Psychedelic drugs, dreams, mental health awareness, understanding our reality, and more – Neil deGrasse Tyson, neuroscientist Heather Berlin, PhD, and first-time comic co-host Jackie Hoffman answer fan-submitted questions about neuroscience.
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from the American Museum of natural history. In New York, city and beaming all is based and start with science
our top hundred host Neil digressed ice in your personal astrophysicist and this episode of starting a cosmic queries edition is focusing on Neuro Science and we go to our go to person for that, and that would be the none other.
Heather. Believe, however, welcome back to start out for the millions die. I love always love being excellent. Thank you. Thank you and you, your neuroscientist, at about China, is the arrest and the way to say that, and you focus on what people are.
Thinking when they don't know their thinking
ever, but no, I studied brains and how they relate to human thoughts behaviors, whether their conscious and unconscious emotional scary.
Actually we have a first time here. My caused Jackie happened
Actually, welcome, thank you
you're a comedian- I am an actress, slash committee- am in that order
Well, yes, right now,
doing more acting than comedian ochre and I had a hysterectomy amount sign. I owe congratulations,
to your my anxiety about help. They did a good job than ever uterus awareness. We Europeans were so
Let me join you in that say. I was born in Mount sign off. My children are born and outside ok, but I never had a hysterectomy you never now.
Lawyers. Beware grew so
you also an actress, you were you at us, a role in
and legally belong to,
Neil remembered my joke, my line of us, it was one light your dogs are gay.
Change the world. I would give you more lines than that. If I were, if I were producer of legally blown to. Thank you. So
Also, you are in a all yiddish production of
we're on the roof of Broadway right now. That is correct. That's crazy! With english subtitles, don't panic occur, you'd issues gotta be like that's how it would have been. There would have been speaking
that is correct in and out of yours and you, your character is yet
the man you look a little bit more younger than be agenda, as we say forget it, it's a recently playing my grandmother.
Very cool. So since this is cosmic queries, we solicited from our fan base question for this episode on
neuroscience grand what a topic that has become Heather, there's a word no new twenty years ago, now- everybody's into it. So
I knew about it. Shall I mean there's nobody. Nobody else do so jack
you have the questions I haven't seen him neither has Heather, and these are questions that bring it on the sea. What we ve got. Okay, our first
comes from John Emerson from Patrie on. I dont know what that low Pedro. That's our their support website they'll help fund our operation, o nice. I thought it was it to keep them
So that's why you're reading there question first, I see one of the perks of the many parts you get a blank Asia. I suppose
the patrons patriarch pressure on patriarch. Thank you. Ok, I've heard that men are from bars and women are from Venus with it. A little bit involves unique
What is our I've heard that matter from Mars and women are from Venus but
Are there any neurological differences between these two planetary species?
question for you enter the matchmaker. It's it's it's been controversial in the past. Has often it's not been pc to say that there are differences between men and women brains, but there are there. Are there both sort of anatomical differences, Neuro Chemical differences hormones that affect brain chemistry like oxytocin things like tests, testosterone and estrogen affect how the brain works. So we know that, for example, on average in these are all again on average women have said
larger hippocampus, which is the part of the brain, and I said you with memory. They tend to store emotional memories better than men. They tend to ruminate. On things a little bit more than men, as we might know, anecdotally and in terms of like,
the way their brains were wired up very lightly different female female yeah language, which tends to be
relies meaning that it's it's more on localised on the left side letter lies with me: it's featured warm for anything would leave more one side and the other exactly lateral eyes. Lateral. I saw a ten.
To be more ladder, allies and men, meaning that man
of their language, has just on the left side, whereas women tend to have language on both in both hemisphere is like pop parts of the brain are dedicated to language. Processing they tend to use,
or words just an behaviorally during the day than men? So, on their certain aspects of movements, brain both anatomically and an physiologically that differ from matinee express themselves in different ways: behaviorally emotionally in terms of cognition. So as this garden resistance from society, even have the conversation
there's some. You know, because then the ideas like well, you know would then there's this. This myth, like ok, we'll have a bigger brain, must be better. Men, on average have physically larger brain, but that's not true in terms of intelligence in terms of cognitive function, it's about how its wired up- it's not about the size so but people did get scared way from this, because
the idea like what we know famously. I think it was Larry Summers at Harvard. Is that error in prison over? Yes, exactly
women on you, dont tens and not be due as well like math and an tack in that kind of thing, and those things are just not true date. They tend to work in different ways, but they're, not it there's no differences in terms of an intelligence and correlated brain size and the rest. So I think it's ok to say there are
different says and its neither good or bad. It's just different. So I thought his his argument was. The averages are all the same, but men sharp wider on then distribution. So if you try to find the highest performing man, it's cool
way out in a high performing side. You also have a much lower remain on the other side lower than you find the lowest woman they tend to be more on me. Extremes was right right, but again, that's you now, on average to them is that there are women who run these extremes as well. On average tend to be more at the men more at the extremes in terms of the bell curve of of IQ, but
Look at it all our energy right, I mean yeah, it isn't the shortest person ever a man is a trail. Come from
Now it is more than a year, but I don't know if that's me,
that guy I'll have re ip. I mean that's very you now and then of one even but even but on women tend to live longer than men, so in that lands we are, I think, also look. Look at a personality like, for example, charisma, ridden do some very charismatic men of their at the other extreme. You have completely complete sociopaths rasmussen.
