StarTalk Radio comes down to Earth as astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson and comic co-host Chuck Nice answer fan questions about our home planet, from how it formed to how it might end.
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Skip. The commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial free. With? This is filled with secrets in industries leaving us with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time, what what The Japanese, it's easier I mean the brakes daddy, you Glinda did you grandma, ass, the brain they get lab like what
this is doctor. I'm your host meal, the Grass Thyssen woman, Astro physicist. If American Museum of Natural history right here in New York City in studio, is low on the only jackknife, hey NEO, what's happening good to have you! This is the cosmic worries edition of start. I guess it is like a video, starter Ashley's, but if not after hours of my broad daylight, Isaiah right now. So some as we do them random in know, but today its team to the earth I haven't seen any these questions as corrections that come from our fan base and listeners all our social networks. That is correct. Why do we make a category?
like astrophysicist, I care, but everything this not earth right or at a terrestrial, not answer. Thank you he's in astrophysics. Thank you. So we'll see how far I get. I know some Our things that the GEO physicist tell me, but otherwise will see how I can answer questions about earth is a planet. Ok right. Well, you know what will sign. I also find out, and at first I've ever heard these first Have you ever heard of this? My favorite part so less jump right into it and we ve got Ryan Ms Ek Ryan, that ramp, while the questions from face as our colleague Ryan does not noted where he is from. How was the earth formed? What happened at the birth of the planet would in that that deckers we're not just this planet pretty much the example where we can split part planets into two varieties, rocky planets of which we are and gashes planets, Jupiter Saturn, Uranus and Tuner org see you may uranium gauzy what I had to do
I had to say about it. I've got to go into myself right now. I'm body in every shows gotta go gotta go there. I had so. What we think happened here is as the the original nebula that form the solar system. It would form the sun first, that's where the strongest gravity is the greatest acceleration of particles in You can make the sun now. That's where the interesting things happened, because now the sun begins to heat the remaining rest of the gas, that's trying to condense and make other kinds of object So in our solar system, we may have had a huge gashes envelope, but we don't anymore. We don't have enough gravity to hold onto it got you right, For example, if you have a helium balloon and you let the gas out helium travels very fast in our air, so fast that it if it gets to the top of the atmosphere, it will escape forever.
Well, we'll have enough gravity to hold on to hold onto the heel of Jupiter and Saturn. Do so Jupiter sadder minnow there, almost ten percent helium and each one. I was so if you don't have an gravity to begin with your hold your rocks you to hold your gas gas. That's so now, there's a point where earth would have been sort of Malta, because things are very hard in the early sources when you're molten heavy things can fall to the middle, like things rise to the top. So I guess why were kind of core we have so we have of a very heavy heavy metal, metal iron, vinyl iron call nearly all the iron and earth settled to the core and the light stuff like this. What we called with a geologist call the silicates, there's a lot of silicon and bound with oxygen, silicon and oxygen. That's like the active ingredient in rock, basically right, so
These are the light elements compared with iron and nickel and cobalt and and all the rest of that. So earth has been what we call differentiated and its density and there you have it and then a cools, employees calls in place so that we have different layers and different as you go down now. You know the rarest meteorite. It's called a palace site that meteorite is The broken remains of a planet that was differentiated, its material like things floating to the top, the heavy things sinking to the bottom, but it froze before everything fully separated you capture the light things rising up through it and the heavy things coming down. It is these. It is the combination of these two ingredients in one mass so it's that those two things can a passing in the night passing in the night and then as a snapshot of that found in that rock our then meteorite Chuck. I can also to better
yes, you could have told us that it could not have said it has simply and beautiful. You view came through on that went well, I got a simple beautiful mind. So there you have the earthen we kept. Our heavier gases in the atmosphere is fantastic. That was really good. Ok, we're, ok, let's move onto Omar Buckingham the third, as you where's, the roman gnawing, do Buckingham to cut a shift in the magnetic pole happen in the near future. How does that occur? And what would that mean for both humans biologically as well as technologically ok do where the poles are shifting?
