It’s time for another episode of Cosmic Queries. This week, Neil deGrasse Tyson answers an eclectic mix of fan questions selected by Chuck Nice, from gravity waves and the Great Attractor, to dark matter and nuclear fusion.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial, free Welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right. Now, are your host Neil digress, taste in your personal astrophysicist, and this is a start. You know we don't have a guest today, so that usually means usually means that we're going to do some cosmic, glaring, cosmic queries questions drawn from our our listener: ship, in all of our social media, that's correct and I think what happens is. Do we solicit the questions and sometimes question don't fit in any category right as they all just Potpourri Council really mean what that means, but put potpourri
It means member these questions, think that threats or its cosmic queries Popery additional where none questions which have not seen any of the questions you have now and which is not like a test is not nor yet you're here, dont me, but rather an audience. I will tell you the right answer exactly so. Let's get start I'd off, so this is right maroon? I'm hoping them said. You know why You have such issues with people's maze. You know what it's become, what you it's actually become a thing because people now or online or dislike I just wanna, see how Chuck Butchers mine. I can't wait to see and Smith where Mary
anyway so Brian more rude. I hope Brian, that's your name. This would Brian says I've seen a lot of simple graphics lately about ripples in space time due to gravity are there space, time fabric waves caused by the expansion of the universe, or is the concept of gas sees accelerating away from each other, a misnomer. That they're not actually accelerating through space. So much as the space between galaxies is getting bigger, bigger at an accelerated rate. This guy's been thinking. Man he's been think he's correct. Networking questions like David o Brien
Yes about that has become a forty two years now the gravitational waves or ripples within preexisting fabric of space and time- and you can get these waves if you have galaxies colliding or black holes coalescing and you ve titanic gravitational events in the universe. Will trigger ripples through the fabric of space time and we call those gravity waves and we right now we're trying to detect them. Laser interferon, metric gravity, wave observatory like like Lego, Elijah, oh you can just mit. Oh, you can just google that Ryan's. This is our first attempt to detect these gravity ways first predicted by Albert Einstein. Now, if those gravity ways were interconnect Would that be Lego like? Oh, I'm just ass, just like a picket snap them together together.
Gravity way past. So how did you get back to you? So so, when you're things within the precincts, existing space can generate gravity ways, but space itself makes maidens, well that's expanding, may be away, but not buy stuff, that's something outside of it. So there has to be an event and of the horses right, because the gravity field is there all the time. Somebody has to pay. A ripple in it and that ripple moves by the way at the speed of light its, it makes perfect sense. It's a ripple just in a lake or upon you need something to drop into the water to break the surface tension that caused the and upon his there, with or without the ripple re Wanna put in a ripple and observe that I got it bought a big bang. Bang, but above did you go Brian there, but we haven't detected gravity wave. Yet this is our worries. Railways are very weak even when their strong, their weak. Some of these gravity wave detectors are going to detect a disturbance over a given the length of space
that is about the same magnitude as the width of an atomic nucleus. We'll! Yes, completely fricking in saying that in setting a frontier of technology that these, the scientific question is pushing the engineering frontier absolutely makes us measurement, and that's where the the I, unlike owed, laser laser interferon metric gravity. If observatory ray and we're looking for graduates, and if we get good at it, we can detect gravitational disturbances arriving from the big bang itself. Loud, that's pretty cool action. Look at that man then set. So it's it's technology. What is actually it's an answer in search of technology or nice?
