Stay Tuned for… Science! Neil deGrasse Tyson and comic co-host Eugene Mirman answer more of your questions about science in Star Trek, Star Wars, Sliders, Superman, Contact, Mary Poppins and more.
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Skip. The commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode. Commercial free versus secretion industries. This, with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time. What what Will you just recently the domain the brakes dad? Did you grandma South Ass do when they get lab browser.
Welcome. To start talk, radio, I'm your host Neil digress, Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist in studio with me, Eugene murmured, Eugene Love, haven't math, I love being oh, my gosh comedian, Eugene Merman, easier to make fun of all my answers. What go what's gonna happen this to learn like you, the listener. This is cosmic queries Edition of STAR talk this it where we collect all the questions that we accumulate from our web, our website, radio done on Facebook, tighter, twitter style radios are handled air and we get
not from one seem or another. We put him together so today and is science in movies in other forms of entertainment. Yes and some people have like genuine questions about it, others want to know if anything I can pick apart, but I've seen it actions, yet no and Louis start in let's just start right ends of outward movie. Contact from Danny Davis movie contact there, yes, story written by Carl Sagan. Yes, my question comes from the movie contact, one of my favorites. The problem I'm trying to figure out is the ending when Jody fosters character, travels in the space ship and has her experience, but for earth viewers. The ship instantly falls through like nothing happened, and then it is later revealed that her camera recorded eighteen hours of static. Now from what I understand about relativity, it should have been opposite earth eighteen hours would of would have passed, but her camera whatever courted seconds of static. Please help me put my mind
at rest on this very once and for all, did the movie get that part wrong? Or am I missing something like you noticed person knows just of relativity just get angry about it, yeah. So, just to remind people in the film yet Jody fosters character, visits aliens in another part of the galaxy and does so in an odd sort of rotating spaceship that never leaves earth and they see her take just seconds and in that time, in those few seconds she goes on his journey, and I think the point here is that the fabric of space and time is such that the EU can work either space or time or both and so you can basically travel through a wormhole, get to some destination instantly blue eyed, and if you travel fast that here the question who is it? Who is it that Danny Danny than its wish from where
Oh, but that his name is definitely didn't you didn't, including effects so normally, if you're than almond Turkey, if you're the one that goes away, you live for a shorter amount of time than earth that you ve left behind, so Danny's perfectly correct about it. But these are aliens who gave us instructions how to build a spaceship to doing actually what just happened. So I'm not worried about that. Relative, time, dilation, Danny's, right that it would logically work that way unless aliens gave him a plan that he's stuck to that work differently, exactly which is what happened in the film frighted. Also imagine that she was the one who left let it was earth that left that location And then return, and then this is the one that that lives further but a few moments and he's the one that was longer. You can imagine aliens controlling space and time in such a way that that's what happens so so in the movie. They could have moved the whole planet
is that what we are doing, it would be learned, saying it's easy man. I am not saying that this disease is saying that it within possibility was. I know what I mean is that it would be hard not only to physically move the planet? But earth has to be the one that accelerates away and then sell it slows down, stops and comes back. We would all feel that you weren't video, that, yes, if we went through a worm, all we would feel if we slow down, we sped up and slow down and stopped. We would just Everyone way, lay off the planet because attached to the earth so that even a little note not at all, not even with not even gravity. So we would all fly away if someone, if you could stop the earth, if, if you just stop the earth from movement in space or AIDS, adjusted in some way or threats
but we were moving with the earth in orbit around. We ve just fly very quickly and, as do you would fly through a dashboard in a car that hits a brick wall and you're not wearing that. I really can't believe that, like people who do like jump from outer space or Bundy temporary that haven't tried to stop earth to just go flying would be if they feel it on experimental will strike. So I'm not worried about that, but, strictly speaking, if she was the one, they went away days, correct Danny good job congrats? What I'll show got your Phd boat is from Brendan it's about I'm dilation effects of wormholes in the episode Rimmer World of the comedy red dwarf, the outside bizarre miss that never so that its got word season. Six episode! Five! He writes thanks Brendan you just wasted our lives. One of the characters goes further through a worm hole in an escape pod. That is accelerating away from the other characters. Ship. To a wormhole to a planet that he would land on. They mention
I'm dilation effects of wormholes and the first one through Wormhole had to wait. Five hundred these seven years before the rest of them caught up to rescue to rescue him without how true, with phenomena, be how true phenomena beef. The worm. All travel. Israel really deserves. Wormhole alleged allows you to go to another part of the galaxy quickly and much more Then a beam of light would take you there by the way, if you can travel through wormholes, it allows backwards through time travel. That's how you would do so that just an FBI on that, if you can travel your effectively travelling faster than light and that allows certain trajectories through the fact space and time losing sliders is pretty real if they can manage the worm all part, so that the point
There is a wormholes if you're, accelerating through the hormone you're moving fast. You would not age very much at all about the other side, everyone else's aging along time right, but if someone else comes to wormhole right after you know, you don't wait five hundred years for them now they just be right. There tat. Now he had just come. They are both using the same thing, so be about a minute whatever it would whatever and end the worm. All could be arbitrarily short time for you right, depending on how work the spaces or how tight the homeless, between one section of the galaxy and in that way, in fact, this thing that he's describing he should have just said in the first reboot of STAR Trek. There was a worm ball. You don't need to go into season, six episode, five of red door. This is literally the plight of the First STAR Trek,
they have a cumbersome wormholes. You don't need to be specific in your science fiction. We think a much broader Munich's anyway. So so that is the same thing about the star Trek you wouldn't yet so so the point is, if you're going to gather immediately after one another you're good, too got fifteen minutes apart to worry about at night on Facebook Albert Millard? His is his thing. I promise this thought before I saw a in black, we believe you, Robert liar no yeah. Ok, it seems that matter is basically mass and energy swirling around each other. The same can be said for solar systems. Is it, possible. Our solar system as an item or the milky way, is a molecule that was a deep four hundred and
Ten years ago, people as we started probing structure the atom we looked at as a there's, a nucleus there's gay, electrons and orbiting around. Maybe that's just a mean, but there are no cats and there's no cows and farms and in building set when we come back, I will give the answer to why atoms are not solar systems here. Listening to start talk, radio, cosmic rays, tradition This is a start.