all the time, ok or not at all- and we say old Compass point north. No, it points to the north. Magnetic pole, which has not near the North geographic pole like we're, sent Santa is like North Pole bar none. The magnetic pole is like in Canada somewhere, so people who, in the old days pre GPS, who hiked with compasses would need a magnetic what they called it. Was it a declination detriment? They need to know what angle difference between the compass and true North would give you to pay. On where they were in the world. True north comes from blue. Nor appears say that is the north is Santa right. True, north is the difference between north and magnetic north. That difference you have to keep track of guts. Otherwise, your your law,
right so accomplices, only good as how close the north pole is to the north wall. Right gets you now, here's something cool you ready. Do you realize that the North pole of a compass points to the North pole of the earth, but you play with magnets before what happens when you bring to north altogether, while they cut of hate each other over a pal. It's right. Yet your north pole on a magnet, has pointed to the North pole of the earth that tells you the Earth North Pole actually has the south magnetic centre. It's just the opposite. The obviously is it just the opposite: the north magnetic pole, the earth is earth, South pole that why all north poles of magnets point there. That is amazed that you do not know it now, because you take its north pole. That's what you ve been there. What's your point, you make your life, but you are right, but put the North pole of amendment would not point
where's the North pole, with all the irish vote, the opposite, so the North pole is actually the South Pole exactly I'm just saying recital seven is truly at the South Pole: yes, Averment near the sovereignty, It sets out my real rotation railways exactly so the poles, not only wonder they ve actually do. Fished in intensity and increased overtime right now, we're on a diminishing intensity, pull the worry If it goes away, then what happens to them like solar particles and radiation that the earth? Where do we all go extinct? Yes, we worried about that. So you look at the record of where the pole has been. We have that because it freezes quote freezes into the lava that comes out of volcanoes. It remembers what orientation the poll was at the time it solidified we have a whole tracking of the history of where the magnetic pole was, and, after this break you'll find out whether we go extinct or not. Starts on back in a moment
more. Breathing space inside it down to earth you're. Listening to start. We're back on STAR talk, radio cosmic queries. Addition unwieldy, grass, Thyssen Chuck NICE, yes may with me. Yes, I am you wanna buy regulars job, I'm glad to be a regular. I just heard you kit, why don't you tell me this man, you didn't how old your baby we're right now for weeks for weeks
We could we call that a month. That's just so. You know who congratulated your thyroid. Thank you. It's my turn. The little girl baby making machine God. You tell my maker graduation on twitter name, Charlie London, trolley, lunch, Israeli learn as her shot out to Charlie London. Welcome to the universe, ass war, so cosmic queries addition we're talking about earth and I claim expertise on earth- is a planet globally, not like others, geology right! Don't ask me what the molecular form of order clay feldspar is. I won't so I have seen these, before so what we have witnessed. Ok, let's move on, and this next question comes from David Worley. This is just a person. Question for you, so this is really like science thing he just wants tease pick your brain! Ok! Ok,
You know we are on the air, and this is a sign show this water is ok, but you know you got it sometimes gods, taking into account the natural earthbound disasters such as earthquakes, flooding, drought, soon, army and last, but certainly not least, volcanoes Neil, whereas the safest place you'd like to live the safest place, the safest place you'd like to live actually save. Places like the International space Station, where you can watch it from a day. You know there are some places that are not as susceptible to natural disaster. United States- there's always God, bless America stuff, but we like lead the world in torn eight owes and we get these Mondo hurricanes and sweet Weena. We are like you know. What is
MR sense, because ass the tsar only in real life, but in the movies everywhere and everything, but the frogs and the locusts. Ok, basically, we have that the fires and floods that we ve got all that stuff. Want to be is a place that is not as susceptible to the fluctuations in climate and among those places would be like rain forest. For example, the climate by the way of Seattle is idle attitude, latitude that promotes rainforest so Seattle, I dont know that they have tornadoes floods. You know now pretty stable. Just a dreary, recent ever comes just right. Rain all the time. You're. Ok with no son you're cool, and brazilian rainforest. That's why it is so rich in its via in its it it's one of the richest parts of the biosphere. Life can thrive. Their life has a hard time, if you stress it with climate.
No fire flood. Whatever I believe me, I know so the rain forest latitudes or are our great places. Now you be infected with bugs and other. Bright, malaria and every you'd be dead for other reasons, not not not because earth as a planet killed. You now Imagine other loggers. You have to fight off not now you're rich natural resources are rare. Let's move onto the phone and I believe on the line you gonna call arrived at a compromise, and this is magic. Our meal magic formula, of course, okay. So what is mad his magic. Are you there you hire, does not magic Jones. Now! Ok, what do you have for us all? I wanted to know if you put all of the natural resources together on earth,
But what would our planet be? Work? O thou who he's trying to trade earth on the open market would argue for ranking registered stockbroker. You know I always ask what is earth worth o ouch? What is earth worth ouch? you ever think of that. I do know this my letter, I know we have sixteen brilliant dollars worth of oil in the ground, which is why we can't get any legislation passed to stop killing the earth right cause it's cheaper to pull energy out of the ground at her right. So I don't Have that number. But let me I can address certain aspects of it. There's the oil there's the coal there's the minerals which includes diamond and you know, and then there are the the the elements from the periodic table that have value to our industry. There's copper, there's cobalt, there's iridium there's a sheet.
Go right on down the uranium. Helium is becoming expensive. Ok here will run out of now. Helium is like one of the most part of the money. Common ingredients in the universe, but on earth. As we said in an earlier segment helium, if it's in our atmosphere migrate to the top of the atmosphere escapes into space in the old days. They Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade there with the healing, lose? They were released, the helium back into the air and refill it every year. Do that anymore. They keep their rig, they re canister. That makes you stay parade the second largest consumer of helium in the world. After the? U S, government and internet parties who one it's not funny. That's would talk like Mickey Mouse. So if you added rob, I I don't know how I wouldn't know how to say that. But it's me Gimme a quadrillion, I mean, if there's a number Julian is a thousand times bigger than a trillion I've. Maybe I find a pick. A number a quadrillion dollars. So what is earth worth to somebody? who wanted renal, but here's a problem, some of the valley.
Those minerals is because their rear if you call it an asteroid that is rich in gold, platinum, iridium, then the price that you, now, trading an add on earth will plummet, tape lament the end, then it's a whole other evaluation. So if you're worried about aliens taking our resources and you wanna like charge them for it in an annex and swept the swap of currency, I dont know that that's going to matter because on the route here from their home planet, you're going to pass asteroids that it will be able to mind where all the things that we find rare. In fact they want them. I all we are holding all hold a damn thing in right. Take a bite out of it was sitting there on the ground right, no driven, no ship in just there. It is the value of resources is. As you know, if you're a stockbroker into economics at all is a function of not only the demand but the supply and the cost of acquiring it,
It happens to be so. It's a quadrillion dollars to us right, but aliens we're worthless. Last year, for goodness that ok, not a big enough to topple buildings but- and that was based in virginia- I think it was. It was very well that was a letter on what else you ok, this. This is a little geology. Geology, geologist Orient get to say I have no clue how can go and Bolivia. What is the point of this limit of the fossil and tectonic record and what is known about how much further back the earth supported a stable crust and life? I have heard Earth has never had a stable crust. Doesn't look around? Oh no! It's true Dale transcripts right, go, look! Look at the! U S! G as earthquake, page on the internet And it's a record of all the earthquakes in the world. Do you, like hundreds day every day,