We want an answer in search of technology. I want to tell the organs and we're till the folks who write the brochures assigned shuts eyes, but that a famous extra, if you only I hate Brian land. That was a very good question. Thank you for German, Emma friend, okay, this is Arthur. Colombo, Director Duarte, ok, here's his question and by the way you like this Arthur, says, cheers from Brazil. So he's writing this from Brussels. Brazil! Russell But he does not tell us where just you know, it's a big place anyway says what do we know about the great a tractor and what are your thoughts on what it is or could be, could be some sort of dark matter. Planet interesting
so people are doing their homework before their bright needs. Question really are ok, so now, to a couple of decades ago might have been in the Lake Eightys there in the research of where all the galaxies are going, there was a research that notice that there is an entire community of galaxies that are all headed towards one spot, ok in space, and then you look in that sphere. Space and there's not an obvious thing to be tugging on them. That, and so it became known as the great a tractor and use things to be moving because we were near each other will feel each other's gravity. We call them those who called peculiarly velocities. It turns out not cause writing peculiar about them, because, if you're moving within the fabric of space, that's a very natural speed that you would have so we found something called a great attract. It's what I well, then it got a lotta press in its day and haven't read up on the latest on that, but we know that this dark matter everywhere, matter has gravity just like ordinary matter.
An, and there is six times as much of it. So we no longer as shocked when we see things being drawn to one part of the universe or another right just because we don't see anything there. Anything there really lit galaxies rising because we when that happens, you gonna have now can be a dark matter. Planet not likely I'll. Tell you why, because to make a planet matter whatever it is, that makes the planet has to be able to stick to itself, got to think about that right, right right. What all the molecules over the rocks their stock to one another right dark matter, not only doesn't stick to our kind of matter. It doesn't even stick to itself okay. So it's not obvious how you had ever coalesce dark matter into any kind of solid object at all. It was a pass through has to adjust. It was not going to it's, not gonna, get together and and hang out be the evil other planet right. Is there a door.
Matter. Earth where were you haven't goatee await? You have a goatee now, so my document on earth is a good job. Interesting, that's very cool! So it's like it's What's it called here on earth and there's a place in the ocean where all the floating pollution ten rabbits age read about the end comes into this giant trash circle, trap, Matt, precedent It's just a big massive rule. Notes were all of plastic garbage nothing to do with dark matter in the universe, but it still interesting that that happens at all yeah. But I say it like this is like that for Spain also, that's that's an attractive. The extraction of itself even out yet, even though that's really just ocean currents, come the conjecture confluence yet holding its one place. You know to. Let us know that we're bunch of ales polluting our world
that's very Colson. No drug matter, planet extremely extremely unlikely right: ok, preservation, everything we may not undermine out about dark matter past yourself. Another mistake, soiled it's gonna stick to itself and then you can make solid objects, but they attract or itself completely understand, because we know now. Yes, the dark matter. Gravity. Does my regular matter day. That's how we note there, hey Arthur Man, now the great quest, People are really live enough to be a proper report. We re all right. Ok, This is Mary Black Black Han block Mary doesn't tell me where she's coming from Mary says. I want to know more about the comment I saw on how close to get to the sun and how did it survive its track? I guess it might, but I confess I just had a hunt, a guess I guessed it might, but I confess I
In other words, she she knew it would survive. But comments have been around a long time and seem to survive anything that is so not the case. Yeah common ice on was a comic discovered a couple years ago, and it was going to it was heralded as the great Christmas comment, comment that was on the back on the on the back end as it near it comes around the other side of the sentence remind ourselves. Comets have very elongated orbits way. They spent a lot of time, away from the sun and little bit of time very close to the sun, and these are strongly elliptical orbits. That's why you don't see them all the time when we see them when they visit. They pay the inner solar system of visits right common ice on. If you plaudits trajectory it would come extremely close to the sun. I dont member exactly how close, but close like within a sons own diameter. What of it? Yes? Yes, yes, yes, that's actually very, very close. Yes, yes,
Ok, so now, ok, so that an end and the sun is Bit Bala Plasma and hot HOT it is ice and cold cold you're. Looking at me, like you, don't get these two right not coming back door. Is this time here? So if you don't get these two, it's you gotta, a carpet is called now. You want to the comet within one solar diameter of itself this this this is not bow Well, for the common exact, so guess is coming to dinner, the comet had survived I have the other side right. It would come out with a beautiful long tail, because the sun evaporates and actually sublimes the frozen get of the frozen. I, the ices, turns them into gases and on the other side, was thanks giving and Christmas, and it would have been a beautiful comment and people touting at and talk it up and and but note the sun.
