Neil deGrasse Tyson, co-host Harrison Greenbaum, and astrophysicist Janna Levin answer questions on the far away and the far out, including Andromeda's impending collision with the Milky Way, white holes, a holographic universe, and more. Prepare to get trippy!
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Photo Credit: NASA; ESA; Z. Levay and R. van der Marel, STScI; T. Hallas; and A. Mellinger
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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Front, the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming out across all of space and time we're science and pop culture
this is start off. I'm your host, Neil, the grass Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist and today's episode is cosmic queries the out their addition we're talking about not just astrophysics but the extremes of astrophysics in space time.
And dimensions. While I have some expertise in this topic, I don't have all the expertise necessary to pull this off. So we called in my friend and colleague,
Jan eleven journal. Thank you for coming into
the first rodya you're, not my first radio net, but I haven't been in your office in a long time ago, but it just gets
It's gotten messier just well, you kind of a good way. Almost like I don't know, curate Oreo, accurate or away and helping me bring some levity to this topic is the
on an only Harrison Remount Harrison ideal.
I do think we need to get Maria Condo up in here,
where does everything spark joy, all cigars, grace and get the hell out of my office barricaded while barricade so you're comedian, Anna magician? Yes, that's that's crazy, oh yeah.
I want you to that of don't make my
you're added. I use my powers for good, I mean good, which had so we'll find you Harrison Green bound by car yeah. We're schedule with everyone. Also maybe comedy central book me. This is my website dot com, which I did register.
Really. I think that if we all rose for us- and it is a very long term- aid for some reason- it is available, but there is a real beat their general you're. An expert on that
scale universe on black holes favour. Your recent book was the black.
The blues, what I've done it you said it better than anyone ever. I once got you to say the whole title. What you might remember was black hole, blues and other songs from outer space, and you did your best dj voice.
I can't I don't have enough. I have it recorded in the majority of the black hole, blue and other saw from outer space,
That word for word that on your rynch Zack, I would be free of the blues and general. So I was, I was enchanted by the title so Harrison. If you remember this, and also not your first rodeo but yeah you not a regular on the show for a cosmic queries, we so wish to questions from our fan base through all the social media channels and then some and
do the cost are the only one who's seen these questions I have rain and Jan hasn't seen them and you just gotta
we need them
and Jan, and I will try to answer them.
There is little to say what I say. I don't
she's got enough. Yeah, I'm just makes himself who's gonna lose out. Maybe I'll call you out on by then I'll, be home to her
and so what we have here is you haven't seen these? I gotta be making these up. That's true,
it was a good people who listen and our stuff so that
the first is that how do you make Harrison irregular? I came from my mom carefully on now hear that
hey drawn question on yes also, you at almost questions went found the patron question
First, absolutely every time that is kissing ass. You realize I gotta, do it vagaries rather than from paid job? And thank you for supporting the question is giving your vast
knowledge of physics. I'm further talking to me: what are your thoughts on a hot?
graphic universe with a hundred percent empirical evidence of a holographic universe change,
how you behave on a day to day basis. Imagine if we get access the universal holographic
The banks have not yet got three partner. I've tried to flee.
I understand the holographic universe and I only Canada scheme this.
So if you have is due to a spectacular if ever deeper sense, it isn't, I will totally wanna- know yeah. It's not very specifically have worked on, but I pay very close attention to it in the hope that one day I'll have a good idea to actually jump in
right, ok, but just to be clear. So when you do your work, your theorist yeah anger that I've had an paper. You have no fashion and old fashioned entirely off outline a paper, so you really cheap
we're not honest Spencer scientists. Do you want to give me a grant hindu? My recent copied out and ours areas lies in terms of equipment and supply, extremity of Bio, Mass somebody LISA Eyed, and that's only to check my social media very large Iphone. We definitely got we. You got this, we so so you just two. So people know your professor of extra physics born or college in Columbia University, yet which is right up the street erratic ratio
so so go on some, so the holographic universe, so
the ground, the idea of a hologram? So you really have two dimensional information, but it creates the illusion of being three dimensional. That's just what a hologram means York. If, when you look at it like yet your beard, your credit card
However, holographic bird arriving in situ demands, I don't I'm in article wishes to dimension, could fly its flat, but it looks like a full three volumes thing.
Hey. So the reason why they, these physicist, coined it holographic, is precisely because
they're imagining that all of the information that is required to understand the universe can be encoded on just a surface as opposed to in the full space. So for a black hole is a rose because if you look, a black hole doesn't physically have anything at its surface, but we imagine the event horizon as a surface that the region beyond which no information can escape, and the idea was that everything about the black hole that all the information about possibly contain is equivalent to the amount of information that can be packed on the surface and nothing more. And you cannot.