everyday everyday. Those the only ones you hear about are the ones that shaken break a city right, but their dear tremors, their level too three four and five new r. Had one last year for goodness that ok, not a big enough to topple buildings but- and that was based in Virginia. I think it was It was very wise. That's right! The energy was spread out so thinned out the energy. So that's why you know there was no real disasters from that from an earthquake, so we ve never had a stable. A it still more stable and will remain unstable for a long time to come, b C. The earliest fossil evidence of life goes back. If you push it If you really push it three point: seven three point: eight billion years when a bill. Yet these are single cells, working to download, that's correct and before here's, what happens? If you wait long enough, the land Is that your on sub duck beneath
their land masses and rejoin the mantle and comes back out as a volcano as lover so Earth He makes its surface over at several billion years. So that's why the old! rocks on earth are not as old as the oldest rocks on the moon, exactly because a moon. What was done with its volcanic activity very early rife and once you're done dear you're, not making you re making you're. So I urge you to sit and you're just sitting there, but the earth is kind of like our skin. Is that what you're saying I like it. I guess you know if you are met sexual. You get skin peels and things fine. That's not! My first thought, groomed Chuck, it's not a threat, but yes, you are constantly re making your outer epidermis book. I love
that's where my mind goes through my next chemical p. That was mentioned, and we only got a minute we're gonna. Let me finally segment very quick which will happen. First, the expansion of the sun into a red giant or the death of the dynamo inside the earth leading to the loss of the earth magnetic field How will probably lose our dynamo before the death of the earth what I'm saying dynamo is is linked. Before the movement of molten, iron and when you move metals in view, what you can do is you and generating currents, and if you have a current, you also have a magnetic field. And this is what the dynamo is- is the relationship between sort of moving election and a magnetic field. It comes about as a result, but that is how we can Are we for electricity to begin with? That's? Why are we take wires moved through a magnetic steel works, both ways moving current mixed magnetic field?
and made her feel, can induce a current to make electricity we gonna break when we come back more of our talk, radio, cosmic, where Hey I've got a little secret for you, I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and sub. Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free, you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player, and never
we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying This is starter. The daily urged us we're back star, talk, radio, you can find it on the net start talk. Radio net archive shows? Are there we might have put the first? under under wraps, but after that, through their available to you excellent and check it out? There's a lot quite a bit of interesting shows from our ARCA absolutely judged the voice of chalk nice. Your hearing and he's reading me cosmic queries. I've, never
in these. They come in honour all of our social media portals, that's correct and give it to me, and this topic today's earth and I'm astrophysicist to me. It will be earth. Is a planet. Not earth is a geologist day. You gotta rights. But here we go men's. Let's move once when email question this is by but sound bites away in a previous segments. Someone asked what would happen to life if the earth's magnetic field That's right! If I didn't, we lost our dynamo every law so that I forgot to say we have evidence that the magnetic field has gone away many times before it It goes to zero, as it flipped ironic feel, has flipped several too many times in the past on slipped. So so it has happened then. So when its flitted goes to zero, you can look at the fossil record: while we have zero magnetic field, they wouldn't care and on making babies. Just fine whatever is their version of a baby is just like a spy, so it does not appear to be a severe as you might think. Ok, the evidence, that's got to know what else you yet
This is an email by but sound, but wants to know this. How does the northern hemisphere is high proportion of land mass affect the earth's rotation? Yes, so here Thirdly, what was two thousand- and this is but sound bird knows that most of the land of the earth is in the northern hemisphere is like eighty percent only ass northern hemisphere and by the way about eighty percent of the population. The human population is in the northern hemisphere as well, so we tend to live with. The land it was awkward why higher amount. So earth has a rotation rate that is endowed by the distribution of matter on our surface and throughout the solid all right. If you were to change the distribution of matter, if you were to move