Where a new one in that common had its way. The sun Tor a new. I did their images of this. The comets go in with all perfectly shaped, Hale everything I know, there's an acronym. International observation network or something, but it is an aquifer. Gimme I'll. Have it off the top of my head Bunda at the other side, and it was a raggedy looking thing. The thing broke apart, diffused and just completely disappeared on the other side of the glowing part that they probably debris there, but no longer was there. A comment for us to embrace is I saw a man yet so you have a son to our new one. That was the end of the comet than there was no, and that will happen like on Thanksgiving Day so now, and there is no Christmas com it, so I sighed a man and his son was thy business. My how much it hurts. You have a duty to me among us every com, it no matter how closer comes when it
EL gets made, its actual losing some of its own material. Of course, why so comments have finite lifetimes? They give they can't go around the sun forever by yet so it does make a difference which com, that is not a venture. We actually I'm com, it's gonna die and in fact you heard of you note every night. If you look heart long enough, you'll find a meteor right. Shooting stars and occasionally there a meteor showers right, which are always at the same time, each year cannot meter. Showers are that that is earth ploughing through, the debris stream of long dead, comets awesome whose trajectory crossed the orbit the earth all see now? That is why they happen at the same time, every year outcome and that's why they're a higher rate of these debris particles than in any other random night. So I son after check which wage trajectory actually came right
whether that will become a new meteor shower, because we we may one day actually plough through the rough riders love. I saw the rocky flotsam and Jetsam of ice Ass, three data to check if its or the orbit Heston, near the plain of our orbit and then it'll a brand new meteor, so a media, basically a comic graveyard exact, that's awful as the crap left over its after the sun done, did its wow. Well, that's a great
request and another one hour, let's less. If we get one more in here before the break here before the break, it would go. Ok, ok, that's all you fit in over! Go I work here. So this is from journal. It says Chuck is Neil Jack or are his shirts just really tat first out in my day, yeah I was just. There was great captain o my wrestling team, one hundred ninety pounds, while young workers- oh yeah, I could I could totally kick some ass. I wanted to be protector of the nerd set. That's what you know where it makes sense would not think about my superhero dream ray the beaten back. Then the tough quarterbacks would be shoving nerds into the locker, I mean you will show up before. They would later learned that you needed the nerves to fix your computer. Raza employment respected him.
I ve been revered and became the richest people in the world right in the day when people when nerd hunting, I was card care, nerd and I wanted to be the protector of all the nerves of the world in my own little superhero fantasy. So that's it who did being like a little bats signal that will go up in the sky and I would land what would it be: a pocket protection, a pocket prince, Today I would be like a slide rule and well to extend the slide, always that's that's a serious out and with the necessary yet so now I study martial arts, and so I was in my day well so so where below some layers of fat. A few those muscles, I think, might we'll be there there's a muscle memory, maybe have some member charter. I s a trainer, I said so. What am I could get? My six back, he said is still. There is just under the fact right, so I was Jack like forty pounds ago and if I take it off the plan to take some off by the end of this year, maybe we'll see. If any of anything remains,