And they ve proven us over many years pass and back since hawking. You cannot have more information than the information campaign on the surface and the reason why the showing our information can't get into the black hole Van can be stored on the surface of events. Yes, it that the EU can prove that the information content of the black hole scales like the surface area of the black hole, the event horizon and not like the volume and so
the idea would be will we could maybe make an Asia is heard your eyes population. I like that. I, as a hologram figures, are like cats. Yeah me anywhere close your eyes understand that you know it's one thing to kind of think about that, but then it took really years before people like Leonards, asking started, saying away
physicist as landfill interested incredibly creative thinker and little sky yeah and great New Yorker from them.
Thanks. It was applauded how the ranch
I'm a gram. He's got that tough guy accents, so he really started to think about this. I could say I tried to
have information that actually scale, but the volume like Selby Alot, more information than you would think you could pass on the surface and you can prove that will. Then you just make a black hole and we know about black holes.
The mentally that you cannot have more information in the black hall than you can put on. The surface was me to put the information.
On the other hand, it does not exist, that's very subtle, so it really. It's really. The idea I would stress to exercise one is to just say: oh, the information content of the black hole has been proven to scale likely area and then a string theory started to think well, maybe not
physically means it's like there on the horizon that delivers the event horizon that as something falls into the black hole it might appear to the poor astronaut that thinks are falling into the black hole that they have crossed her than horizon and met their fate in the interior, but to us on the outside. It may appear- and this is a string theory suggestion that it's actually see physically smeared on the outside, in the quantum straw
in some states that are permitted on the outside and that it never gets in to what about the fact that if I watch and fall into a black hole, I saved your time slowdown yes and as it
and at the event horizon it has stopped
when we say that all this stopped at the black hole for as I can see it mean it certainly is driven by some of those early, a confusion about that. So it does seem for. As far as we are concerned, it never crosses right, but to the astronaut themselves. They did your source really say all right through facilitates literally suggesting, like quantum complementarity created this whole. There are two things that seem incompatible: it can exist at the same time.
Its leader is suggesting that the astronaut both falls in and does not a smear on the surf and spirit on the surface, but there is no single person in the universe who would be able to experience both things. So no single person has a contradiction
I say about encoding information that there has to be like the way like there's a California tattoo and aunt em Levine we're out of organic he's only touches on the surface. Water is more like a three dimensional body, but it really just skin tat is so tell me something if I think people freeze at the surface.
Yeah them they're, not living off their lives.
We're living out our lives. Could we be in every hologram I've seen it's it's a frozen image is not,
he soon surrounds whatever your way, see them freeze on frozen. So how can I be a hologram? So, oh, I certainly so so it worry I dont think
Maybe the Merry Tyler morgue opening credit through joint free. Those reasons is that what you're footsore perhaps is that we are talking about how old are you know we're just five hundred
very solemn or the heirs of black holes of my life is eighteen. Seventy two that shows that in Austria, I want you to say the idea
Holograms are frozen. It's just a technology problem. You certainly could make a hologram that was updating the information on the surface and therefore moving in time. So it doesn't have to be frozen to be hologram, but it does have to be two dimensional and none the less appear three dimensional. Why can be a three dimensional hologram yeah,
dimensional space. Well, that's not bad behaviour is one dimension worse. Yes, it could be nice and their staff and all we four dimensions there well resourced and one time yeah,
so their uncle back on us on how I'm not going back in your now, and that there is some confusion about that time dimension, but whether it behaves as a space dimension, it clearly does
whereas externally blooded, but to some extent it doesn't because I can turn left and right, but
May I go for today's report. I got my car. Has. I can't go forward and backward in time right. I can't. I can't do both directions. Youth mobility rights
When I got a few things in both directions, I can see something to the right and I can see something to left. I can see something in the past was a light, travels across the universe and gets to me, but I cannot see something from the future. So we are prisoners of the present forever trapped between a pass.
We cannot access and a future. We cannot see you said rather opening I like
and then there is it. Ok, let's call so him. So if we go back to the question of Jeff, if we know this one question cooking
busy the whole time a hundred percent? If we are hundred percent sure that we are hologram, should we behave any differently?
we, who are we or hologram two yet so this is on whose black holes surfers are we write? So then was so people have a hard time
understanding in the logical context, moving away from the back all, but the ideas, the black hole is the train on which we learn fundamental thinking. So we should.
