Hubble was to measure better the rate of the expansion of the universe. We expected that, as we were came better able to look at more distant galaxies, which is looking back at time and measuring the expansion ray that time and comparing it to the expansion rate in the current epoch that we would see the expansion rate of the universe has been slowing down. That was the expectation, because that gravity basically is trying to pull things together and proper
slow down this expansion. The surprise in recent years was that by comparing Hubble observations with also tell observations from good telescopes on the ground, and looking at the difference between the expansion rate in the distant universe, meaning far in the past, with the expansion rate in our current epic that the universe expansion rate has as actually in recent epochs meaning in recent billions of years, been getting faster, its accelerating it for first decelerating and now it's accelerating we don't know what's causing man hobbles a big player in this. In this discovery is not the only player, but it's a big player, and so now this is a whole new enterprise and astrophysics is trying to understand what is it that the accelerating the expansion of the universe, organ better. What age? That's
chocolate billion years. You look, you look to look at him better. That's right! That's right! Look at that all right, cool man, all right! So, let's go to Cameron Kessler from Facebook says, does Hubble have any sufficient technology to keep up with needs of today's understanding of the universe and will therefore be a telescope with a three hundred and sixty panoramic view, like Google, sweet maps super That's good! That's the measure of the resolution of the conflict is governance. With discovery is, will we have Google com. Most matters like Google Streak maps. I know the Mars Rovers do this their pictures, but would it make more sense, they have this sort of thing instead of falling at on the now. This is get though hello shade here the excuse we have look in the right places as they used to say in Seti
I am trying to understand the question. Is it? In other words, it is: let's look everywhere instead of in places, we think we want to find some exactly because might discover something were not looking for. Otherwise, what basically gives them like Google MAPS like, though, is this like- I really wanted, the three fifty nine mainstream, but what's that over there? Oh, my god, a coffee shop, looks pretty hope. That's not good, though this is a very good question and we need a both because want to be able to see everything in the sky and we have survey telescopes that are designed to do just that. To have big feels a view and to survey the entire sky, often for a particular he's in so right now, for example, we have the tests. Satellite that surveying the sky I bet looking specifically for stars that may have planetary
systems around them in our nearby neighbourhood affair, to think of gas as a follow on to Kepler? I think said yes and yes dear me, through that the transiting exo play, survey. Satellite, I think I'm a I'm gonna have to remind myself, but but anyway, the hot. The idea of tasks is to do just that survey retired browser it's a little reason. I think there's that there's a telescope being designed for the ground, the large synoptic survey telescope. The whole idea of this is to do that. The whole sky survey very frequently, so it good idea, However, when you're doing that, you're not getting the precision on small feels a view that you can get with a telescope like hobble, so it depends on your the purposes at large. If you really want of high angular resolution, precision high sensitivity, observation of something? That's it
gold and doing a whole sky survey, and we sort of need both of us at the best way. This works as if you're doing whole sky surveys, and then, if you find something that you really like more detail then you Honan with some other telescope, guys you to do that. Hubble is really not good for these holes. Aye, sir vanishes its much better for pointing in getting much higher angular reloads. Might my favorite example. This is the Orient Nebula I of the iranian region of the sky is a very famous constellation. I did my own doctoral research on on star formation in this region of the sky. The closest store for me region to us is the closest region of massive star formation stars bigger than our sun. But they light at these massive stars once they form that they're they're so powerful, they ionize the surrounding gas. So you get these beautiful nebula, so the Orion Nebula is famous. Hubble
can period to that of radio in the arena. Maybe a positive spirit, energy of the awry possible. I wasn't it all that how would you know, I told I was born in Arkansas? They lived in this current climate. Let's go with the Oregon stars. Anyway. I loved the Hubble image of the iranian Nebula, because it does give you that great detail. You can see Massa stars, you can see the colors, but you don't get the big the view that you can get with other telescopes got next right. Don't go. This is hold with oh storm on Twitter, and he says- or she says, or they say if I wanna be
what person says this prick language? It was possible to get through this jack? I don't know it's a system. One says that our thinking about it, I'm not that can't be right. When I die early here we, what are the projects that you think will be the most important for this decades, wherein the twenties now what's gonna happen between twenty and thirty, that is, the modest, reworked, Hubble we'd be able contribute, investigators and whirled around they just say what are? The projects are, of course, talking about, tell us Congress or, but they just say what are the project's. Well, that's a terrific question and Hubble is poised to be a major player in these astrophysics discoveries in the coming decade so one of them, I have already mentioned, is kind of getting a better grip on this