girl, general. There is a good there's, your answer. Well, but what if you saw that the shirt recently you I can still feel assured, but You generally, I'm sitting at a table anal see my belly hanging out of you, my offer body, but my section you are listening to us star talk stay too for another second I have a little for you I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one. And where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star, talk and support Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen? The star talk ad free, You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never
we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking, I mean just saying Welcome back to startle here is more its episode, so We are in a cosmic queries. Yes, we start talk. The cosmic queries addition there's we call it absolute absolutely Saudi have so we ve got questions from all across the internet. They haven't and I've been seeing them. You have not seen them and this one is from Jersey, Norrington Jersey tackled. Sounds like sounds like an anchor of or poor firmly actually Norrington Anchor porn. My egg reporting region, but good evening
Josie nor right in your top story, bout Bow, wow Ok, I saw nineteen seventy I now music, yes, we're here we go. Why is it that no one talks about otter this? When he puts I t r, I never heard of it. So maybe he's maybe he's right they're trying to get a fusion reactor to work, so it could create an infinite source of energy. I really think that's cool itself. I too will need to remember that stands for in turn national thermonuclear fix. Spare a man was our stand, for I remember we
a reactive faccia used to Gaza, and so you can have fusion right. A fusion is the bringing together of small items right to make a bigger Adam. It turns out when you do that you get energy up to a point, but you get energy bring too in atoms. Make helium you get energy. The sun. Does that every second of its? Why sweet? And it is very efficient really here just just back up when ok turn in the law, that is so. It takes high temperature and your fusing nuclei. So Thermo nuclear fusion got those with that's called thermonuclear fusion, Now we have mastered thermonuclear fusion ever since, like the fifties that okay forties early fifty's. It's called a bar. I heard you to say that what we have not mastered is the control of thermonuclear fusion right right, uncontrolled thermonuclear fusion is called the bomb
the sacking the sun. No there was thou be outlook. Is that with the hydrogen I was there. No, that was an atomic bomb and talent using and Nagasaki. Used Europe that when use plutonium, plutonium where's, the hydrogen bombs. Not just a bomb- has never been used in warfare, but those pictures you see where the fundamental ships next to the whole and half the ocean. Is yellow out of those. Are hydrogen bombs on, like hydroplanes, make atom bombs? Look like like starter firecrackers, oh yeah, there's no contest between the two two of how we are when we talk about nuclear power with we're really talk about whose you know who's gonna wanna. Ok, if your start this Utter kit is too is to make a nuclear fission bomb and that's what happened in the Second World WAR. I was ever nuclear Fission box, as you too big atoms, making little get energy by doing tales, actually yeah yeah, so damn it. Economic policy, that is big items in the end in the very specific cases of the Second World WAR
Splitting uranium and splitting who told him element named after the cosmic object PLUTO by the way uranium was named after the planet, Uranus and guess what next The aim was named after the God of the sea level. That's over three consecutive elements of the periodic table: uranium newtonian plutonium got you named after yearnest, Neptune and PLUTO Mrs Bhutto. Not a planet anymore. I sent you got. It's got on the periodic table on false pretence. Just between you and me Jimmy started. Ok, Now? What are you gonna call on appear at Charenton, Neil killed me so dwarf. Tonia Tony Amerika. I love it so so getting back to feed future general nuclear few. So in France there is a there's, a collaborative projects, international project, to try to harness fusion, because If you did it and harness it in the way the sun does it in a controlled way. You have is an unlimited supply of energy. Of course.