Nor do the most heinous social things ever right. So so so again, we have these extremes that the men or they may for populating right or they just might express them in different ways like one idea, just sick off a little bit my tangent, but people who met associate
men, mostly more diagnosed in men, have these kinds of impulsive behaviors
the act out aggressively and others and then their categorizes that the women also intend to have those extreme behaviors, but they more like
it'll be introverted, acted out on themselves like self, harming
If here and also there is similar expressions of likewise the impulsive behavior, but their expressed in different ways and in their categorizing tutoring unjust.
Subject, EU from Mars or Venus, which are you
me too and that we need to argue actual
put a ring on her work beyond the jack. You got another question:
so I do here's one close to my heart from herbal
on Instagram. How does psychedelic work and what is the effect on the brain
and for personal reasons, I'd like to extend that question to marijuana as well. Ok,
But did you just add that to the question
data. My allowed a data have endured what you're you control the questions you,
slapping short of a hum, so I mean that's a pretty broad question there there there is a whole variety of different types of psychedelic drugs and they all affects the brain and different ways. So it's not like them on this score.
Let's go lsd. Integration, clean nice can fantasy, ok, so what LSD dies,
in general is that it lowers activation in certain parts of the the frontal lobe which have to do with kind of a century.
Mason coming in in the frontal lobe, is kind of making meaning out of that information so that Europe, it makes sense. If, at all, when you have decreased activation,
part of the brain, the kind of meaning make her part of the brain you having a whole bunch of sensory information coming in without a filter. Let's say I'm, so it's being an experience in a different way, also
increased activation in Limerick areas of the brain. These sub cortical areas of the brain, some more information is coming from within its not being sort of organizing
in a logical way. Limburg is what did like relational reptilian brain exactly on and the other thing, so it is almost like being in dreams. They cause during dreams. We see a similar pattern of activation right. You have decreased prefrontal, cortex, increase limit so you're having emotions and thoughts that don't necessarily make sense that don't have a clear narrative, but you also getting this this. The sensory information that's unfiltered, and the other thing that's really interesting is that when you look at the way the on the brain is kind of sending information back and forth usually send a,
a kind of you have certain pathway. Is that that the brain sends information, but when they're in and when there are lsd, there is much more distributed network of information, so it's kind of like you'd, see these a lot of straight lines and paths and now they're crossing larger distances within the brain, the information. So it's just a whole different pattern of activation
so that makes you feel weird and Turkey. We have time, lady. I ask you about my proscriptions with effect on, what's left of Brussels, what your own right now! That's what we want to know. The point, though I think that's the most interesting, is that we all are kind of hallucinating all the time
our work has. Our brain is making up a story based on these like signals that are coming in, and then we often say that we all agree upon it. We call it reality. Yes, yes, this is a fresh rating,
important point? Because if you have your own understanding of reality and no one else can corroborated that's just we, we declare that is going on in your head. We don't declare that you have some special
insight into a reality that none of the rest of us have re. Is that fair to say that from a brain,
perspective. We all are making up our reality undermined, but again, if, if nobody else is agreeing on what on what experiencing than is likely just being generated internally and scientifically
You have to assume that. Otherwise, what you know, what, where we base
we base round the tree falls in a forest and nobody here's, how does it make a noise? Is this what you asked about the marijuana about a perfect said: wait: I've got a bag, is questionable Ramos. I'm done with this we're. So what do you say to people who would argue that when their brain has been altered by with ever pay
artificial Chemical High Alaska, wherever they fear claiming insight right into the into the universe? What do you say to them? I've had these discussions with people, so they let's say they claim. They say they see a Spirit God and they get inside.