here that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, how's that why is, add, and how is that working some water there is handling, and so telescopes like hobble will be working in concert with other observatories. The law I'd field infrared space, telescope or w first is a telescope idea. Being developed in right now. That will be a large again one of these big fields of you that can kind of give us a bit sense of how galaxies are distributed in how they ve been could come distributed over time. That's related to dark matter in dark energy, for me, listen W, first, retooled decommission military telescope, rightly ticket The telescope that had another purpose and now we're ree re envisioning it to do this kind of study, big big survey. Seven in the infrared, which help reduce the cost. Ultimately,
The idea of verifying retooling, bring us own complicated. It is gonna, be a terrific telescope. I where's your milligram in spite of linen aim in the name of the game. I think for the coming decade is, is complementary. Operative word. Let me tell you one of my favorites is that hobble is being used in compliment with probes? we are sending out to other planets and planets in our solar system, and we get Much more information this way than we would by just Hubble alone or just the probe alone. For example, the Juno probe, that's edgy right now is good. All kinds of information about Jupiters magnetic field and gravitational feel at home. Was back here orbiting the earth looking at Jupiter and humble, has the unique ability to see the ultra violet light. Coming from the Aurora, the the
magnetic poles of Jupiter and those are dancing around relevant to what's happening with the magnetic fields around Jupiter. That Juno is measuring in situ there, so this cooperative work gives us a lot better understanding of these magnetic fields and what was happening and Jupiter and and even his moons than we could not do it's not an after the fact data and in situ, yes, said beautiful. I love and greater we're doing things cooperatively with humble another example in just the recent past was when the new Horizons probe went past. Please, the PLUTO goes on mentioned here. We don't ah well, you know, PLUTO is still there and is in fact just because you're not take a blue. Those calls on those It's ok I'll make an exception for driving, replete beautiful and have always used
as new horizons on his way out, their humble was used to find other discovered moons around PLUTO and to help new horizons This charter, a good course for new horizons and even to help new horizons, to know what objects to look at beyond PLUTO. So these the things that I think are examples of how Hubble and Other telescopes are gonna, be used, cooperates cooperatively, in the coming years. To give us a lot more information than we could from any observatory alone. Wasn't all commissioner. I have a memory where there was a probe to an asteroid where it dropped a a a AIDS projectile which were then kick up, asteroid dust and then- witness with in a direction and an asthma at an angle, so that was a pub All that would then be able to see through the dust and get a spectrum of that was
I d yes so saw it was it kicked up dust? It was observed by quite a few tell us of growth. It also- and I would have to you now to look into the details of what was found, but I thought that was a really nifty. Ideas was another example over I'll. Do this illegal amaranths, cosmic collaboration by the way, what a brilliant robber projected and kick up the dust and then looked through it, would through it with ground based telescopes it works. May I ask why we are those that you guys are really smart. Thank you. Try, because you had no one's told you wow, really smart remain NASA people. What's he do
so we got a wine is declaring that they alone. Could I had one thing: I would be remiss a check if I did not bring in a huge topic of interest for the coming decade, which is the whole topic of exile plan, and this is where telescope will be working very cooperatively. We didn't even know back when I was in graduate school of there were planets orbiting other stars stars other than our son now, because of telescopes on the ground and telescopes like Kepler in space. We know of thousands- star systems that have planets, and so now we can presume that most stars have at least one planet Hubble. Being used in the coming decade to do more analysis of the atmosphere of these Exo planets com, hunting, work fraud, Telescopes like task that looking around four nearby systems and have plans minor system, then there's the him. To hobble to analyze the sea as also the James Web Space telescope that will be launched and twenty twenty one. We I'll be looking at actual planetary systems in
infrared part of the spectrum and that will complement hovels observations of these Exo planetary systems. Hubble can see a little in the infrared, but mostly invisible and ultra violet light, and so we're getting this wonderful suite of information by using Hubble and compliment with other telescopes about the nature of Exo plan is excellent, just think about it, for she got to know that it exists light. Then you a catalogue, and now you go in with a whole other lay of questions right and then there, and open other questions? You don't even know to ask at the previous Take it easy now you say I want now and only the atmosphere, the planet. You know you just know when there's a planet rare examined was a day without a banner headlines. There's a planet right, so what a luxury they even have that ability to make their measurement take a break when we come back will finish out our thirtieth anniversary cosmic query.