We're back on start talk, radio meal, digressed, hasten Astro, physicists and my day job is as director of the Hayden planetarium. If the American Museum of natural history than your check out the imaging, do you have a day job I mean I mean, I think as much as you. I guess you have a thing that you would call your data, probably blood's into some of your night. I'm work thing. You call a danger of Europe, your voice on Bobby jobs, we're gonna get his love. We love. You know that excellent so because my queries addition. Yes, if someone had as science and movies right when we leave off, basically they were like. Is our solar system an atom, whereas the milky way a molecule yeah, and these are great questions regarding questions that were asked about a hundred and twenty years ago? Is it about hundred twenty years late in raising this right around when the Sheesh first reached Boston
It's her sing. You have a date for that, so here's the problem, the problem when we discovered atoms and that there's a nucleus and an electrons, a tat, looks like a solar system. Yeah. I wonder if, inside and Adam there is yet another Adam and another adamant that an episode of Morkan Windy, but it turns out that the laws of physics that grab. What goes on in the solar system are different from the laws of physics that describe what goes on in an atom and so the conduct of matter and energy is a completely different in these two regimes really and because of it, as you mentioned before the break. Not within Adams. You don't have cats, you know you, don't have. And bore the stuff that does not have inside of atoms right, it happens, macroscopic we re so the microscopic world macroscopic. So the democracy, not the macroscopic world,
bonds to what we call classical physics. Human rights and the microscopic world responds to quantum physics. Quantum physics actually applies to the whole universe, but a large enough scale. It looks like classical physics, and equations are easier, so we just use it re use those modes to describe it. So no, it's not just the russian Egg, the russian dolls, the nesting, oil and there's one day or, as I say, I met the durski mcclosky very good, says new and I should go to Moscow material. Skin dolls. So no, it's it's just not that, but if we are really call philosophical revelations, there's no life inside of Adam or molecule, none then we know of or that we would have ever defined a such right or act. Ok, ok! Next I went out she got. I have a lot now. Ok, Brian has
question and he's from her brain hugson. No one hears telling us where therefrom, ok, they're, afraid we're going to find them and help them learn. If you are an astronaut tumbling through space like in the movies gravity, could the change, your rotation or trajectory say through twisting your body. Thank you, love the show. I know no, unless you monsieur in contact with some other thing or unless you lose mass. If you do not lose mass or coming com. It anything else you will tell in the same way. At that same speed, you forever, you actually will lose mass in the sense that you'll grow, hungry and dive had demanded. Take your phone ok see
you better really slow, as people who try to lose weight will attach there's a slow way to lose their much faster ways to lose mass media about it, you're tumbling through space, and you don't have access to any restaurants or not. What you can do is if you open up certain patches of your space suit, you could like p, in one direction or another, this will send me your mass out another direction, opera? presumably the way on a tumbler, and you don't want to go that will slow you down. I do like baby of someone spinning in paying and then just they would just states, be it in the other direction and they still spin. So you have to know some anger, angular momentum, physics to before you went to one of our desire, started, peeing or spitting or pooping or stored or or anything that The end of gravity is just someone being themselves there. I'm just saying, oh by the way you can't be inside the suit it has to actual leave your course of into space right. If you do this, you can then control to some level,
That's your ear, wayward trajectory! This is no different. You die like say you open the Sioux there'd, be your skin went beyond the contacts that you would just Vacuum Armenia, it's not will be comfortable, but you can do temporarily and really gesture for how long a cup of human oh, really sounds great yeah. I might have a new girl humble through space, for a few minutes no suit. So so the point is that when you lose If you look at spacecraft when they make adjustments lived there and free open space there little so they call these nozzles, these rocket nozzles that are strategically position around the body that ship yet to make it rotates one direction or another? To change their attitude, the angle the or to slow down or to speed up it is losing mass, though by the active burning few that sends gases out one direction or another, so anything that cannot be any other watch when I envy
ok, so that all the things that are funny to children become the way you survived humbly through space. That is what you're saying every bodily function that you're not supposed to discuss exerting the Danes at all. You need to survive to fly back to the earth chest. Sounds like a flash here we go. This is a question from a Robbie. Oh and he's at the University of Michigan Eden, mind telling us very well an excellent and here's. This question, too, could be student or professor will find out. It's true will, depending on how good as question is one or administrative he's the lot of exhibition point these protests didn't or their own programmes ease and exclamation border, while at home I was watching future ram and during the episode, the characters land on an alien world that had three sons and left me wonder what would happen if there was a second or third star in our solar system either. Orbit around our sun or fighting with it to become the centre of the solar system. Thank you. It thanks.