Into the workings of the universe. I think it's important to understand that we are
Aids are physical mechanism
and a lot of things just like dreams. These are its creating its own internal world and so often when we're in a fully awake non psychedelic state with as a certain private brain that tells us whether information is being internally generated or are coming from external sure, and when your people with schizophrenia, for example, they don't have that proper check and play. So they think
the hearing voices that are coming extremely end because they're, not their brain, is in tying them. No, it's! U internally, being generated. So when you're on these drugs at similar like went to his gets a frantic, things are being generated internally from your mine, but you're misinterpreting them as coming from someplace else.
Like from a Spirit, God or somewhere else, and that or maybe you're getting some great insight? That's coming from somewhere to people talking to themselves on the streets were not also phone there really talking to himself, but he did not talking to some other entity, but they are a magic, but they experience it as if it's another Anthony yeah, but have you look? This is not to say that there is some great unity like you know, the answer that's coming through in different ways, but it is curious that while peoples who get these messages, when there are any psychedelic states, are usually related to their underlying personal or religious beliefs system that they haven't place her children together with a yeah yeah, which makes me which leads me to believe that its internally generating externally for a good data. Thank you jack. It's what you got mixed
well, I've got this real trippy. One from Kevin Colloquy Markka on Instagram occur is everything we experience a figment of our imagination. Pretty mercosur jails were pretty much it. That's pretty much. I mean I wouldn't say everything. We experience a figment.
Our mandated by you. That's me I'll know, imagination. The way I experience it is created by my brain. I imagine it is actually not to say no because,
imagine if I say yes or no come ok. What's that make up her mind, I'm going looking at it. Hearings,
wherever I did, you have you have, and what do you think so limit living in search of the movie the matrix? Yes, everything is happening inside their brains, yes, their sense of pain and joy in love and hay and hunger, and all that is inside the brain. Yes, ok you! That is just what everything you experience is pain. Every sensation you have is happening inside of your brain rain. Guess. I therefore to the question is so though the internet is yes, everything is a brain experience in your life and and you couldn't have had a plausible plot in the movie, the matrix unless there was true here, but when you say when, when this is the differentiation I'm making imagination and the sense of not cool
relating to something that's external to arraign. So you can you have a creation of an experience in your brain of what your perceiving that could either be created internally, which I would call imagination or that's coming extremely from your senses in and so yes, they're both creations of your brain, but one is based on external data.
Other come any extra reality. Is
where we all rally around to say, that's the reality, but at but but the truth be told we could create a whole set of matrix world
this based on sensory inputs, and I must add, other movie total recall you want to go into the you. You want to go to vague haitian to alcohol, come sit in this chair and I will in plant the memories of it in you and now you wake up. Is it well?
It is just as good as it could give here. We are rather a blur the lie or bad ordinarily. Better, we better. If I know how to do it because you can skip the boring parts like we're taxi right, you waited for the larger. That's exactly like fast forwarding,
but with your brain type of one more for this segment, but he have Jackie. Oh that's a tough
but I think I've got one Brian side on Instagram. If site is the process of the brain,
creating an image of reality after it interprets the signal from the eyes sent when they interact with the electro magnetic field. Can a blind
Harrison create an image based on the signal sent from the other senses to the brain. In other words, can a blind person see something yeah yeah, so it depends on so our brain, where most of them, what
That's a really good questions. I wait till I have an idea. I want to wait till after the break like for you answer to that question. Cliffhanger
and Anne the Word Electromagnetic was mentioned in their oh Jesus,
that's the word. We used to describe the entire spectrum of light, not
the visible light Roy G Bev
orange, yellow, green blue indigo violet, but the infrared ultraviolet x rays
raise microwave radio waves? All
Is the electromagnetic spectrum only a tiny slice of it? Are we sent him to with our eyes? So what's interesting? Is
we have this mechanism collar eyeballs that takes that and turn it into an image
and it's all neurological at that level, where, once you once your people get good it neurological stimulus, I don't see why you can't take any external stimulus and turn into an image in a brain. Even if someone who is blind when we come back on startup
find out. How can the boy to see Heather has the authority to act when we return have done will see before you
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the future is space and the secrets of our planet reveal STAR die
report on startup Cosmic wearies neuroscience addition and we can grant our go to Neuro Signs person, Heather, Berlin, Heather, very nice and reject you happen to first timer. As my host plus you tweet a jack. You haven't
sixteen I do what does the sixteen? I don't know my manager picked. It gets. There was another Jackie half my man. That's your query.