continents from the northern hemisphere into the south towards the equator away, from the equator. Will change. What's called the moment of inertia of the earth. The moment of inertia is start the earth. If you change the moment of inertia, earth rotation rate will change with it. Ok, by the way skaters do this when they pull their arms in they are changing their own moment of inertia and what happens to the rotation rate. They go fast angle faster and by the way. How do they stop? They put their arms. Back out and they can stop on a adult right right. They change their rotation rate by brain arms in or out. If you move continents towards the equator away from the equator into the southern hemisphere, towards the northern hemisphere. You are changing the moment of inertia, our rotation rate will change and you can calculate how much we change after every earthquake, because an earthquake is a redistribution of the of the continental shelf
loud, and so we would actually change our days and nights. My everyday, you can make it longer. We're short anybody on a moment of interchange, exactly in fact, melting glaciers changes are the rotation rate of the earth. Why? Because you have mass in one location and the Melton moves to another location on earth. Gotcha, awesome, wow. And they also change the rotation rate, because the glaciers are on land, and so not they will that met the mass redistribute. Also moves from high altitude to salary level. Ok it's not your changing how far away the matter is from the rotation access of the earth. All this conspires to influence our rotation rate. I you know I gotta tell ya. I never thought you would give that much. Information from that on. My planet cook,
That is also our own will actually have one. Let's go back to Facebook. Okay, this is Brian angle from Facebook. If the moon is constantly getting farther way from the earth every year about two inches a year can so about two inches a year. Then why do we have a super Moon where the moon appears larger, ok. First, I gotta nipped in the bud. Ok, don't get me so I've, given you start don't gimme star, I gotta get to started here. I so there's something called Superman. Ok, I don't know who first called it a Superman. I right I don't know, but if you have sixteen is Peter, You call that a super pizza compare with the fifteen inch pizza, how many meet toppings talking as if you're talking like that totally loaded, think yes M, Yes, it is the cheese immature right right, she's in the crescent consumer, moon is a six teenage pizza compared with the fifteen and Peter its assent.
We bigger moon. I use the adjective Superman, not at school. That's like super husk and I'm not going there super tuscan mines right. Yes, yes, they super, because their super price cosmic at four or five times regular Youtube paler hundred bucks to her. So where was? I will certainly support the universal there's tuscan one. You know what I am always about life, so there is no sir. Switch off. So the Superman is the moons orbit. This is not a perfect circle, sometimes is closer, sometimes just farther away at every month, there's a moment when its closest gets. Occasionally that moment, when its closest coincides with a full moon, call another Superman Ike, but there's super half moons right, there's not every as a wireless phases Ray is the closest few people who super Crescent super happily super now don't get.
You don't get me started not only that we ourselves have a twitter. What we say here now. First, I grant you do know the full moon has no higher title effect on earth. Then the other phase of the moon that you're just make it stuff. I will come back more startled cosmic, where akin to the gods. Unlocking the secrets of your world and everything orbiting around it is startalk.
we're back star talk. The cosmic queries addition we're theme today with questions on the earth. Yes, do? I look like an earth expert to you. You know I gotta tell you as long as I've known you, I don't know pretty Did you think you're, not an expert on clearing out serious? When I say I'm not even blow and smoke easy? Somehow producers thought we would have a bit wouldn't be nice with earth question. So I can answer earth questions. Earth is a planet earth is a geologist ready before we go for I just because I wanted to the clear. What about my and why I'm serious? Neil? What ok? You said that there is no effect that the moon has want on the titles, a bigger full moon, incite. Let me says you said: there's no effect, the full It has on the tides and the other moon. That's correct, winced When will you say let it go you couldn't now, because, when Sandy K I believe