Shone show so here's the problem, you have you start throwing extra sons in the middle of yours in our system depends far away? Your planetary orbit is if you're, not far enough away from all of em It was a triple star system. You do want up on what they showed in star wars. So let's have a triple star system if you're not really far away from all three, what what's considered really filing Jupiter and much farther than any one of them are from each other. Ok. So it's a relative statement, so you wanna be far enough away so that all three stars feel one source of gravity to you, I see if you're, too close and one is over to the left, and one is over to the right. You're gravitational allegiance becomes comp constantly compromised. Who am I orbiting today? Oh it raised are not that one and you we could really close to one star and far from another. Your climate would be all too how, because you wouldn't sustain a stable temperature, our environment and we
you can do models on a computer to show what happens to these orbits and most of them are unstable right of a starlight for a planet. I've fall into a start, will be it from a star system altogether. So it would be fine if you simply were so far away that that they felt like one they felt like one, and they did it right in star wars which have a double sunset. If you remember that seen, those were far away from the planet yet of the planet is really only seeing one sort of collective we have at the end, and so that's the problem that you have here, but otherwise would be really cool. We also because the stars were different colours and then you'd have One star set, the color of your sky would change. You know what are that it would have. Some of them have read stars white stars, blue stars. You live green stars now when you want to get into a kink in internet episode,
Finally, stump with green starts off its exhausting there's, no green in space, not these green rate than just no green start, there's plenty of green. Why it no doubt lessons, namely whether the agreed so finally lead to a real piece of sites and you're like no ok, fine. There is actually green emissions from gas class, it's a lot of space and we looked at and we looked at it spectra. We do know what it was We might like to start. Oh brethren in the field, that I study and in fact it was named of nebulae and was called nebulae him, his green locker, green, light and space nebulae, and there was a placeholder until we ve actually figured out what it was we figured out is actually oxygen behaving in ways that we ve never been able to reproduce in the laboratory. Under the under the rarefied vacuum of space. Oxygen behave badly well depending on how you gonna look it's a green cloud that becoming for us it's, so it emits a beautiful green light and, if you're, if your aunt, from fluent it's five thousand and seven Angstrom Sonya.
On the scale, so you can have green light coming from gas cloud, but stars because they're giving if the whole spectrum of light green. Narrow part in the middle of the spectrum and when you puddle together all the light, but you you can lean towards the red side of theirs. That's not a primary color while because Red Orange, yellow green blue, violent than a spectrum either leads to the blue side and leads to the rat or gives about the same of each and that'll, give you Blue STAR Red STAR or waste. Are you not going to get a greens too? That's why you're? Let's hear one more cool, unquestionably till you get about a minute left here, go here. Ok, we left in this segment, Bulgaria. This is from Harrison Bissell fizzle. It is dear mother S, eyes and and funny person, how can one fly at kites figure? I watched Mary Poppins recently and it got me thinking if one had a long enough string. How high could I
possibly go if the kite and string were made of a sturdy enough material. Could it go up there This fear up where the heirs clear anyway, it's goes on. Let's go like I. I love that question suggestions. I also love. That's why I've corny Broadway songs, so what you need is enough. Updraft to keep to the cape afloat and the weight of the stream, that's pulling down the kite right? We got it. Don't forget that? Let me pick up on this answer when we come back to start our cosmic queries. Addition signs in the movie We must be when you send did fly and have done will seek reforms. I'm gonna considers singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one
and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen? The star talk ad free, you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player, and never we're here another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying: green space inside down to earth. You're. Listening to start, we're back STAR talk, radio,
Thyssen here so kites what european army again, thanks for, do you see a great question we left before the break about how high Can a kite go brought? That's what I thought bra by watching Mary boffins and by the way, at the end of Mary Poppins, whether offline kites, yeah, all kite string angles are the same standing there. I want to make a note of that be true if all the Kaiser high flying at about the same height and then the wind is the same for everybody and so that they do that accurately someone and commend the merry pocket. