From cosmic bruises to ion drives to quantum entanglement: astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson and co-host Eugene Mirman answer your questions about recent scientific discoveries.
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Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode. Commercial free with this is filled with secrete mysteries. This with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time what what Well, you just recently the domain the brakes that did you, Graham all south, faster Brenda, get lab. Applying pressure
This is start off. I'm your host meal, the grass Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist in studio with me, the one, the only the inevitable Eugene, Merman Eugene, you touch a reliable guy for us, I lost them in and Sally know so much about space. Now this is going to be our cosmic queries. Addition. Yes love these, it's our it's our give back to our listeners and hands who sent us questions and and they're so avid humming, and we can't let those go yet. We ve gotta be removing. We need to help them understand. The world is based, serve cosmic queries edition
and for this one we're talking about was the new discoveries, New Inzana NEWS in the new science in the news ripped from the headlines and I and law and order. I haven't seen any of these questions before my not know some of the answers. I just tell you skip it next year. If you dont know something so, let's, let's, let's go for it. Megan wants that What number my thinking of no mega wants to know. I recently read that MIT folks found bruises and the cosmic background radiation indicating regions where our universe may have hit other universes. How can our universe expand forever if there are other universes outside it did so can expand forever and if you're, in a higher dimension, if you're embedded in a higher dimension, you can expand without anybody ever bump in anybody who, for example, consider a rubber sheet, you take a rubber sheet and stretch it we can make. Big as you want legal partake, another rubber she put a one in, below that one and stress that as big as you want to rubber
The universe is stretching forever, never colliding, never touching, but but if it was at a slight angle, it would hit age. I think what you are saying, ah, what I'm saying as you? Yes, efforts by it would hit, but you can even in integrating higher bounce in an even higher dimension it just Mohammed dimensions you imbedded in two dimensional rubber sheet in three dimensions: you have your Tippit it'll embedded in for mentions. You can do this forever, that's a b. If your near another universe, the gravitational the facts permeate the mounds of your universe and can touch another universe? So in principle, we could feel the effects of other universes embedded in his hire. Dimensional space that could be simply the meadow fabric, love them. Diverse,
so you're saying ghosts are real and their people in another universe that happen to live inside your house in a rubber, Sheila's universe, except I never understood why the ghost of people see or are not naked, because it means their clothing is ghost as well yeah yeah why they were in clothing at all. I think, because they might be make believe it as it is one for the area have power outer skin layers. Dad in your hair is dead. I mean, if you are living ghost you're, why why do they have no members ash and it's all really little? It's scary little girls, the whole thing doesn't really come together. Next question: ok, silicone asks how it is at the core magneto. I it's a bunch of nonsense. That announced, as Alex from California, makes more sense. He's asking in the near future. Entangled particles be used for non delayed communication over vast distances. Yes, so what happens in quantum physics? Is that particles can How about each other instantaneously?
at a distance so that a few perturb one particle the other particles. Entangled with it can be altered instantaneously after the link between lines across across the world. Exactly I mean if you want to get sorted, macroscopic Albania twins in the sense that where one has a thought and today and the others like white is my hand where it reads like, as you twin hit a hand in the door exactly over this ass people report so yeah giving fake science. Here I gather that it's not real, so entangled particles communicate with one another faster than the speed of light is very well understood its a quantum mechanical thing. That's real battery is not just like a dream. Everyone has that's real. The problem is, if you want to do in any way that matters to life who likes you know I don't know, did the two words is a microscopic rolling macroscopic. When you talk about macro. Big things. You want them to behave in a microscopic way, wanting to behave quantum mechanically. It all gets sort of average. It out.
Problems. You can have particles entangled, but so are the trying to tackle in a different way to different time, and all this becomes a one macroscopic classical physics problem where nobody is doing weird things like what happens in quantum physics. So the big challenge is, can you bridged between the way matter behaves added. Smallest scales, exhibiting the tenets of quantum physics and the large scale that we are familiar with interacting and that no no way you can end up doing that and so right now it's a quantum. Michael curiosity, you got it, but a great merchant granary. So here's this from Michael I heard the NASA has recently shut down and I on engine, can you explain what this ion engineers and does and potential and the potential, but yet so an iron drive when we think of them ass. You have the big challenge. Here is chemical rocket searches? oh this is so yesterday, yeah, so nineteen, the Sagrada gas, nobody could build it in a farm and make a movie about it.
That's easy and that all in All- and the problem is not that there is anything wrong with who have chemical rockets they were invented. It's just that a hundred years later, we be doing a little better, now yeah right and we're not who have something more modern and more efficient than a camera working in a chemical rocket as all the rockets you ve ever seen. Yet all of em are chemical rock. These can street the energy contained in it. Our rules, actually something that Thomas Edison would have and how far we come from that guy that dollars. So you have this these ad Then they come together is a molecule and there is energy to be released. If you break apart the molecule, that's how all this works as a gun powder works. That's nitroglycerine works! That's how the rocket engines are the shuttle works, so it's all chemical energy being released, give who propulsion ion dries, whom are much more efficient, so the what we
The impulse of a little push the knowledge that the rocket fuel gives. You is much higher com, hair with a mass of fuel. You rejected Google, frightened, you look at the shuttle rockets and that comes out when this thing launches the mass of that fuel is huge. It is of the mass of the shuttle apparatus is annual is feel so what's the so, what is it I uninjured notes on? Why is it and I and engine view what happens if you have a a gas and you ionize it You strip electrons off of it in an energy source, to do that again and then you sediments admire you set up a device that age These were particles out the back of a ship, whatever the opposite direction, you want to travel, and so what this? What's all this? civic impulse the impulse from the one little part that comes out and the risk recall. Your ship is very high compared with the master came at first.
So a very efficient when you strip electrons, creates way more energy and an honest tribulation in any jack. The mountain ones like what you can do with May netteke fields and that I think it s the response to your craft is is awesome and that the problem is it's not very large efficient- but it's not very large, so you can only redirect spacecraft very slowly. Who could you make a gun with could you make an iron gun shot only when we come back, we will find out. If you can make me velvets guns, STAR talk, radio cosmic queries, addition will be right back. This is a start
we're back start on radio and here near the restoration with Eugene Merman, so we we're talking about an eye uninjured, but that made me go. Can you make an iron gun? You know with depression or asked an honest, simple, innocent question about: propulsion through the universe, have to take the idea, make a gun out of it they ve been represented. I answer it reasonable, The boy suppose you can make an iota. Plasma gun is where you you'd send plasma out at somebody that sounds great. There's like a great land, but the pleasant hot enough. You can vaporize their clothing and then skin in principle? said so. Evil, and this will be like on the list of the reactor.
The second amendment jets will be yes, internationally quickly, never invasion ion plasma, let so many foundered barriers with drowning, far x ray constitutionally protect you're, a writer armchairs over the plasma going ok generics than he asked Sin NASA give coordinates in a precise trajectory to launch the corrupt indoor science ignorant politicians into a black hole. I didn't even I could answer that billions of yes now could give ok ordnance the corrupt or ignorant politicians, but the question is actually UNESCO give the coordinates in it directory such like. He has a rocket that he just need that doesn't need the rocket. It's actually has the rocket, but linking needs is just he's like I'm not sure where to send it to the black hole like it wouldn't be enough to just send them into space, with no way that we ve got coordinates of very many black holes in the galaxy they discovered by X, Ray tell
see, and so the Chandra X Ray telescope, which the telescope of magnitude Hobble exempted specialised in x rays, not visible light. So, but people are not, as cosy with x rays. Has now Roy G been read our Jacques Unbelievable INDIGO violet, so we are coordinated calls and is a supermassive one in the centre. So if you wanted to send people to it, that's how you do, however. Yes, he was up. What's limits they ve always a cat is the more we want to send our politicians who interrupter ignorant. I mean at the end of the day, in a democracy who voted for
so so maybe it is the population we should be sending two black holes are not the politicians until evacuation learned how to elect raid literate scientifically literate politician. So I stop blaming politicians long ago and that any blame veal better and, as do just as an educator, my target is the electorate, not the preparations. That's that's all right rate. We have a call we should have a call a collar. Let us new and take this call from San Diego, ok and who is this is Jeff Rock start talk. Radio cosmic queries addition. So when I got my nine year old Daughter- and I want to know now- the curiosities been on Mars Rover Year with sounds like it's really his nine year old daughter who wants to negate he's going to slide and on her he heard even yet yeah. Ok, just now the curiosities bid on Mars Rover year. They found that Mars had failed.