I'm just saying it. Doesnt lotta people out there who could have a problem with this, because the news when Sandy happened, ok, arcane sandy, they talked all about that. The title of texts of the moon It was a bold move. This is why Sandy was the only two things that affect the tides got ready. They, the mass of the moon, is that changing. Never changes it isn't mass into a higher at full moon that it half moon. Now, it's not moan be the distance to them. Ok, the moon, orbits us sometimes is closer, sometimes a faraway there's nothing to do with the phase analytical or sometimes its closest at Fort Sumter. This has not been ok right, there's only two things that affect the strength of the tides on earth from them: ok, so so! Well, Do we have a higher tied during full moon, because the sun's tides add to the form is tied to the monster so ass, the sun,
Son Blanda sidelined legal standing on the sun, not the poor, moon, Doodle, dutifully orbits us every month of the year, Don't blame the moon on that one? What's next, ok, but we have a phone call. We got a phone call out, we have Blake, who I believe is a soldier at Fort Bragg, yes this Blake on the line he hesitated agonizing, Blake I've. You call me I got a call you by your title. What are you Worms are one one one one officer, one mister mister you heard, boundaries are so by what you have for me. Call me neo, please, please, Thirdly, up these men, every guy. You can't get to search out of them as regards so what do you have now you get? My question has to do with the gravity of the earth. If the earth had been born with twice vices
I did have twice the gravity and anything that evolved on the planet would have evolved in that double time, gravity that we currently have. Is there any upper limits to earth like planet where carbon based Lightfoot Lifeforms, just wouldn T have been able to evolve because of him. Gravity, that's a brilliant question really it is. It is so a couple of things if Earthward sorted twice, our size. We would have eight, I'm the mass ok, because the volume go up as the queue above. Their thanks to Cuba would give you a ride so so that surface gravity then, is a combination of how far it. How much farther way we are from the centre of the earth and how much extra masses there. So you can do the math. But you can just assert, make an earth has whilst the gravity here's? What will happen? Everybody's legs would be more squat, the first of all today's so we
it would look a little bit more like a hippopotamus dwarf, you pollio dwarfs right, you wouldn't things wouldn't grows tall giraffes would have thicker legs horses would be shorter, although that would happen. Ok, the giraffe! has very high blood pressure to get blood to its brain, to go out all the work that the vertebrae of its neck, and so, if you have I the gravity you would need twice the pressure to get it up there and that could Oh your blood vessels, so you you'd have shorter giraffes, so you have any these tall creatures, but you didn't ask about mammals. You about carbon based life. Most of the Bio Mass on earth. Care less couldn't care. Less. What live for The gravity was honours period all the life in the ocean is neutrally buoyant. That's right! It doesn't care bacteria swimming in the pond in the possibility that the the pond drop. You know you.
When you're in ice in school. You look at the picture this that that you get a drop of water from the policy Para Museum in the eyes, and I don't care about gravity, that's right their lives. They thrive under like this. Surface tension of the water so most life actually does not care about gravity. You do, because, where Here, in the way out here on the land, we're trying to jump Olympics would be kind of different european, no hurdling. Maybe the low hurdles well her hurdles so yet so slow. It would be very different, but a factor of two gravity, not a problem for life right now and you'd have sort of more sort of smaller life thriving than bigger life, and it that's about it. Well, yeah, Vega, Blake, so thanks for that work. Very much all right. You listening to start talk, radio. The cosmic queries addition. Today's topic, the earth will see you.
the future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal. This is start. I sat Sadly, this is start talk, radio, the lightning round jerk. You know what the rules are yeah! You can arrange questions. Rapid fire oughta, give you sound bite answers, I'm her the questions before that's correct and with the we invented the lighting around because we never got.