Use the lessons that we can only learn their. The evidence had only exists there, but to understand the whole universe as a cue. Yet as it goes proxy right so that we turn our ways of the universe is expanding rapidly. We have a cosmic rise and we do we do. There is a region beyond which we cannot see as long as the universe expanse at this pace
and the light can never get to as race, though it might cause expansion. The universe well will exceed it, so we analogous cosmic logically to a black hole
inside of India is like an inverted wine and were inside the event horizon in their stuff beyond it. That will never know about us and will never know about them, and so can
You make hello graffiti of that, and then yes, can I make a hierarchy of just you and I we see
We have so much less information than the maximum. We could pack on us that that's where we haven't tested, whether or not we're holographic animals be so high,
in a luxury requires a more sophisticated thing than just by printing words in a book which is not holographic but its way less than the maximum amount of information than you,
Pack and a hologram is an example of packing a lot more right. So if
made a human being. I was packing the maximum amount of information that they possibly could. They would be turned into a black hole.
They have a really bad, largely doesn't say you can't have things with less information that are just not you know as extraordinary. It just says: that's that's the man
we have been so all an illusion. We really are two dimensional you flipper MIA.
It'll be a second I'm I'm in astrophysics right. So why did you all of a sudden without anybody?
permission in this cooperation:
wait matter with information, because when I think of matter
now situation a matter as it has a star guy studied stars yeah, you pack in the matter and you get a black,
right now you're, so you gonna pack, information and you'll, get it
information black hole. Reality is that the same, I think that the shift that I'm feeling that learning from other people, as well as that matter is just and from
mission. So what does it mean to say? An electronic matter
what we mean, as it has a certain charge. It already certain spend it
a certain number of quantum properties and those quantum properties. Quantity apologize information at a completely
defines what then. Obviously there is no such thing as electron. It's a little bit heavier or a little bit later spends a little faster. A little slower has little more charge a little less charging. Just really such thank every electrode identical, identical mushroom.
Literally no history to it, and that we are debating today with its position, and so the idea that the election is simply the collection of information about it, and that is its identity, and so that we start to think what else does it mean to be physically? Real is just that list of quantum properties. So so I think that the shift is to say: look it's just mouth and information.
And we got to stop thinking so concrete in our feelings. We know that this is an illusion. I can't put my hand through your leg, even though we both know it's mostly empties failure.
Both pilots mostly empty jack and space, yet avoids to avoid them
eager to one of my trick. I want to tell you it's also a magician right after so so is our client of this raises a comment. I gotta paraphrase it and it might be a powerful, but it's great anyway referred was rough Ford who discovered that the animals-
I think, as Rufford yeah recently told you going on here, yeah, ok, so what you do
You get a really thin Gulf WAR like a long before this gold foil hammered really thin
soon, Trump Repsol Sandwich gilded every bit
So then, you hang out there you fire particles at it, and you ask how often does a particle hit a gold Adam and how often does a pass through you make it really really thin and it turns out most particle
pass right through the foreign. No damage done, no damage done, nothing, not deflected nothing and he concluded that most of atoms completely empty space and he's rumoured the next morning after have to cut after having contemplate
It was afraid to alter the floor. Getting out of this ever feel a lawyer he might fall through because he alone on earth knew how empty matter actually
I think that our by looking at Republican had very every reading they tweets. So I fear than to say that so an extra physics to some people to degenerate state, which is not a state and about its moral fibre by they most comedian turned it into a hysterical degeneracy has to do with whether to atoms are particles can occupy the same state at the same time, the same configuration and
Lexicons two identical electrons cannot be in the same place at the same time they have to be separated and so there's a pressure because they will not you kids, a limit to how close you can get them.
And now based on how you describe it? I'm thinking, if you do that you put too much info
issued in one place. That's interesting idea. The Catania said Polly exclusion.
The vote will be caused by an information and information limit and write a paper. That's do.
Oh my god, I mean I mean well night- do their states its information as a lovely idea able to pull the targets that we have to break to echo. Creating good of you to pay for the credit
and made his laughter aroused born. I was the cheerleader, so we come back more cosmic worries.
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Unlocking the secrets of U world and everything orbiting around it stereotypes.
Rebecca Startup, cosmic wearies up there all parts of the universe that are far away and freaky and
We ve got some good expertise for that in general. Engender good to have you a coordinator is so
so that second segment urea questions the first second guessing only one question, but does it do
there's a doozy order.
Holograms, Sir, what else you have for us? This is from Facebook from Nay I give you.
So gaudy or so, and he said,
entire known universe, be the result of a white hole,
You want to try. It wont. Let me
let me put white holes on the map and then you have it from their yeah. So back in the nineteen Seventys, the when the mathematics of black holes were being explored and formulated might be late. Nineteen sixties, but was not deep back in the end, the century. It was like that late. If you will people notice that the equations they give you a black hole, have a legitimate opera
solution to them. So me test hairs, Lenny, test you're after nice grade math knowledge ready again it was the spirit of nine. Three ok was three times three night. Ok, what's negative three,
negative three also now, so nine has two solutions. Doesn't it is good and I know you're three ass, a man is young
positively that we only gave me one solution right decision
preferred, but there's that there's
Our side. We have the negative side, so some questions in science, the mathematics of them- reveal that there are two answer that are completely authentic and legitimate.
And when people were studying black holes in the mathematics of black holes seconds in Einstein's equations.
Solution emerged that was everything of a black hole is except the opposite of that
things only ever came out of this space, and so it would be white,
if you had a look forward in the universe, elated. Let's look for these things and people thought maybe Quasar cars, which are very bright distant objects in the universe. Maybe those were the white hole
versions are black holes in Asia. We here, why don't we tackle? Maybe they are connected, and this was the introduction of a wormhole wormwood
next, a vital tobacco company goes into black comes out the other side. So we look for the properties of Whitehall Quasar, as did not satisfy those properties and weakened.
Give up on him. So those looking for white holes anymore, so that's it that's the farthest I can take a great set is really
curative idea that anything wrong. I think I got no medicines gave it its very natural.
Imagine so, let's everything falls into by calling you think it goes where and that's the whole crisis. But the plot call is now
the event horizon and, if necessary, I believe crisis I didn't. I jumped throughout whole. Grandeur must go inside my head, so the idea would be that you
so on a white hold onto the interior of a black hole in a kind of makes sense, because these singularity of people
run a mark on the streets because they don't they don't want them to exist,
the nature and they probably don't exist in nature and the seniors.
A problematic that
could be better instead of having this infinite energy infinite curvature of space? Isn't it
so the infinite density literally a hole in space like the matter get CERN finite time and then what you don't know it happens to Sri Lanka a cut in space. It's something we're physics breaks down. Funding
so people how the idea will let's get singularity and so the black hole onto the big bang, which is also a singularity, as you get
both in and you and you prepare it retains a set of the black hole in Britain and other universe. Yes, so that is really actually
you said very old, frickin universe, miracle gotta by all those that gonna plus or minus Nicky I, but I love the most about that as it means that the black hole small might be on the outside to its air are sending him a black hole,
is by some intervention because it would naturally collapsed or by calls not big enough, but if it were, it would be only about six kilometres across a very small object on the outside, but on the inside it could be as big as a whole universe,
like doktor, whose tolerance as they really like in reality,
is right. There. It's bigger on the inside and outside suggests man. One way to be big, as it could be a whole big.
Bang. It could be a whole universe. Note. The reason that sort of
phone out a favour is because there are reasons to suggest that if that were true, that the universe become very unstable to these things,
because of this just some random probability Fer a black holes.
Containers in creating a universe in its interior. It would be even though
seemingly unlikely. It would just be such what sort of looking for a
normally proliferation of them, that it would actually make the world unstable.
And so little river fallen out of jail, but no depends is not. Stability in the world is rightly scream, so so so some old fashion relatives to only think about space and times automated someone, an expert on Einstein's, relativity Asia and in studies primarily space time and those who stay things. Extreme theory, particle physics are less or more sceptical about the idea, because their work seems to suggest this instability, so you sometimes the camps are split on the system,
it can be a very tense dinner party, should
is wherever there's a black hole is another universe. If it is that
It is very like a swiss cheese, yeah
higher dimensional, that's right, but that universe, ok, so space in terms which places interior two black holes away, you're, imagining a universe which has spatial the black hole would be in its past and therefore ineffective.
So it would look like the big bang was solely in the past. It wouldn't be a place you could go to in the new universe. It would be a time in your history
We always have to break up there and just now getting rid of pvc products in the other side. I dare to do just that. I repeat what I think I heard you just say: if you fall into a black hole, the universe you came from
we'll see the entire future history the universe unfold in front of you in an instant, yes,
the bicycles bright on the inside and bright bright on the IMF's bigger and bright or on the inside there you go yeah. I know
we're. Not, of course, let's get eyes only let any we all right over this wait hold because it seems only having another one. What's your disrepute, John Candidate, Frank Contributor, Frank Kane, which I think is related to Bob, came as gave me Batman, why
private out but balanced out. What's your terribly wrong, what is your take?
negative mass. I read that if it exists, we can whole hold open. Wormholes travel backward through time make a warp drive,
surgical used up if the method is possible. Do you think that means it really is possible route so start here,
First, you have a mathematical understanding of a theory that is worrying. Does s
seem to come out of the mass have to be true.