Cosmic Guy cosmic with a cat. Does the latest answer I've? It's the truth,
your time honoured the lame is answer you treated, Heather, Berlin, Heather,
Under the same reason,
like the underscore so because you have to keep changing your body borders allergic here, I prefer the dash
vibrant and underscored out of its too late comin up before worthy angrily, I thought I e by the indoors. So we level we less lift off with a question.
Can you ever look slightly rephrase the question knowing that we have multiple senses into the brain? Can you take one sense and turned it into another to possibly grant the sense of sight back to a blind person, but maybe the sense of smell or tortured and isn't there this brain? We call it a disorder called Sinnest Asia that relate to this answer. This
Ah, here solemnity today that it depends on when the blindness occurred. So when you're born it's in in many ways it the gray matter, it's like a blank slate and then it starts to differentiate based on the inputs. It's getting so the visual cortex in your brain gets inputs from the retina via the optic nerve. I'm sends information and then over time it keeps getting inundated with visual information. So it starts to become the visual cortex, where your experience visual imagery now their experiments, let's say with with with weasels, where they take them early
and they re direct that visual information to be audited. What's normally the auditory cortex and over time they start to see with their auditory quarter. So you can, depending on how you change the inputs to the brain you can you can kind of
change. What says you're process. It is a malleability if it happens early right now. If you take an adult lines person whose already have formed their sensory parts of their brain, what you might experience
is that if they were born line and now thou there and adult they have, what we do see in people is that they have em a more well developed auditory cortex because they're getting much
auditory input will rely on their relying on it more there and make a kind of recruits. Other parts of the brain and some constructive have a weird sense of seeing visa sound, so they experience in different ways and the other. The other part of this is that you there are there is. There are programmes now neural implants where you can? Actually they can get information from the real world like through a camera directly, you implanted directly into the visual cortex animal, stimulate the visual cortex, as if its information coming from the eyes
People can begin to sort of start to see strange sort of images not like seeing the way you and I do, but any figures rather than the shooting affably. Exactly as you perfect this on technology over time, we might be able to really stimulate the parts that little cortex, so the
recent can see. We ought to do that now auditorium with the actual calculus ocular
yeah a NASA invention, I might add, resting, has come from
and there's a famous torture host who got the Knesset. They got that now implant. In its rush, limbo,
He was going I owing to learn this recently. Anyone like almost completely deaf and then he got the operation which so it's it actually here is for you and trends and and and converts external sound waves into impulses there
you're you're on your can. I would have otherwise done yet, and I dont think you here
town as you normally would, but you can hear differences and sounds that you breach
and to learn what a word is when you hear those impulses, I say one thing about South EAST Asia
closure on sustainability issues where people I'm so to have a crossing of sensory areas in the brain. So, for example, veil bill
see colors in sounds or something bill bill here things in in written text. It's it's a very, and so this once I was really interesting where they found that certain people always saw like letters
certain colors like an aid they dug a user is obviously red overseas. Lou C is green. Whatever was an
but they did, as he did a large city across all these thinnest thieves who had that particular steeps, yes, thinnest, there's a thing is the fact that a state as a whole community of sinnest beats, and they all they did a survey, and they all saw a as red and be as blue, and it was a strange sort of coincidence. We thought, and then they all happens to be born around the same time when
particular Fisher price. You know those magnets that you would put on the like refrigerator later, a number and their yes and their synesthesia directly correlated with that.
Your price sat back when they were kids so Beazley when there
when was in the early stages development they are exposed to it. They learned and association between those colours and letters which remains into adulthood so had to do with across wiring in the brain
PETE I have embryo beer in my ride, I so what I understand is now my brain is not telling my IDA look at things. It sits there like a useless hulk in my whole life.
I. So what I understand is now my brain is not telling my IDA look at things. It sits there like a useless hulk and my
whole life is on my left side. I have no vision at other ride. I went
cover the left eye. It can look at things, but my brain is not talking to it. How it will you were born with life
the one with the Syrian am bleed, Tammy Ambling, Emily Opium be Emblem opium. I just called myself an embryo peep big just to keep up with just heard what the other motor meeting I rarely old, PETE everybody three, that Europe is an area we do can be built a community of, but now I think that so basically is interesting. You can only see out of it when you covered the other eye is then that's correct on, but you probably can probably is getting visual information in rather eyes dominance.
The doctor said. If, God forbid anything happens to the good I the bad, I will grow and learn ugly ignobly. It's almost like its until it is like a lazy either, because the other eye so dominant you kind of overtime, don't utilise information. Coming from that, I and the other one become stronger, the other one becomes weaker and when other child they covered it
patches, the good eye to try to strain right pointless. I just kept walking into furniture usual displaying a lot. We can talk about head injury and those that segment mixed Woody have. Ok
From Serena Rock power on Instagram, what will it take to bring
it'll help awareness into the mainstream wise and still such a stigma. What is it about and tell it
Hence in unconventional way is that makes it so taboo.