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been as a huge campus. I mean it is bits and it's like it's got engineers and scientists, were I in harmony, read that as as yet and sharks. Little look at that crazy, but I just saw precisely on story on. However, there were no. What we are so check. A more cautious! We owe here we go this from Louis, I'm sorry, the force told TAT. That's! Ok! I don't know what that is, why from Instagram, hey you'll, end Jennifer. What is the plan for Hubble as its final photo, and when will there be? Was I've span of Hubble how long the along in this go on. That's a great question you know, Hubble was was launched back and ninety ninety from the space shuttle, and it was designed to be
continually replenished with the space shuttle missions which we did for for a lot longer than we originally expected, as we servicing at any more because the space shuttle programme is is overwhelmed now, building a new future spacecraft SAM force yeah, so we got what we got. The Hubble but hovels working very well. The last astronaut servicing mission we did back in two thousand and nine was very successful and they left the telescope. The astronauts and put in some new science instruments and repaired some other instruments, as some in some other equipment on the telescope. It's a satellite orbiting, the earth and Hubble is doing very well right now, really dravidian Kazoo, the last ones there's Susie was here. If they did, they didn't tell me right in other words it Bob
as long as it was really an unquestionably and whether you like, and if they did not tell me- and I swear I will, sometimes I look. I want you to know out there that I did not have that look. I have we not care where Busslin, I will tell you one of the astronauts John Grunts felt, who is an astronomer himself brought with a friend of start. Org is blown class of your here. He brought with him a model of Galileo's telescope, and so now there on the space shuttle during the last servicing mission. We had this marvellous exposition of this model of Galileo's telescope from four hundred years ago, soldiers and out the window of the cockpit of the shuttle. You could see the Hubble space telescope, and so it was just a wonderful visual of how the progress of,
engineering and curiosity and optics all work together to give us a running understanding money curious is all get out. What will enable nobody ever your idea, you just just go back to the Uk- has some great ideas that you have to have. The idea is to get people to donate money, so all work together to that limit, thereby what I didn't guidance on your question is a humble was: is working very well We don't really have an end date of humble in mind. The kind of stated NASA position now as long as Hubble is being scientifically productive, we'll keep operating it and it slide just from looking at the health of the gyroscopes and the batteries in the science instruments that will be able to get good science from hobble for probably through the end of this decade, and maybe even the number and and that's great, because we want it to be operating while other telescopes are also operating with complementary capabilities. The
aims web space telescope. Should launch and twenty twenty one and it will be a fabulous space. Telescope tuned in infrared wavelengths of light, and so in infrared, you can appear at galaxies that are coming there very distant in space and time. Their light is getting red shifted, as it travels through expanding space, to get to us and humble Kay, See that far into the infrared spectre of white, so supple can see very distant galaxies, but the web will seize galaxies even a little bit farther back in space and time we're going precisely because it is remarkable to me, so we seeing infrared light from galaxies in the early, universe, who in the early universe, emitting visible right, ok, ultra violet, and that's all they if did exactly or to the infrared part that the change, what telescope is tuned to see its rice right. So we
opening in that knowledge of the universe, to nab those galaxies right when it being born, I like to put it this way: the universe we think at least the universe though the that we know and love started about thirteen point eight billion years ago in Hobble is seeing all the way back right now to baby galaxies from within that first point: eight of the thirteen point eight billion year, history of the universe and, though I will see even closer to the beginning of the universe. Within a few hundred million years of the beginning of the year, first second amazes. Basically, the candle creation has ended and galaxies was done with almost a little down the universe when its crowning these. Well, maybe it's just like all my god. A baby is coming in a second, This is a little too. It's not. It's us think a little later listing
toddlers learn of what these telescopes are seeing are the first after the first gas, or from the first additives, which first from the four form from the first summit, particles. You finally get enough gas to form stars and stars and gas coalitions. If you will are what we call the first protocol galaxies and that's as far back that's what the web telescope will be used will be seeing in we're time these. These little baby galaxies began to merge together and form bigger galaxies, and These grew over cosmic time into the galaxies. We know and love today, like our own milky way, which is the product of several mergers, overtime right and it has been a recent collisions that we have seen galaxies. Well, we have takes a long time ago to actually merge, but Hubble, actually, as one of the one of the wonderful discoveries of the Hubble space telescope is that merging is common and was more common in the early universe.
So with Hubble we ve looked out into distant space looking back in time and we ve seen quite a few cases were galaxies are either in the process of merging or they ve already merge, and that merging process creates distortions in the shape of these galaxies because of the title pools and the gravitational pools is quite interesting. We believe that our own milky way is set to merge with our nearest neighbor big spiral, grand spiral, the Andromeda, and we're on ahead on collision course that something Hubble helped us find I gotta go. So we, the night sky, was gonna, look a lot worse.