And and as it is too cheap to bill personally, I think our electricity is already too cheap, two billion a why why? Of course you do get electric Bell, but to switching to bill. Why, if you're driving away from home, you see you left your living room, light on you, gonna, stop the car get out, go unlock the door. It turned out the light, no you're, not that light a stain on until you get home. That's it I even if your cards vision as even if you're gonna, say nope. That's why I've got you're in a fluorescent light bulbs, so I got fluorescent. Why so already, which certainly in America we treat the United States? We treat electricity like it is the least of our financial right priorities given we use it so fully lit up malls at night when nobody's therefore fully lit up building built, lineup silt cities whenever that has gone on for advice, my home and is asleep. So so so this wise anyone, talking about it, but we haven't achieved it yet the day to achieve this,
We headlines all over the place right, yeah sandy tickets, achievable Lucas. I mean that in principle you have to control plasma, here's the problem, the the the temperature of the stuff. You need to that's me: high temperature to defuse the the nuclear together possess your briskly talking about having the sun here on earth exactly and it, and it's so hot. You say: ok how what so you gonna put it in and carry it from one place to another Take this ten million degree plasma right go straight home with it anywhere else right, so their plasma is exe. Magnetically responsive. So there are things we can create a magnetic cavity where it s kind of like a magnetic bottle review will and then it soda bounces off the magnetic. The that contains it kind of like the radiation from the sun does on the earth. Well, she's the magnetic field and then the rules around it is precisely the same phenomenon going. Ok, but if you and design
not about intelligently, then? Maybe you can have it serve your energy needs by having fusion with fusion within it a pat. So so let me say something lesson and, and I'm just the person gets very nervous. And Jersey, Jersey. All I can say man is this. Sounds jurists, Jersey, Wellington, wissitors, ignoring nor internet anchor, porn man, that's its whose Ripley dangerous? Well I mean like it what you're talkin about? If listen, you have this magnetic bob and the containment field fails. Oh you're, wiping out, like I don't know I don't know how many miles around you, so you design you design it. So it doesn't fail. Next question We have so solve this problem and that's why you need really good engineer world there. You know we're all right
here we go. Let's move on to earth longer guns were Ricky priorities of TAT Jack I'm so glad you're, not president of a university whose reading the names of the diplomas, man that light and next guy please come up against your diploma. That's gotta young lady. Please come up against a diploma young lady. Here we go I hear dear doktor Thyssen? I love when you talk about the validity of science in movies, one
that always defies my suspension of disbelief inside my movies- is when the characters briefly expose to space to go between air locks without some sort of space pressure suit. This happens in both sunshine and event horizon. Is this even remotely possible thanks for entertaining me on my commutes earth that was cool, very nice agenda? So here's the problem when you change the law, the pressure that your body is immerse, then how can we learn this? I think, for the first time, building the Brooklyn Bridge outwardly yeah and bill
the Brooklyn bridge. A lot of that structure is deep underwater, and so you he's river Jappy things called caissons. I think they're called- and these are basically huge bubbles that, just as you have asked, I don't take like a pot, ok right and then inverted and then submerged the pot right. You ve you ve trapped here and there. Yes, it is too soon little chairs inside that brought me the pot big enough. You can sit in it inverted and then you submerged the entire pot, and now you can be The air while you're underwater with it Here you go under the water. The higher is the pressure pushing up against that air right from the word of its at your feet. The higher is that pressure and that can have an effect on your physiology and that when they did this to build the Brooklyn Bridge, they discover
this new physiological failure called the bends and what happens if you can go down there? That's fine, but it's coming back gases that are dissolved in your circulatory system. Right when your body is then exposed to lesser pressure, begin to escape from you and I'm the gases in your lungs. Expand you can just exhale that rank or but suppose the gases dissolved in your bloodstream. Sonny's pockets of air rash show up inside your bloodstream. That's not gonna. Doesn't it s not thanks concluding, that does not that's not good, so you have to be very careful when you change from one pressure today I have slowly or non catastrophically. I so if you go from one atmospheric pressure into zero atmospheric pressure space right your subject to these things that could