I understand the second half of the one hundred years. I think, that's probably more of alike why some people say that people with mental illness are just intelligent in different ways,
That's probably relating to that, but I think that you'll tell me about the history of mental, the stigma of mental
the history of because it sort of invisible disorder in this sense like if you break in armaments, very clear, it's a physical problem or you know you're. The heart is having problems that you can look at the physicality and the brain is so complex and there's so much ground in terms of noise
chemicals and Nora Physiology that when,
he's gone wrong in the brain. Their hearts have just look and see physically and they express themselves in these sort of subjective states, a person you never can really tell. If third depressed, they tell you, I feel to prosper
you're angry scale out ten. What are you exactly exactly, and so it's all subjected and because of that subjectivity people have question the validity of it because he can't take microscope and see it. So now is a cognitive neuroscience is who works in psychiatry? Part of what we do is to say look
he's psychiatric Ellen. This is this, is the underlying brains is function and we need to get away from the stigma like it's all. Just in your mind, like it's, not a real physical thing. As you know, the brain ass, a physical organ, just like you, would fix a bone with a cast if the brain is is part improperly working. You can take this particular medication, that's gonna, say effects or serotonin receptors. It's just another physical problem, but because it expresses itself in this
active way on there's a stigma behind it, and so I think, are starting to get away from that. I would think so true because you're libraries, that, on how candidly people just say,
my service told me the other day when growing up
You would never tell anyone that you had a therapist for any reason. Yeah now judge of people is, does this out with it yeah people you just meet.
Right and served for me. That's an one measure of of an acceptance. Factor
going on. It manifests itself an embarrassing ways to make the one zero someone on the street tat. You re. I do that for a living
really worked report as I do the bark and feeble thrill of letting you know. I think that create such a stigma and its frightening is frightening. That could be me in its fright.
Just what? What is that he'll ruggieri next moment of their behaviour? People use those extreme cases. You know like why worked with psychiatric patients
In the end, the army are at Bellevue at one point in these were really severe in Israeli. Like those that was you pull off the street, you Brigham and the psyche are in there really on the strap and rendered worry. You give em something to calm down, you know, and- and so people look at those extremes and they wait. Am I the same as that? You know like paranoia, it's a frantic and that's why I've I've worked with paranoid schizophrenia, we're not at that extreme who are really like nice. Decent people in there just happened to be having these units strange delusions
You can change it with drugs, which is amazing. You can give him a dragon. They no longer have these sort of greater living from chemistry, yeah, you should hold of drugs, but I think you know if it's broken, you have to find ways to fix that Europe.
Tat. You would also go forth O K eleven Monica steward from face, but I had a brain tumor
a meaningful the size of a baseball remove the were creamy autumn last year. How could it gets so big before affecting my motor functions
memory etc. What we know about brain tumors in general, Yaller, my heroes, sending love from tax in the house. That's a good question so have
in taxes. They grow their tumors beggared. Everything ravaging figure in his axe, LA baseball, says tumor overdoses gotta regarding boy you're, so it's not just in the brain tumors in other parts.
People's body. They don't even know you.
They go of it and then it's always energized were fruit. Word s letter I so what's going on there, for this is that it depends on whether tumors Manette meant. What did she say? She had been in jail, my yes, so that cars in them an injury.
The brain which is? Basically, I guess, that's why you ve once, but I could and emotional choice, but I've got to go to bed
Is this an energy than either basically like this sort of membrane covers around the brain, and you can get these growth that so it's not directly in the sort of brain tissue, but what happens if they can get really big and the promise it starts? Putting pressure on the brain so depending on Mars, located if it was located right next to wear like that, single language area was and it started pressing and pressure. You might start having problems with your language. So to put the penny, I could be in an area where its relatively benign and that you won't get these immediate on problems,
memory problems, because those are some do so fully pressure on an important part of her bribing they're all weren't. But if this kind of thing you should have said pictures Jurassic, do she just say that less verbal part of a free? I was listening with my eyes of which they are so it depends on where it is that it will express itself in ways that are obvious to you, like my express itself in other ways, and in might be that the pressure overtime, you'll, striving other symptoms like headaches or but not necessarily the ones like motor problems, but the different types of chimera, their son tumors Lake,
LEO by storm, which is very badly, which is growing inside the brain tissue engineering. Embryo plashed part of the brave all very good job in the world around us, but that's more insidious any gets a kind of the nooks and crannies and actual court. That's it that's! When we go into remove that, you can never really get all because, as its title
little tentacles ling yet in so they always grow back, they grow back and that's why people don't usually tend to live longer than a year after nine so and Edward the Mackenzie. Almost ninety percent of them are
I in which is also good that are you in removing and easily won't go back, but yeah there's a whole variety of different tumors in different effects of rhetorical.
Finally, ideally won't want to have enough to affect you at the smallest stage. Can so they can get to it sooner yeah. So the whole thing ass, a thing: yeah yeah,
chaos, or so it made us more tumor would have given her motor motor problems or speech problems. It something's wrong. O the tumor is a golf ball and rather than
Sometimes they don't even go in and room if it's like benign me my wait awhile ago in and remove it anyway, even when they find cause, there's some risk with certain, depending on where its located is risk.
When you up your skull and talking run, your brain hijacking would also get my uterine. One was twenty two centimeters, oh wow
Why does the brain oh? This is from and that's the
of my story on Instagram. Why does the brain create images in the form of dreams when we sleep dreams, have meaning or function or are they just a random collection of images? What are the physiological advantages of dreaming? Thank you from Nicky, Hush, Ricky, good question: do it fast or ok or Gimme,
Part of the answer that we say the rest they answered. Should I give you a ride in the question about this up? Let me give a short version of the question of how we can answer that before the break and I'm not going to give the doll
bananas are the lawyers or to the Lord request, FIFA. So people want to believe that the dreams give them inside into some future events. The dreamers they re. My sense of that is the answer is no, but people feel like they have access to the future through their dream
why, after the break em here
Ok, after the break, we continue with our special edition of Cosmic
The future is space and the secrets of our planet reveal star die.
Starts off Rebecca yours go to pursue those,
now I later to Jackie Hoffman.
An extraordinary you're go away from purse. So we left off. Someone asked and I dream about dreams.
And all I can think of, is Sigmund Freud book on the interpretation of dreams where what where we come since they are so I think it for it was right and certain things and not another ass. He was, he was certainly on point with his whole theories of repair.
An association and suppression, I think, is international subconscious Roy course. Aid ego soup.
You got your lunch down whole. That was good, the whole area of consciousness and unconscious processes. However, his whole interpretation of dreams was kind of
friends I tried reading it, there's like this is all bullshit it is. It is, I'm sorry guys, but I'm so, but that there is a lot of theories about why we dream, I mean, did that the shortest answer is that it
it's random, neural firing, and will you
My dream during remsen sleep by the way. So when
brain is in a certain. We go through different stateroom rapid movement, exactly order rock group
hurry, thought of them that way, that's an eye
this year did open skies area?
get her nurse. I you know. I know that in a larger scale area for their different stages, asleep, like deep sleep,
Even then you know your bring us, but when it's any sort of this dream state, it's almost like a waking state
and so your brain and always is conscious of what's going on it not always. Sometimes
Should we not remember you drowns right, but usually your dreaming in that state and it's random firing at the brain doesn't make sense limit. If
dreamed and don't remember you dreamed, and how do you know you dreamed while you can?
He knows everything like to raise is the tree question. Also you dream, but you don't remember that you dreamed well, you know now, but we, as was your electrodes again.
Their dreaming, there's an interesting it just sign. Others he's a people like don't remember things, they leave a short memory, and so they just filling are just waking up and being conscious for the first time every minute cause they keep like refreshing. Refreshing were so, but I mean you could have a conscience experience and not remember it. But it's, though you had that experience in the moment, but the point is that these dreams, don't the lot of it as a clean,
out, so you taken a lot of information. A lot of simulation during the day and the brain has to decide, was important enough to reinstate, to keep and to reinforce and to kind of throw away,
we understand she or reinforce a word yeah? I got to know that I make it out. My might have mainly instant charges. Instantiated all knew of his through about word was new to me. I might have made up a word or two on some, unlike made a word, but you got what I say. You instantiated the first time to review and made answer my lanky very much you its role. So what it does is it reinforces the important information and consolidates that's about it, where it consolidates the information, and then it gets rid of other stuff that sort of junkie, and so in that whole process, your brain, aspiring, there's more inspiring and there's if you're in one of those brain states
sleep. Where are your as some sort of conscious that information is gonna manifests itself in a kind of a dream state? It's gotta be based on things you ve been exposed to in your life. It's gotta be based on memories, things that your brain had information. Brain has taken over the course of your life over the course of the day, so you'll police mean.