Conditions for microbial like billions of years ago, I dreamed microbial life part. Billions of years ago. Do you think we'll find evidence of actual life first on Mars on one of the new like planets, and they keep finding we're great question. So if we find life on Mars, it's not going to be like a civilization whose be me radio waves to us right. It won't be someone playing our Elvis record epithets backwards, backward estimates they don't get. It was meant to be heard yet so on Mars, it's the microbial life that were eager to find and to the biology I mean I'm not a biologist, but I think I can speak for them when I say if they find anyone life at all, whether not we deem it intelligent whom it would be. An amazing discovery. The greatest discovering the history biology to my life that had formed in debate. We have life on earth right on Mars or anywhere else. If you there was water, it's sort of likely right well, every border on earth every places,
liquid water on earth. There is life, even the dead sea, yet where people just didn't have microscopes to see life smaller than the resolution limits of their eyeballs and so that it therefore it's dead, now don't know how to see yet so, whereas these extra planets these planets that might be in the gold like zones around other stars. If we find life on those were not looking at microbial e, I mean there are tricky ways. We can invoke a clever ways. We can test to see if it has microbes. We look at what are called biomarkers. Google microbe emits methane, for example. The methane is not stable on its own, it has to be churned out by and process and life is something they can do for methane in its atmosphere or auction. Will we be able to find methane unreal economic, Lars with very careful measurements, we're at the cusp of being able to look at the atmosphere, chemistry of planets orbiting other stars, so if we, finally, I think
it's more likely to find that our Mars will sign it sooner on more than on an actual planet, because the technology isn't completely everywhere were on Mars, were literally digging things up eating them. A robot is eating them, trying to figure out if it was once a year were there and when we are looking at Exeter Planet, you gotta be really clever. You have to wait for the planet to pass in front of the host star and look at the light from the home, dark as it passes through the atmosphere of the host planet. And if the auction Is there it takes away certain signature of light from the host planet from you just arrived this. I can't believe scientists have the patience to do any of you. So so it's a great question. Tell your daughter thanks for getting Utica. When for cuts with Betsy Teller, probably Mars it's worse than that, I walked about cheap act Mars. She big Mars. Excellent, excellent, Africa Olenin in as our eye
We got another question: are you ready and these off from the internet right a mania? These questions are these ones of radium on Wednesday I am Facebook. The website started radio dot. Now and if you like, a son on Facebook, just like us, they have you. Leg is in real life. Legates, unfazed, mutiny and twitter starts radio yeah. That's all there, Here's a question for from harassment can. You tell us, about gravitational lending technology for a space telescope. What are the obstacles and how far away, or we from develop, deploying, Well, we know of gravitational lenses and Space Einstein upon discovering Gravity Ben's space, hypothesize that a particular configure, of matter could be space in such a way that it can serve as a cosmic baselines magnifying stuff behind it in the universe, a kettle
you're. Making up science fiction salary information from science? Does you really like gets out? It's just on the border of. Like I know now it is all a ring powered by will is all there and so Einstein may this prediction: it would be seventy years yourself- and you remember my timetables about seventy years before we would discover the first gravitational lens and they're all they're, all over their kind of you got. It What you're looking for, because the lens can isn't just magnifying stuff? In the background, not all the land is perfectly quote shaped. Do what a normal lends reduce somewhere like funhouse mirrors, so you can take a background, galaxy and flip. It left right up and down, distorted and make the image of the EU she appear multiple times, because that, and so previously we might have photographed by thought. It was separate. Galaxies it turns out. Is one Galaxy lens by one servants of space time creating this funhouse image, so our space telescopes have fun
on these gravitational lenses out there in space? These aren't lenses we're making in the neighborhood There are huge scale they require distribution of mass that we don't have control over right now, so how How, in how many years do you think we might never never saw round? Never you do need you need the mass distribution. What you'd find it a cluster of galaxies, announce unlikely unlikely for us. The Borg could do it for sure yes, laid up collective, certainly have the resources I've been is another frightful by like lenses. Allow us to see farther in the universe than our telescope might otherwise have permitted. So they can they. They magnify yeah they they they help us probe. Universe, but we create them. They just right there. Their nature makes them for us. Thank you nature. This one's for Emma Jamie Robertson. Could time have
More than one dimension. Justice string theory requires more spatial dimensions than we sperience couldn't be possible to have more time dimensions than we experience. I saw one I saw one time to have more than one dimension. It is nothing compelling that require just to think that a balloon it did it does he doesn't that it does? There's nothing compelling us that requires that we have to think the time is more than one dimension, but if it did that be cool. Is it possible to think about? So? If you, if you go on to one of the time dimensions time, would take it a particular rate for yeah us for another dimension, it could take a different rate, and if you go in a direction that of hybrid of each of those two directions blew it would you do, then hybrid dies, the rate at which your time unfold, that's no different from walking
go north or you can go. East leave only go north you're, not going used at all yet only waste, and if you go in between north easily a little bit north little didn't North Northeast EAST South decision saying that could be time? That's going north and timely Cosiest in assent in, and then you could pick a trajectory that gives you a little bit at one time and a lot more of another. That would just be kind of interesting and I dont know quite how to think about that going forward. This we're not compelled to do so. When we come back more start talks. Cosmic worries addition, news reports, the headlines seen a moment have secret for you,
I'm gonna considers singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one, and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player, and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking, I mean just saying That's a blatantly wrong with try. Thirty thousand could know about thirty thousand kilometers up you. I feel that high up there are no air molecules from our atmosphere too slow
We're back talk, cosmic queries, edition, I'm your personal astrophysicist, Neil, the grass Thyssen, India with Eugene Ermine, whose reading me questions from the internet culled from our fan base our listeners and wherever else character. Right into our website to Twitter to Facebook, aids to Google plastic Pinterest Gulf? I've seen it is questionable Verona up interest works, but I'm really I've seen or heard seen or heard of these questions? Ok and then the topic is science ripped from headlines? Yes, yes, yes, what they're! So here's a question this one. From our Andrew. Even ancient civilization and earth history had made
stationary satellites would they still be in orbit today? Yes, there is nothing to to interfere with orbit of a geostationary satellite. It is. It is so far out twenty two thousand miles above earth's surface there being kilometers. I guess, that's a blatantly wrong. Let's try. Thirty thousand could know about thirty thousand kilometers up you. I feel that I hope there are no air molecules from our atmosphere to slow you down and decay your orbit and drop you into the Pacific Ocean or anywhere else. So yes, it'll, stay, basically will stay in orbit around the earth forever, unless some asteroid or the meteor hits it again, but that would be an extraordinary fact win the day annex are stable, we're good, but that would not be For me, the most interesting fact here, it would be that we had
Several decision yet had made his sense of the space and we have been found and bright and where are they? You know where the underground, so I would be way more impressed with low people that such as civilization existed, then that they put up a spacecraft right right. So Ireland has a question: how can they where's, the expanding and yet galaxies are swallowing each other. Wouldn't the push be a greater force or it has slowed or has a slowdown that these people are totally gettin them. Ok, so it turns out you with where of an expanding universe and farther away. You are from a neighbouring up, the more manifest the expansion of the universe. So if you are really whilst the expansion of the universe is so small as to be swamped by your me. Sure gravitational attraction. So we and the Andromeda Galaxy two million light years away. We are falling towards one another, even in
the expansion of the universe, because we are so close, our speed and our gravity totalling override how close out how quickly we found towards each other or slowly. However, you want an answer, so you you're worried about future of earth yeah, I'm worried like do. I have to be worried about, like Thursday are like or like twenty twenty. Yes, it not climate change, but a follow galaxy that actually being way well collide. Where between six and eight billion years from now in the sun will die in five billion you're. Sorry son is a much bigger issue, concern for you, but presently by then we able that we will be able to planet hop, find another solar system. So it still something to think about. I think and the reason I say between that period of time, because it Alex IE is not a solid. It's not a single point. The airspace is a huge extended object. So what point are we colliding? That's like polyphonic spree, which is a very big bang, trust me. So it takes over
time for galaxies to actually collide be other, so large and a huge systems will likely survive that I'll, just be a beautiful train wreck and the sky stars are very far apart. From one another, so our solar system is likely to stay intact throughout this entire journey enjoy the ride over eight years question once from Joseph. Is it possible that the universe is an expanding, but that we're all I'll just shrinking at a constant rate, all the way to nothingness seriously, wouldn't that look like expansion from our perspective, while a great question, I have to think about that sure Everything was shrinking, but at the The universe is expanding ought to know, it seems like we would have shrunk ever in the universe we have to shrink, but here's the problem is the universe itself. That's expanding, not the things in the unite right we're not growing right. You exact up for American was so I have to think more.