giving you the bends, but if you, if you're not there for very long generally you're, not here longer than you can breathe, ok, right hello. You remember walk for four half hour, no during the airlock, without Sudan, because that was some emergency maneuver, you had to do you're, not gonna, be there longer than you can hold your breath correct, arrived, so all get. You might get some of the case the band was not going to kill your eyes and are going to pop out. Ok, you know I wasn't going to pop out cause is not an area there's, not an air pocket behind them, ready to pop pop out your eyes where that we're liquid right. Someone, liquid changes. Pressure is all about what Gas is doing within them. Ok, ok! Now you want an example of gas is coming out of liquid, yeah, I know to tell you that, let because active
our view is when you go into I'm eight years old, brain ackland, so out of that what the best example is a sealed can of soda ok under pressure under pressure right and and it take a bottles you can look at. It is under pressure, you don't any bubbles anywhere Papa. All the bubbles exactly they were dissolve there until the pressure change, exact and so it whatever is the admin above atmospheric pressure in it. Then it goes down to emissary pressure. The bubbles escaped so so you have to be careful and- and it will be comfortable, but just get the hell out of their son Ok, if I'm in the air lock embryos in in the event horizon this ship. Ok, they depressurize! I'm in here you got some, you got it, you got it all. I have now, as I held my breath. Yes, the airlock opens her
I'll just across I can push off and get it to another airlock repress rise. Could I do? Yes, he's ok, easily? Ok, if you have your wits about you, you have your wits about you, but you could be no that which is now that's my home movie you he won't make it. That's it. That's the real movie right, that's what actual right, what it s like the airlock opens up this, but because I'm explain exactly because in a way that I can hear you scream in an area without exactly be silent movie, let me flooding the camera, picks up the swan and scream yes, that to prevent. This is something they did accurately in the movie gravity. Look at a sound level as they went in and out of airlock would go from complete dead too soon. Will you bring it to hear it, and then it was a full up volume sound. They did a brilliantly demanded gravity
so that's so very lessen their earth. That's a great answer! Man! I was very, very cool. It's all about the gas baby. And in the movie, but one of the Mars movies which one the one that had no name one of the moors by Regiment Rep planet. It was either replant. Permission to more. I think, a mission to Morrow, ok, where the tethered reach him and he doesn't want them to come after him, so he he he so he kills himself rather that they don't come after you now he killed himself. He lists of divine ok and three seconds later he looks like he's been dead for twenty years right now that doesn't hurt. You would seem suffocating there right. That's how really? What happened? Yes! or or total recall where Arnold Schwarzenegger doesn't have his helmet and his eyes begin to bulge out of his head like one of those little squeeze toy? Actually, yes, your end.
Socially leaving. You know that the Eurocrats redress from Greece Toy and that's what his eyes do. These like I spend it all with certain close queried, the top wasn't even incentives. What you knew it can only be uttered by Arnold Johnson. You pull them out there. That is brilliant there. That's that's like every comics, like every comic does, aren't there and that's all you have to do to do. Aren't you tired, but it's so that's not trail there. That's the point! You could survive a compliment. Couple minutes yet ass. You just don't stay there. Long! That's all got to guide. You got it. If our circulatory system, entirely gas right and then you stepped out into an extremely low pressure environment. Yeah you'd you'd explode like a balloon, getting a blow your drachma, but we're liquid, and so liquid has different reactions that has different properties for liquid Arafat that where seventy percent of that boom right
where a hundred two hundred per hour you studies have warder, doesn't mean yes, seventh somewhat, but did right, but always liquid you can is both. Look within your body now serious you are listening to STAR talk radio stay to more. Next. welcome back. Here is more of start up. Just before we begin this just came across my debts. Yes, here just in a couple, people submitted geek, pickup lines right and, but I cannot lame Obregon appear goes one. I do my best very white and pressure. Are you the square root of?