A few billion years, and they re, but it won't be for hide alongside sometime millions of the ice preserving right there might be with with the future. Here. Team ports, ripe observatory wants to know this high meal Jennifer Chuck. Would it be possible at NASA ends funding for hobble or it comes to its regular and someone like Elon Musk the right to the scope and send his own repair missions, thereby now only a telescope. Because we are seeing that right. We are seeing. While we are seeing the commercialization of space, we are seeing more collaborate, between the public and private sector with respect to MRS to space. So what was the feasibility for sale if it is not for sale your billiards everything's for sale, the current plan
and it will operate hub over many years as it is scientifically productive. And then, when it's not know we are providing a good science. It will cease to function. Eventually will need to either pushed the satellite itself either to a higher orbit. We called a parking orbit or, or else help directed safely into the ocean, Well, I don't know exactly where buds ass bright company involved, but we don't have any official plans for that right now. But let me tell you: there's a lot of energetic discussions out there, so you know state for I love that idea. If, if its problems flung hobble in the Pacific Ward someone can buy it? I think let somebody by and continue to receive information. Let me look at this though, astronomers think about this very hard all the time? What's the best kind of facility to have to do the kinds of astrophysics we want to do? And there comes a point such as came the boy
with my own car recently, where you have to decide, is it worth it to put a lot of money into continuing to refurbish something that's decades? call has a call at nickel and diming exactly or is it better to build something fresh using newer technology? So you know how those not in that situation, we we hope Hubble will be operating for for much of the next decade and beyond, but at some point The decision will need to be made as to whether the kinds of capabilities that Hubble does could be better there with a new telescope and in fact there some wonderful concepts being developed right now for Hubble, follow on phantasms. Aren't you Hold on a Jimmy make this alkaline right for you for you, because this is a personal question just for you doctor. And this is from Brett Shara Breccia from Instagram- says what is your favorite huh, all discovery by the way, I'm a huge fan, thanks for all that you do so. This is
somebody who follows you wasn't: what is your favorite Hubble, anything I'll sleep, to my favorite Hubble discovery doesn't say flashy but is actually been looking at things like the ultra deep field and finding out that galaxies themselves change an amazing ways over billions of years and Hubble being the time machine that it is, we can actually map. By looking at distant galaxies and comparing them to nearby ones how they changed. She was angry, I feel, is even deeper than the original concept. C4. That's right! That's what once they get the deep field: swagger riots Let's do this again, that's actually get a deeper feeling and then one one image that I just love. It's it's nothing special. If you will, but it's just a beautiful galaxy, it doesn't have a beautiful name, NBC thirteen, oh nine! I just
The gorgeous spiral, so those of you listening to this go out and Google and GC thirteen. Oh nine, humble and you'll see a beautiful spiral with some interesting galaxies in the background, if you call it on your phone intercede for no nine it'll answer beautiful nebulae, I'm I'm holding one now and you see all your picture wholly picture of what is actually it was on a cats collar Angie, see three six, all three, thirty six out three envy see thirty six, oh three as little food of the one that will go to this image every as views Hubble and the name you'll see this cluster of newly formed star, surrounded by beautiful ionized gas, a kind of purpose nebula, and to me This just shows great beauty in the universe. And how our telescope soaring, enabling us to see these kinds of beautiful, active regions that we haven't been able to see in such detail before in human history, and the aspires all kinds of things, even beyond science, art, science philosophy, all kinds of
These are inspired by the observations we can do with Hubble. Their telescopes today, and I am grateful for that. So thank you for your comments. I just looked up and GC thirteen. Oh nine, an apple owes you the money as this is what comes up computer as the Hubble image and we'll go again and now it's it's. It's not it's if they dont an o any money, because all of our images are freely available to anyone and so don't already pay for they pave up. We pay our taxpayers money. All when that is apple owes wrinkled marks can fight that out with them open. Are we land this play all so generally having just concluding reflective thoughts beyond what you or have the like your thoughts you ve already shared. I think that some, the Hubble space tell us. Up has shown how we can use as she humanity. We can use technology to do something that not only enhances our son
insufficient understanding of nature and in it, but also gives us a sense of unity people all over the world from every nation that are excited about the Hubble space Telescope and what we're seeing and it gives us, I think, hope, a sense of unity as citizens of earth that were part of a magnificent universe and inspire universe, something to look up at an aspired by and to keep up sites are spirits high. I think, strong enemy, inspires all kinds of positive positive, and when an asteroid and deeper, as is currently the deeper thought, is a beauty in philosophy in theology and art and music, and all of these things are part of what it means to be human, so keep looking up, I'd, say, I just Turkey, I go in there now you got letter and we shall now hear not a letter on the zone around me. I've worked out your brow, God, none doc, jerk you just two
check ending starter. All right, we'll get you on the matter.
Transcript generated on 2020-07-21.