On it. When you wake up you'll, try to make sense of it, because that's when the prefrontal cortex
reengage, feminine meaning maker part of the brain, but in the actual dream, is more like a flow state or like what we see in people were of those days were: meditative stays where psychedelic drugs
So I hope that answers the question. There's a lie me. You can have a whole series of brokers, so pickets poseur people who don't you
I don't remember any their dreams. Are they less mentally with it
when we lose our dream to remember a bad who didn't even matter what one theory is that it's a threat rehearsal,
that. You can actually work out things in your dreams, states that help you in real life for survival, yes for survival, so there is some aspects of it that might be important: health
for survival, in the sense that it's a good thing something I've recurring dreamed right right:
maybe we're and then for it might had a right there were there some issues that our vision press that they might want to work out there, who is it falls that we do dream every night. We just don't always remember it or I mean this theory is that we
dream. Every night again is very hard to prove what we don't. We donors remember it on, and there is some validity I dont know I throw button, for it will be under the bus that, when you have in the waking state certain suppressed memories and thought that the when the preference frontal cortex is on it can keep things at Bay like emotions and memories, and when its release releasing that inhibition. You can those things and come to the surface and come out dreams like things that you normally are not aware of in your waking state. So it is a way to access the unconscious
but not like predict the future of actors. Nightmares constantly, really like anxiety, dreams, that actors have and it's a real thing like you're on
I don't want to wind lines, you don't know why you're there, you know what you're an let my last one was. I saying something wrong. The composer lyricists were right, my wife,
good. I line so that Eastern Normal, like hearings, eighties and fears, manifesting that which you have already introduced shed enough during your during cargoes Yoda dream and color, but not yet brought you a tribute from right to left for those just joining us. Draghi is Delta fiddler on the roof in an all users version. Everything of subtitles, don't
Arguably another one. Ok, here's a quickie. This is good from ours.
Supper among Mun Instagram. Do you know
the brain to feel pain as we know it. The jellyfish, for instance, feel pain.
Die like you, you don't need a lot more lobster cos.
They scream when you put him in water and know that actually it's illegal now in the EU to cook lobsters alive because we claim them their their consciences enough evidence that the experience pain that they have
so you don't the illegal strategy of putting the boy what're, you kill them,
then you can more casual work. Also La Octopus, I think that's what it is as well. We can't you can also Killin Octopus in a way that, because we know that their
very smart. So is there a neurological primitively where you would say that not really feeling
in some animal out. Ok, so so the answer is you don't need a brain? You you do need some sort of nervous system,
reference is ever nervous system without a break out a brain and so like a jellyfish has in its tentacles theirs. They had kind of has a neural net, and so, if you give
I'm noxious stimuli, are you like pockets tentacle? It will move away. It will retract therefore feeling pain. I mean you're as
you know I don't horns will move away from paying re it. So it's about like that's how we kind of have to measure behaviorally, because it was a human came again as the subject of any we got a hospital. You know something
let me say a kind of scale of one to ten. How painful it don't know they have a smiley face. Rodya, because if you couldn't handle the not limited market, bumping cut a simplified. But yes, we don't know, but we can tell ok, look you retract, as if you're feeling paint. So I was at home, meaning we're we're talking about animal
consciousness and how low down the sort of food chain does it go, and we had a whole discussion about fish and fish. Can they feel and that the answer is yes,
ass. I mean they again. They have a noxious stimuli, though retract from it they have the record of memories, although avoid that stimuli again to their it's as if their experiencing something show, how do they killed the lobster before you cook it? I dont title injection she sought by the work by the way we had on start or our universe. The founder of Peter, oh and many people associate Peter
which is being in oh all, dead. She no killing of animals to hear her speak philosophy was very different. It was not that she's against killing animals jeez against the infliction of pain on animals, and I said well what about lost her. She said she has people working on some kind of unnecessary
thing first pass at the lodge before you then put it in the boiling water usage,
the purity of that mission statement that its, and so I bet you if there is a package of that sold next, a lot of people would buy it of course. Yet you do, of course I think
but do that if you give your rich enough to buy the lobster, you got money to buy the lobster and pesticides or yes before you were you cook it and just wait minor correction. I think it's thee
the iraqi legality in the EU is of First Octopus or octopi, never know after two point active player, not lobsters. I just remember that in the recesses of my mind, so
install horribly damage a lobster when you boil it alive. However, on the, I think that the real issue is about how animals are treated
and if they are killed in a way that doesn't cause I'm drawn our story, they trauma or stress, aroma, trod, monitor. We dont want drama, he's, drama, cleaning or, like a temple, grant we have an actor here. How strongly Temple can I create? I went micro, my bit it wrong. I know it's lame, but I still do it many times cook Alastor before I put,
in the water. I remove a rubber band from the clause so that it can try to bite me as its one last act of survival.