negative one, because you can't be real acts. It doesn't have to bear As I say, not you, but you gotta, like beat regatta, remember like imaginary numbers square it, and I Here's one notices tectonic like calculus geek. I wish I was your derivative, so I can lie tangent to your car calculus comes to funding the slope of a lie that this with a derivative is, and so you take. The first arrive a curve right that union right there. Ryanair comes across that you're, a writer I have one more here. I heard you would go back our potpourri. Our lives is like dividing by zero. You can't define it
Using those lines you better build a robot girl. Here's one pay baby! Oh you gravitons, because I find myself attracted to you totally. Give that I bet. I bet our our listeners could totally treaties, and so they are probably better than that already have it. Let's get back to our cosmic queries. Potpourri potpourri, let's list, let's see what Jim Scarborough wants to do. Jim says: what is this conservation of information damp ski puts forward? Why do I keep forgetting things up? This is good. Are you that's a great question? Is it really so information it in the in the middle twentieth, century and onwards, people the hope,
branch of research, open a call information theory. True right! If something has information, how long will retain that in? For me, and if it doesn't have the information, whether the information go. Ok information is very different from things like conservation of mass or energy or mass energy, for example. If you haven't orange and then I give you a second orange, you have twice as much orange. Don't you I hope. So. Ok, if I give you a newspaper, then I give you that identical newspaper you do not have twice as much information. That is true. You have the same amount of information, but who I do have a bathroom from my dog now I do hope it's a puppy once you do at its other planets and infirm dog, so information theory behave differently from other kind of stock. Conservation of information is a different understanding, a different treatment of information than conservation of mass energy,
would be treated at that's all and so that there is an idea that What can you lose information? What happened to it and he sank. If there's a conservation of information theorem, then why is it that he forgets tough right? Now, it's a brook to preclude question what what happens is what you remembered with such remembered becomes other things typically brain. Right just becomes other things, and so so so there is no such thing. I just not. The same advertisement makes a total amount of information. Yet it's it's an amount of information that you might be conserving there. But it's not me research specialty? It's I don't know what the latest is that they're all saying about it right! It's seems to me that if I have a newspaper and I burnt, I got rid of all that information. True and this is what happens in book. Burnings civilizations typically take a few steps back because
loss and when you say civilization information you mean Republicans. Now you don't. I do you dare I do you down, Well, Jim, there you have it there is there really is a cough conservation of information and about away Everyone who pass the Jim Crow laws were democratic decision there's a reminder? We ve southern seventh rats and we all know are now modern day republic. You can't generalise over time and space I'll, give you that our Jim great question, and your answer is early onset, Alzheimer's folks outlets. Let's go. Let's move on, let's wow, ok,. We join in this. While, ok, you don't admire the question and leave us leave his hand. Locate this is Jacob, see more and take it wants to know. Does nuclear fusion occur at the bottom of black holes?
yeah? I was like la la really simple but good question to its past. Its plausible. Ok, because at the singularity, which is like the limits of Einstein's equations, where in fact, you are literally dividing by zero rife, which means we don't have a theory to understand the singularity we had to say, but that's wallet that's the best. We got right at that singularity right at that point. All matter is at a very dense state, but we do know that the energy created by nuclear fusion great and if it occurred at the singularity would not be enough to do a damn thing to the black hole where black holes are stronger than any nuclear fusion. They would her within them, so one you can run back. It's why we got the black hole in the first by example, used to be a star right, and this
let's go to explode and it didn't the Morocco said no you're, not so so as the mass of stars, the higher the master, the difference that their fate becomes more and more different from what the sun would be. There's a point where a star dies as an explosion, a supernova if it's more massive than that it wants to become a supernova, but the gravity overcomes that in its black hole, gravity and the whole star collapses. And implodes within itself, and so now you can't every time I try to get out of my gun that is what everyone is saying, who stuck in a black right back out with that level, frustration. I might have gone before. I probably so sure why that was fascinating, good, stuff, good stuff. There are, let's go with a dull as and Douglas says what you pronounces names in Spain,