I mean we don't
His sleeve know the answer to that question, but it does seem like nature always finds a way, and we ve been sitting here talking for advice about DR fastened on black holes were originally just a thought. Experiment on paper and ice time thought nature would protect us from their formation. He didn't actually think they were really thought. The mouth was accurate and beautiful. An interesting and important, but not that it could possibly be deployed,
black holes and Jim. The idea was so provocatively literally put in literature. That is much more important things to think about data and under
nature, figured out a way to make him by killing off a few stars is just kind of amazing and it seems
Over and over again, this seemingly implausible concepts and up
being challenged by our limited
our limited intuition is challenged by nature. Actually do in the universe is big enough without things happening that even a completely rare thing is gonna happen now were unlikely now
contradict myself insane over I'm playing doubles advocate, I would say you know square would have to yes, but the spirit of nine is growth of two, I would say, doesn't exist and physical reality is for
We know it's only in our minds that it exists. I can't remember
anything that has length spirit of two because
will eventually ended some finite digit, which is an approximation of square it of two
today. The decimals go on forever. Like yeah, I guess
national numbers, decimals go on for ever, but any length of any thing or any measurement of any kind will only be a rational number and an approximate to an irrational. Maybe so we can't measure pie ever and we can measure anything with with square would have to
and so one measure bar I wanna behind the diameter pies it just goes on for a patent. It only run banking. You can say what that maybe I just gave you an example that proves that not every mathematical concept can be realised and physical reality. Ok, but I'll give you pass on that. One would call it
What you called give you I'm going to ask me sports classical numbered Hank, aiming to let it have knowledge of your modem. I'm not hearing, there's your modem. So so right so now yet talk to us about negative mass.
Surrender masses problematic, doesn't exist in anybody's nano we now have. We have seen
negative energies and very subtle contexts where you have to place at a very close to each other. We can create a negative energy in the quantum states between the plates for visa
this is when I updated some girls with negative energy. Through you, talk about beggar, capacitor played like metal plates yeah, you get a really really close Yasser there,
also to each other again than the wavelength of the particles in the matter that comprise them yet in some sense
It's like saying if I can't have a waterway between two walls whose wavelength is law,
then the within the west between the walls, rightly, I've learned, not a standing wave and, and so the idea that a prunes some energy, meaning that it some sensors less states on the inside
as of this than there are on the outside. We have a whole continue of hospitals for that matter.
Energy means relates, under certain circumstances, a negative energy, and then you will see a pressure on the plates. Nato either push partum of together if modern energy or equivalent yeah equals whimsy squared. If you gonna give me negative energy yeah, can you hear me negative mass yeah? I mean it
here is the problem with with the negative mass is that it seems highly and
they will survive literally had a particle whose, like the electron, whose fundamental
ass was literally negative and whose equals empty
Then she was literally negative in that sense, then it would be possible to make tons of these and balance it with the generation of positive energy, respect conservation,
energy right, so that I could get an infinite energy resource by making negative energy particles because our,
How did you buy energy conservation led to the creation of a positive energy somewhere? So so
runaway argument. Really, rather they annihilate, and then you have well, I don't know, maybe they're, not anti particles, maybe they don't annihilated, just might have negative mass, so she soon. Otherwise I could have zero energy in my life
military, and I could have the best energy company conceivable
with zero, zero energy. It costs me nothing to make negative energy particles, because I just have to create whether I like,
not positive energy in response mean
I can generate incredible positive energy with essentially no cost, and that is just not
it would be so as laid out in ITALY. That sounds good at first likely pioneer exceeding no god we get rid of Vienna cracking and call on all of these fossil fuels, but we also destroy the universe and income
lately, unstable event where the negative energy runs out of control, creating infinite positive energy. The whole thing blows up personally figure
Sadly, the blood of a super August even try to build Europe
Aren't you whenever this episode, as I shall address Vonnegut in one of his books, I remember which work it was said. The last sentence ever spoken in the universe was by his side.