Really, so just ignore you end up into that lies behind your life at least give it a chance to fight back. So I take off the rubber band in
they pop open because public and then it can try to bite me in, and I have two then triumph over the course I do
because I'm smarter than allowed. You gave him one like fighting here last chance, it's it's my Lincoln's. I would think Retributory. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you, oh MIKE,
There's nothing to worry about Temple inevitable, granted by the way was then a guest on start. Ah she's great one of my favorite showed how so example granted so she she has autism, and she was so too very much aware of she consented
empathize with how the animals were feeling, and she created this whole system of when they go to slaughter that they would gently be like. So it wasn't stressful for them are sort of anxiety provoking they would get like sort of guided through this sort of their kind,
like tunnels into the slaughterhouse. In a way that was so, they couldn't see what was happening in front of them, and it was like this really human
in way to bring them there without just you know, throwing the man and giving all anxiety of stress at thereabout corralling their minimum yeah yeah, and so I thought that
really humane was the people in the vegetarian movement that hater for that, because
it, made it without much more humane to kill and animal that the budgetary in one killed in the first by yes, yes, so we can go deeper into that, but I think the answer is you don't need a brain, but you need, I think,
nervous system, ok, cool. I wish we had a lightning round, Jackie Lightning,
very good. Very so we just because you quick, like you. Yes, soundbites were soundbites. Ok, here we go Jack. You give it to me from someone goes along faced
how our memories physically stored in the brain also can win plant fabricated memories in some way. Yes, there are there and sent it there
and now there are put in the brain we long term on potential nation, which is a physical process that connects neurons to each other or makes them said what? What by
where's together wires. Together, that's the quickest andean Synopsis, called cool show the more they far to go to the more they will remain connected. We ask in such a way that they form a memory yeah, let's maquinna, I've
We ve been your Sancho on Instagram. What does it mean to focus on something? How does it work good work?
means interventions at prevention, its attention and a month. It is. Is it this party wrinkled the dorsal ladder, prefrontal cortex? That's attitude veto many suitable legal. Your look of e f l pc anyway, no deal f, pc enemy, so you you
can engage certain parts, your prefrontal cortex that filter out extraneous him for me,
Sharon and your kind of mental energy is is focused on a particular bit of infant report. Of the focus is taking away things. There would distract yes, yes and that's what people have problems with their attention. Is that there too easily distracted, they're, not good at at focusing and because it attraction school got it
I'm sorry, one moistening jack Perry. Aid on Instagram will a brain transplant or full bodied transplant.
Become reality. That's what I want to know, because you have the the laggards disease folks were there, but their body.
What is a less, then you have the Alzheimer's folks were their brain goes away, yeah and I'm thinking in the future
you get. The brain of the alleged person and put it in the body
of the US on ours, rigour, one old human, their yeah. If only we can re connecting
of grounds that girl, I dont, think we're that were close to it? Okay, so I'm gonna have to
no, but maybe in the next lake, the hundreds of years too
years, maybe by the whiff wicked man on the moon here, give me do brain transplant. I'm really! I highly doubt it yeah, I'm gonna say now, that's enough!
that's an enlightened and a lot of reasons. Why will get into a leaner doktor Frankenstein did a brain transplant yeah you got the abnormal that slavery in one I'm starting to Spock's, brain or member that we can probably replace a brain. What silicon at some point?
Silicon Valley has been based brain, but I don't know about linking of biological, human brain and putting on other bought. What do you mean silicon? The element of the periodic table you mean a computer brow, computer registry accessibility is if you can replace one neuron with a silicon ship that does exactly
action on and off and then another and another another at some point in principle. In principle, you can release gladiator, Angola and insider body, but would agree
special Neuroscience edition of Start Talk, cosmic queries Heather, as always, thanks for being such a friend of STAR talk and you're, one of our star talk all stars and always great to have you back, and we don't see enough. If you wish to do every episode on the bridge,
don't you think gas everything amongst the brain come on? Let's do it, Jackie Hop regret and we try to get tickets to your yiddish production. English subtitles
fiddler on the roof. Was you plainly enter? That's gonna be hilarious. I liked
thanks out with my brain, but this was exhausting and I was stupid one.
When listening to possibly even watching this episode of STAR Talk, I've been your host. Neil digress tasting your personal astrophysics. As always, I bid you
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.