About them is a better, be a funny little sigh fi cartoon lunacy physically based on not knowing anything. I don't think that's the case, but I like the idea yeah, it's a fine idea, after only have to think about that sure. We'll give her the shrinking? Could we drinking at a rate that appears of the universe is its visa, because all of our measuring rods would have to be shrinking with us, but we could everything can be shrinking alike with every an extraordinary thing. If it were happened, it's not more extraordinary, then just something expanding. We I things, expand all the time so yeah pick we're extraordinary explanation and and and besides like something we would have thought in the middle ages. I go with you there and then murdered anyone who might oh? No, I think it's expanding, don't be an idiot world rigging, we're gonna murder, you we're going to liberate you're, so yeah that, yes, you relax. We're gets out of one more in the segment when you ok, Martin Green is writing from Norway. If Warp drive technology action,
works in you use it. How do you know where and when to stop oh, no you have a map. You would have the coordinates system of the hyperspace through which are travelling here. You're normal normal maps. Wouldn't work actually going to use. You wouldn't use. Google maps give you like this. I thought can't guide be through hyper spades. You need a map that goes to the higher dimension through which are travelling you can land back where you are valued. First Bab out, hyperspace and men you'd probably switch that hyperdrive on. Then you can reach driver to have and land someplace, where USA things around roblee. Whenever a lot of rocks and hyperspace you map around asteroids another destroyed plant? I mean look at this asteroid belt. Ever I mean of the solar system, yet there's a lot of rocks there, so you want to avoid things that could kill you before. You got your destination. Yes, so awesome question, This is starting cosmic queries. Addition we'll be right back
a marking, the secrets of U world and everything orbiting around it start eyes. We're back STAR talk, radio, the queries. Addition Eugene Merman, ok with you what you're twiddle twitter handles at you, Eugene Merman, Gotcha Murray. However, I couldn't get on it world, Meares, a question from in He writes. I visited the creation museum purely out of a sense of mystified curiosity, the recorded, Duration in their planetarium claim that contemporary strove physics predicted that certain stew, were older than the known age of the universe and cited this problem as ever,
again science and for young earth, creationism. I think this was astrophysical problem for a while. But has since outmoded by better models of stars A big Neil might tell me a little bit more about the problem and its solution, which problem the problem a creation? Museum exist at all mythology. Which browser is a creation museum think what it is, its pointing the sum outdated model of understanding signed or gets out with its unpack. All that yes over excitement. Nothing specifically, Mr Creation museum? Just keep it out of the science classroom right right, we live in a free country, people could
they say when everyone about wherever that, just like the Batman Museum is not accurate. Historically, what it means to raise funds free right, just don't confuse it with actual science, the so back, and when was it in the nineties, there were measurements. This is before hobble whose settled all these questions, the Hubble telescope, Dennis the we had measurements of the oldest stars. And they were coming in eight in billion years old and measurement the age of the universe. Tat was coming and about fifteen billion years old, who so that was it was an unsolved problem. In astrophysics does, like God, exists between Canada. You can't be older than your mother. Ok, that's if you wanted me to a terrestrial version of that. Each of those are there was data obtained by completely independent, separate methods right. So I was quite