This is a process to the other scientists. Let's try this other way
right this scenario: you just described
he's a whole universe, goes on stable and disappear, so some people say look. I have an observation that proves that there is not negative mass particles and that's the fact that the universe appears to be stable and we're here for eight units. For fourteen billion years ago
a right to be no one right. We got
This area is out there square. As is right up my ass, I was worried. You can ask me about seven happen where recently than like half
in years behind identity within or I might buryin face,
but any said I've never heard this explained if
the observable universe is roughly fifteen billion years. All does just that and I start like ours last twelve billion. How can our son be a third generation star? Oh so, eighteen fourteen
this will have a closer look at less of yachting. I saw nobody wants a billion big money back to refresh honours one chronometers job, we're we're around a third generation star, so that life expectancy is not
olive into a generation you're so there, because the generation that we speak of is we think of the stars that create the elements
Better than scattered back into the universe and give
the generation. This enrichment, those stars, live,
four thousand much shorter led much also if they didn't have a heavy elements, precisely because our first generation, so you get the the
masters don't livery long
Wait. I just ended. Fortunately they blow up evading block, they keep their heavy elements and
urban, nitrogen oxygen. Silicon, that's in our bodies would be forever locked in stars and universe would have never had life. We would not have even had planets, because these high masters make
dont explode, scattering their enrichment across the galaxy. It enable
next generation starts have slightly more of this. The next generation,
they have even more so that you expect the frequency of planets and other interesting chemistry,
take place with all the elements of the periodic table. The lady or generation is. The more chemical attitude is also the story of the agreement,
I'm just unbroken previous generation Linux shortly slowed and you are politically enriched aught of chemical additive,
I have one more before we take a break sure we got decibel Lorelei from Facebook and she writes.
There was not a roaring genocidal, moralize movie name right there. What's the smallest, a black hole can be.
Your name for the item that is, one neutron less than that atomic weight. It's definitely less than a new chance
What's so no it? Actually it's not all those other two different questions. There's a comment and although a keg of bids you have the guy, you know the trick of answering the question you can and want to hear. You
our luggage. When you ve been having everyone she did, she knows you can answer, ok go so I
It is more like a lamp small. So we do know it is conceivable that a microscopic black hole could be made under very extraordinary conditions. Now we say,
The limit of the mass of it is related to the strength of gravity, and that gives us a scale of how how have you could be and its heavy compared to things like electrons, but its incredibly light compared to love me anything right else on the exactly so, I think it's about the weight of a little pile of sand mansion, a modest pile of sand that would be about the weight it could maintain and be consistent with what we think is the limit of the strength of gravity and it would
an incredibly tiny microscopic by call I mean I can't even I know, you'll be really small, it would be event HORIZON oil immortal Ma Am
but wait. I should never never tend to the what what is it tend to minus forty five seconds after the big bang is around the time of quantum gravities multiplied that maybe, by the speed of light, I would roughly get the size of black horse.
But anyway, you can ask me ass. We later I'll come some member internal minus forty metres so but but black holes evaporate, so they can become so small that they don't exist alongside those oh good point,
so. Those vehicles are incredibly unstable to evaporation. It has.
The idea that hawking foisted on Wednesday, I won't be delayed. Stephen hawking, the amazing Stephen hawking that black holes, although they let nothing out
They somehow still evaporate that tremendous paradoxically been grappling with sensitivities. He also realised that the temperature is colder, the bigger the black hole,
the evaporate more slowly, the bigger they are, so we ve never seen and astrophysical black hole evaporate cause her way to called for us to pay.
Navigation, the big ones that are made by dead stars, Michael
Gotta go on made in the early universe would presumably evaporate in an instant, and it would be it wouldn't so people have looked for that. They will look for little explosions.
High energy explosions in the very early universe, to see Emory Albert I mortal buckles small boats, and here we have around in the area
right now we have a rapid this segment of cosmic queries.
Their addition be right,
This is a
start on those requiring the out their edition
Therefore some each one another it is. I think that to do this more often MRS Van engender you're, like a neighbour of the stream, add Varner
in Colombia, yeah, stable dizzy. I just take a straw.
I will have the right of reply that signal,
out there. We need you here for another there at Harrison again, thanks for being on our time, so you got
cosmic worries, volume Morty have
we got which make this entire segment the lightning round
lower gotta. Be fascinated me of what happened to me. I know
What a lady Russell! This will just be more sound bite answer those get two more questions. Absolutely
Tony underscore Ellie. Seven three eight on Instagram says there an opposite to a just spews outfits Whitehall.
Very well. I didn't view that Evans Garbage Ben Ratner at Ben makes tv on Twitter. What is your favorite recipe for a good soup,
Try mortal soup is for me. A good soup would be all the basic ingredients that are the foundational to biochemistry carbon nitrogen oxygen. Carbon is the sticky element on the entire table. They can make more kinds of molecules. Then,
other elements combined, so Gimme a soup with carbon nitrogen auction in it, and I can show you life
I just happened to have a can of primordial soup. I myself for
for those who are known have video its Wallace's, condensed primordial soup
Can you read the ingredients and the primordial severely, I refuse to be oversee, is as a rule
Ok, a quick and easy instructions, mixed soup, one can of sea water, ok, lightning,
deep uncovered in early year its cause.
It's like the for.