why, but clearly, italian Napoletano Neapolitan come on now Napoletano, Magala down. Ok Douglas wants to know this. It's like he's from ITALY, I mean Framework Omnium Naples, young Douglas, was another. This was their space before the Big Bang or was space created during the big bang. What is the universe? Expanding? into. In other words, is space expanded with the matter and energy, or is the matter and energy expanding in the space MA? Am cosmic Ass, yet he has written a sweet reality. Is it's it's a nice little conundrum that he's so everything we ve come to know and define space to be was formed within the big bang and if we have a multi, verse or some prior existing state out of which our universe spawned
that would be embedded in higher dimensions and sewed normal space is not how you would address that that configuration be higher dimensional space of four dimensional space, five or ten dimensions at some higher dimensional space in which that occurs got so we're. So if spaces, where there's nothing than outside of space, you might call Nothing, nothing, nothing not perhaps so we have top people working on the nothing, nothing that's gadget so chuck we're in a five minute warning zone. This means you know what I mean. That's her. Lightning round its the lightning we're. Ok, I will answer questions in sound bite mode can't get in here as we can in the next four minutes here we got out this one from Facebook and Paul bear Paul Bear wants to know how is the gravity of the sun strong enough to hold Jupiter into place, but not strong? have to pull the earth close enough to eat it, because earth is moving faster than Jupiter and at our speed at
distance. We are in a safe orbit if we were moving at the speed of Jupiter at our speed at our distance right now we would fall into the into the sun, bought a bang, Bang Oh yeah, the MECCA targets every orbit and every dysentery son. There is one speed right that you can sustain and maintain that orbit anything less. You fall into the sun, anything more. You will go to fly out. You're, fucked, gotta, higher orbit, guy wrote, granite, Erika also from Facebook. Patrick Clark wants to know this doctor Thyssen What do you see as the advantages benefits of permanent human colonization of other bodies in the solar system? What resources do places like the moon and anyways hold, and how could we harness use them efficiently, so NASA has, new branch of itself called aid. I s are you? Ok, since you resource utilization, which has NASA speak for when you
their find your own damn food build dam and rubbed. So you gonna look ahead. Is their water? There is their natural resources. Can you can you see the soils in a way to grow plant life? Is there enough sunlight? So now, there's nothing like earth out there, and so, if you gonna go to bring a whole lot of vetoes the sum to keep you keep your head until you so the resource we our species exist on earth. Thriving on researches resources, better native to earth, that's why we're ok here right, and ok on the moon or on Mars. So this is a huge challenge. Now you gotta, we have not yet resolved. Go next right there you have it, and the answer is clear: your heels, Patrick there's no place like home right. Let's see, that might mean Patrick, is wearing Ruby Slip per hour I deem whence I owe this. Why some planets in gas form and some in solid does this differ
and in jeopardy case most of his masters in the form of gas. I got a fever and I need more atmosphere. Iraq and there we have his thin layer of atmosphere on Jupiter. If you go deep enough and has a solid middle ground, there is not a solid cocoa. Basically we're all. The same is just more more atmosphere and interpreters case most of his masses in the form of gas. I got a fever and I need more. We asked what about me. We want that must be our ears and that our eyes in this is from my Jupiter has a much higher scrappy, so it can hold the very like gases such as hydrogen and helium that we could not. Jupiter is mostly hydrogen in Healy, very, like ass, a very fast moving Adams. They can fly out of a weak gravity field as they did for us, so our atmospheres denser heavier than jupiters atmosphere. We have heavier molecules in our atmosphere out because they will move as fast as they don't sound like a chipmunk ownership.
Aren't you produce you so would yes, I never thought that through could I wouldn't. I was not going to think I would get out of my special an open? My home, while I was, I was rigid, but since you ve already thought this, that is exactly how would happen to have one more question and ably channels or oil, the Jupiter Arians, more art, satellite, Mickey Mouse go the native Libertarians guy. Here we go this room, Paul, Paul, Aaron, France, around ski junior. Ok, how can we tell what are our planet's Ellie other? objects are made of. This was the birth of modern astrophysics. In the late nineteenth century we took the spectroscope the Prism take light move through the prison. At the other side, it breaks it up into a computer. Colours and like a rainbow went in there. You find embedded the fingerprints of the very chemical identity of what it is. You are looking at the thought of being, and so today we don't just look pretty pick
there is of the night sky as Hubble would have you believe, looking at the greatest hits from that telescope. What we do is we take the light and we slice it and we dice it, and in that light we find carbon, nitrogen oxygen, silicon, carbon dioxide, carbon monarch We find molecules. Adams thanks for listening to start talk. Radio. I hope you enjoy this episode Many thanks to our comedian, guest experts and I've been your hopes the other grass Thyssen until next time, I bid you keep looking at Washington, listen startled commercial, free, joint start compatriots for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear, learn more at patriarch dot com, slap star, talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.