be that they were the same ballpark right: fifteen billion eighteen billion. Yes, a few billion here or there cosmical. Speaking that differences small, it's not one a thousand times older than the other, then somebody's not get do in some right, a rag, so a few billion years on fifteen billion years was it was something that was it I want to be solved, but it made me sexier headlines to talk about then what then the scientist really, this all seems pretty reasonable, with more accuracy, animal behavior at how we were dealing with it, and it wasn't all my guys do to you now, because what they weren't, considering what we error bars, never bars, are you make a measurement and what is the uncertainty? That number is certainly in the fifteen billion your age of the of the universe was plus or minus two billion years. You see these errors now these uncertain numbers in an election poles, they became familiar to people. What does that mean people understand the needs, like maybe it's thirteen billion. Maybe it seven mainly seventeen, and now you have the eighteen billion year old star. They could be
that was eighteen plus or minus two, so the overlap and that these sites? Finally we don't know- and so the Creation Museum use science from the nineties to prove the sciences. Raw about right took is all wrong and the fact is that in an age in a young unit as what is put forth by creation folk, that is the universe. That's not six thousand years, no more than ten thousand its loathing, thousands gay, not billions ragged. So these are desert apples and French is going on here by the way, it's possible to have an error. And uncertainty range that is coming Let me out of whack. That would mean there's a systematic error right in your data. Ok, legs away that they thought they created. What fast tracking These are now the thousand that was with felt they had found particles in the in the Switzerland.
Probably faster than light and either was a blunder or there actually travelling faster than light, and we ve never ever seen or measured. Anything travel faster, unlike which meant was probably a blunder right turn out. It was a blunder just a complete blunder and that that happens, so so back. Then it was a fascinating story. So, right now the universe is fourteen billion years, the ages of stars all match up, we have better, measurements of, because on inside of Sarsnet, all got resolve hobble, helped out mightily rat so that that's what was going on. There should now makes perfect sense, so let ask another question ready now go for what is the worst case scenario for misuse of the warp drive the audio and, what's the worst case, quickly misuse of a warp drive. I don't mean anything to warp drive doves gonna be good, yet, so miss use would be you use
to actually travel back in time, and then you can. Then you kill you baby till your grandparents and then you know order existing, who you are maybe that'll be fine. By the way you don't ever have to kill you grandparents. No, you just push down, not prevent him from ever having met yeah, you will have to be What are you about it? You can. In fact you could go back to your great great, great, great great parents in chains? the time they had sex. Ok
then you will not. Have you just want literally jump out of a closet in de La Lady, dryly ruin your whole time. Ok, then, a different sperm, different sperm fertilizers, the egg and you're never bore her veil. K sounds like a plan. Books are not creative. When we come back more start talks cosmic queries edition the future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal star talk.