Two to three millennia, say
The simple molecules to
one marriage or more complex molecules for a creamy or soup use one can of organs and ask that so that there be the best kind of soup
I prefer a split PETE. I could go to our area. Joshua will have on Facebook influence quick mode yet lighting up. If you could suddenly newly ascertaining question what question would you choose?
suddenly, knowing the answer is so disappointing. As a scientist, the whole fund is figuring it out. I don't know,
I really want to know the answer to any question. Odin winds by overcoming or some of you have to look at you, you're, not a mystery or not. Warm finally have visits that our unbelievable wheeling, the cards,
jobs through a building, and I like that with policing of isabella, they were just as a flip around over discover a black hole in the city. I dont know how to dumping wormhole through their building. So, for me, the answer I want is to the question we don't know yet to ask, because the day we learn what that question is I no longer care? I will wait await today with the next question. Comes that I didn't know to ask, and is it. This is strongly resonate with JANET answer, where the quest to the at its
does not so much about answers, but the search for answers, and that's where you learn you stumble on things. You discover the structures of things you don't even know. That was a question. You needed to ask sir.
Oh yeah, I'm all I'm all into the search. So these are I'd like to have. The answer is not side,
my goodness I don't wanna be never either rivers prosperity
That's very helpfully arises, a psychological, exactly I use gave rooms are within sixty men eliminated. The answers, are you get Scott York, Instagram could dark matter or dark energy
be any indication of alien technology that is beyond human comradeship, grow,
Don't look at me elsewhere, like any ok, here's allows argued my answer and I want to hear your answer just because there's something in the universe we dont understand doesn't mean as aliens
It doesn't mean it's magic, otherwise my vcr was made by you still have a vcr exactly the fact that only gonna get you that great reflect alien interventions are now for maritime laborious. What about these years
aid are you guys zone may be berwin, so so I think there was a question,
could dark matter, jerkin and should be evidence. Valence is tempting. It's always terms.
To ascribe something completely extraordinary as the cause for something we don't understand. We ve been doing that for ever.
But, as a scientist, she have to resist that because the history of that exercise, these one of abject failure persistently
to set which actually magic would actually, God was actually an alien, and then you studied- and it's it's reducible to know
forces or maybe discover new force, but it still not magic is still by God and is,
Omar aliens. So if I'm betting, I would say it's probably not as much as we would really loved to be
the price we should be looking for aliens as a place. We actually know where to look which is unacceptable in its work
It really is a very serious prospect that there are.
And now he's around other stars. Yes, exactly planets
other stars. We think that in our
milky way of which there are hundreds of billions of stars that are probably more planets and our stars in the
the way and so dust, suddenly
stunning number that we didn't realize what twenty years ago, we were just talking about some kind of living organism
I was gonna, do with almost all areas right, it's Reagan, aliens universally they earlier narrative you. Why is there not only more like the candidates, you wipe off your share. Some primordial ooze map of life that so you saw on funding.
That is true, but I came back from his again. How many black holes are there
so in our galaxy, we will just said that you're, a few hundred billion stars in our galaxy about one percent of that
at the end of their lives, are going to be big enough to collapse all the way through to become black holes, and so that's a lot.
I want to set up a hundred billion, is a billion point, four million, because in addition to that, we know that there are tens of thousands of black holes around these supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy.
Set of our Galaxy harbors, a black hole, if you mailed times the mass of the sun, and it has tens of thousands of black holes specially segregated around it. So that's just our galaxy.
Now you're saying in the observable universe, or as many galaxies as our stars in the milky way, you got a lot of black holes.
I am an all evidence shows that every red, blooded galaxy, like the milky way, has got a supermassive black hole in the centre of that hundreds.
Of those and hundreds of billions times a billion of the wreck of this
Our one surrender now worth she'll be way by the milky way. Candy bars of realistic, like all the middle of it, I don't like a jig dot to add instagram row. Carry
I can't eat another black hole and if so, will be happy to its growth, absolutely
man theory of black absently, one of them ass man, what you'd your reference to pack up, but I have to make fun of it because we are carrying come to your. How do I set up a heavily eighty? This gave her recently said: have a cell phone
are very low rate of ours, because our black holes eating other black holes status. We won it most exciting things that happened. This century is the direct recording of the sound of space time ringing due to the collision of two black holes, which, if you want to call it them eating each other, you could they merged and they created a bigger black hole. So each one was about thirty times a massive sign, as we know that there is a black hole out there in that rough direction. As far as we can ascertain that is sixty times the mass of the sun and yes, they get bigger. They get bigger by almost as much as you would think, the energy that they lost.