I stress that this is a way of getting to everybody's question. I want just one follow up on the last bit about from the soldier Fort Bragg. He had asked about the doubling yours gravity and I said ocean life wouldn't care right, but I should have commented water than ways twice as much. So if your custom to swimming at a particular depth, you then swim at half that depth gotcha that way the weight of the water above you would be the same as it was in previous earth. Right right, that's all. I want to pick straightened out an acre too easily find that place right. There fishes and they move in three dimensions. Exactly are you got right are right: lightning round. Let's do this. I have a bell where's your bell. Here, let's get outta here. It is there's about re human rights. Are we ready? Yes, Araby test it yet very ok we'll get together. This is from jesting keen how large what an object have to be to impact the earth and alter
its orbit around the sun, I'm gonna change. That too, is there an object large enough to do that, anything that his earth altered our orbit. The question is: is it altering it in any significant way? There is nothing on a collision course that will have any significant impact on earth orbit around the sun? And that is why about orbit around the sun and not on survival, I was going to such a cohesive, and yet this article as it were, wireless go extinct, enter its orbital, be just fine, nay right on whether in the early solar system there was set stuff that would have knocked our orbit well out of whack, but all that's been absorbed up, vacuumed up by all the other planets, and we are in a mature looking solar system pay thanks Jupiter for can one for the Tec and one for the time being I gotta Jupiter. Eight most have go. Leon Bruce wants to know this. If we continue to leave scraps debris, in space from our satellites and such what we ever develop a ring such as Saturn
debris. Rigour debray ran so oh hanging debris will re enter earth's atmosphere, cause it'll, get friction from the air, it was very high up, it'll, never go away ever and we already have a ring of debris. It's at the twenty two thousand miles up where we put the communication satellites through in a ring over the equator, the earth, so we already have rings. We are, you have a ray. I may not big enough like Saturn's rings, but if we kept it kept at it because when a satellite dies, we just lifted up little higher and to make room for another sovereign satellite. So if you keep this out, there's a bunch of dead satellites floating above us. This too far away to re, enter the atmosphere and adjusts data forever forever? Yes, The creating our own saturnian ring around the earth system nice, nice, ok, Susan Hammock, wants to know this. I know that atmospheric pollution contributes colors, we see in the sunset and sunrise. What, with those
sets and sun rises. Look like during prehistoric times with no man made pollution. Would they still have been read an orange first of all, women are making pollution to certain big blame and men. For that a b is not only pollution, its pollen, its water vapor. Its dust kicked up from desert all kinds of our particles. All those particles make a sunset red cause all the calls from the sun Our red, orange, yellow, green blue violet makes them together. It is white light those particle, scatter out of the sunbeam, all the blue? That's why we have a blue sky and the more it scatters the deeper the yellow aren't. Read the sun appeared so that when we have MAC, more scattering, that's right at sunset when the sun, its deepest red and the skies deepest blue, so dinosaur- would have totally enjoyed red sunsets in their day the benefit of our pollution, notes that so red sunsets just brow.
Been easier, that's exactly awesome! Ok, let's move one to four Ebay, Santiago, we wants to know this. Could a cataclysm like the one that destroyed krypton occur in reality? Can a planet explode from with n and what would be the real which are not Superman's home planet Krypton! Ok, if I, if we remember from the film they over mind, the planet made the core unstable and then the planet collapsed and unexploded correct We are not over mining our planet to destabilize the play moreover, mining our planet to destabilize our atmosphere. That is different, so no when there were no we're close to that ever happening here on earth. But if you see Taken pole chunks of the inside of the earth out the owners are collapsing. You can have some serious singles on your hand. We explode the energies and enough to explode the earth and have us scatter into space.
The answer is we want to explore, but there still hope for the cataclysm let's or quit: ok you're, not what one minute guy with a woman I ever got. Might Miguel wants to know this the most unexpected and less well known danger. We are exposed to as a planet from the cosmos. Well, in the year nineteen hundred, you ask people. What are you most worried about their word about overpopulation and lack of food and all this they were not worried about asteroids. They didn't learn about asteroids yet, and we, about where now we know about, and so I ask myself. There's no knowns inhabit the unknown unknown I a century. What will people be listing as the biggest risk to their lives? We have
That's why it's good to kind of learn. What's out there don't be saying I'm just looking at earth. That's all I care about. No, because the end of your life may come from space, learn something dummy we gotta go. This is really start talk. Cosmic worries addition check. My thanks. As always will be those dear my plus, I'm near the grass Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist, linking the National Science Foundation for their support in part for the production of this programme. As always, I beg you to keep looking wake up, as the job. The organs which you can listen. The star talk commercial, free, joint startled compatriot on for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear? Learn more at patriarch dot com. Last star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.