We're back start talk. Radio feel addressed icing here, Eugene Merman, Cosmical, in addition, lightning round the last round. This is all the stuff we take too long to answer question. Yes, we have those super faculty super fast and I am it s about you got it ok nailed it. This is from an eleven year old from a shiny coup wants to know. How can there be nothing before the Big bang ex love? We don't know oh. What was around before the big bang in any respectable scientists will not tell you that there was nothing there, so there might have been something that might have been something and could be the thriving multiverse. That is where just one of the bubble, when it comes and goes other bubbles or come in. We don't know. Thank you. There was
party you got it all right here we go theoretical motorway yeah, there's an episode of family guy. We're Stewart, it's a time machine and goes back to before the Big Bang yeah? So what happens? There's nothing this they are just like. She said it does not even space or time. I bet there was a doors concert and guess what shit Morrison is there? A writing. Raymie poems and that came about a conversation, a lunch I had with set Macfarlane. Did you started asking me all tell me about the Big bang tone and then end up with a sigh screen credit as signs advisor to the Still we going back to the beginning of the universe that next Samuel? Ok, he asks theoretically, could win travel faster than light know next now so fast as when could travelling could travel like at the speed of sound right. That's based around a little mach two. I know my one I know, but I'm now up again. Are you sure now now, because it has a can't get past other molecules that are in its way, so you can have one
piece of air travel fat no newgate next month, one. It is ok, Austin S Neil, what is your favorite or in european women's right to tax? So how fast molecule move it bumps into the next molecule sends a signal to the next. What would they can move a whole body of air together and all the molecules are in there together? I suppose you could accelerate that whole thing. It's ok! You have a hurricane that went faster than Magua Hurricane still, moving embedded within another air pocket. Not a wind in a hurricane. Sorry, that's what I get right now get great is was The realistic? No ok, Ostend asked me: what your favorite or, in your opinion, most significant space exploration, related discovery of the last year, or so, oh, so I would have to say it was not a discovery. It was the fact that we were able the land curiosity on Mars. In the way we did. It was an engineering, Rube, Goldberg nightmare that turn
to be completely successful and that test all the other ways we can now land on other planetary objects like There was an engineering achievement, not a scientific achievement. Yes, next gay might ward asks. Does a black hole die like stars? Do? If so, what happens? Do they? go supernova, expel all the collected matter back into space. What happens in a black hole stays in that accurate, though right now, black holes actually evaporate according to a discovery made by Stephen hawking universal Cambridge Failure- Stephen Hawking discovered something today we call it hawking radiation, the stuff that goes in a black. Slow evaporate out of the black hole until the black will one day disappears entirely just gone. That's gone completely: correct, they're, nice, that's very slow takes ten of the hundred years to evaporate a supermassive black hole, a Google years the Google. Yes, yes answered yourself reason of next. Ok, if we
an asteroid for mining into orbit around the moon. Will we be able to see it with the naked eye? Penza Bingley S, it is the one you thinking to bring in a now know that one is about five feet across you're, not saying that one, but the big one yeah bring a brain on watch. It palatia telescope check it out, and you can watch people mining if it's big in a big. What's big enough, for you know, what's big enough to miles miles across miles mile you'll, do it but not feet mega yeah? Why how to elements heavy then iron, such as uranium form and stars. Oh yes, so they don't form insofar as they form when the star explodes Supernova. That's all of energy to burn no pun intended when a star blows up so iron, which the star makes after it started with hydrogen and helium, and it goes right on up the periodic table to give you iron to make iron and its centre after iron. The star explode that extra energy continues to pump iron and yeah that actually seen vampire
to pump fire yea repose particles into either March into aren't too make iron. Heavier builds. All the rest of the elements on the periodic table right up to uranium. Yes, Sir that's the positions I got it. I ran you by the way named after planet Uranus. Next, nice, ok, Livia wants it. I wouldn't be safe to live on a planet or bringing a pulsar. If so, would life on the can it be short lived, it is not safe. You'll die posters are huge, radiation sources and radiation is not combat. High level doses of radiation is incompatible with life, violently plenty other beautiful stars to two poster planet. Go that's quite too, I don't go to Laszlo, lest you know we're ok for a large majority. We often talk about observed, big events is having happened in the past. I e g: if a star goes Supernova ten thousand light years away, you hear described as happening. Having happened, thousand years ago. However, since time is relative, when
Spain. That, however, far away, we are from an object. In any event, we can't get observe if we are not actually happen if we are not moving significantly relative to that other object, the others are star sitting out and space are basically the same timezone we don't have to worry about severe time dilation its relative. When you move in really fast relative to another object or place or thing, then you ve got these issues, but I guess our blows up and argue is our galaxy women together in this. Yet what we're? Fine, we're? Fine, we gotta run that has been start talks lightning around cosmic queries. Addition Eugene Merman thanks as always, really announced our talk, radio and, on the other s eyes, and your personal extra physicists, beating you to keep looking up
science, lockdown lay I'll drop the organs which you can listen. The star talk, commercial free joint start talking. For as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com, slash star talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.