In terms of I literally egos and his great energy that wasn't the sum of the parts came out in this ringing of space time and it was recorded by Lego this fantastic instrument. It happened in muslin window to the universe, that's measuring the ripples in the fabric of serious, rather than the ripples in the energy of light,
but, like all blues was all about. I was writing it well who worked on this campaign yeah and they hadn't succeeded. While I was writing- and I was really writing- it precisely timetable-
what we are talking about earlier about the pursuit- and you know it
fifty long years that they strove to the
Benjamin wait, a minute, rags, photography, books, Blackwell Blues is because you didn't think they would find it yeah. Then they found it and now you because the wrong title yet so, amazingly, a very wise who won the Nobel Prize alongside kept going very bad for that discovery said,
me about a month before the detection occurred. If we don't detect black holes. This thing is a failure.
So I got the title really thinking about re, saying that that he's now is eighties. He started this is a young man
and it was a black hole blues, but they told me well before the book you know came out. They tell me about
sections have I didn't want we right, because I think it is all about the pursuit, but I do have a lovely close where they make a discovery. Ochre aren't you
closure of the nominal nothing's going to find it. I've been war we got Michel, I can pour out from Facebook authorities must be explaining away from each other. How come our galaxy is on a collision course with Andromeda or get this guy this
I'm gonna have to throw down after I got it. Is it's silly,
branch of the universe is think of it as a stretching fabric,
and it doesn't matter where you are you'll. Think you're at the centre of that stretching and you'll see objects. Moving away from you in every direction
Objects that are near you,
copy moving away as fast as objects that are farther away, because every would say for every.
Meter. It stretches ten centimetres. Ok,
but let me say to me as a true stretches: twenty centimetres, the free,
there's its thirty sentiments. That's how stretching works in the fabric
so all galaxies have speeds relative to each other.
If you have a nearby galaxy, it's going faster than the stretching
of the universe in this space in the space near me, so my gravity,
overcomes anything. The universe is doing for things nearby, so nearby galaxies are going on, like the universe is not expanding, they don't really care,
Their gravity is strong enough to create motions that overcome the expansion of the universe itself
but we're not gonna collide with a distant galaxies, because this stretching the universe is taking us away faster than that can ever happen. I just wanted to make reference to. I think it
anyhow, the line where they want the carriage. You won't do its homework because he's a good kid.
The universe is expanding academies and is more whose mothers, as you live in Brooklyn Brooklyn, is expanding and its to Brooklyn is not expanding. For precisely the reasons Nielsen's gave me that that may arise as bound together more strongly than the expansion rotarian of us in this sector to be spending universe is not gonna break apart the earth, and I want to develop a problem,
and the Disney betting. At an incredible debate, I said that we got reverse child toad from Venice Florida. What lies been beyond the observable universe? Do we have an estimated size of the entire universe? Oh, I love that Austria and take a breath away
we're still kind of in speed mode. Yet, but I'm going to end with your answer to this question
However, it is conceivable that the universe is actually finite and the same
and TAT. The earth is finite. If I leave New York City and I walk in a straight line- is possible and I go for as law.
I suppose we can come back to New York City again. It is,
terrible got ever going off in it.
Without ever turning left or right, falling off an edge going forward and backward. So you can walk forward forever forward forever.
I'm not coming back round and round and round again now, if the whole universe
like this, I literally would leave the milky way and a spacecraft. I would try.
While in a straight line watch the galaxy we see behind me not turn left, not turn right, never stop forward, not far off the edge of the universe, but see the milky way approach in front of me again
how many Billy boy you am I drop on it.
Regarding audio might drop referred better many cities of his pocket, but you have to listen to reason rig. That's right. We will look back and not because light has a finite travel time we would hear pod casts from our past, like you could look back and
see yourself as a child. If you waited long enough for the light to come back around again from Europe,
reaction from the other direction, and and so we could actually resolve serious quandaries by
well wait a billion years. We can actually watch it again,
The argument about who said what is actually over dinner Attica broke the play. This alone, I told your Janis. This was all were so so we're. Ok, let's find out universe, but just as equals
the universe could be infinite and we analyzed ass. Our own observable pocket within some infinite universe,
it is also possible and that the universe is infinite beyond the absurd
will universe is this infinite stretches Base Vienna Einstein said
only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and then he said, I'm not so sure about the euro
that's all right. We should no longer satellite JANET's great and
loving, like all the black hole.
Harrison thanks become it back on.
My pleasant Harrison, Green Brown, dot, dot com, you look for you where you for Europe a stand up, gig
and you are also a magician Ethel. I bring your host meal, the grass Thyssen. This has been star talk and, as always, I bid you
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.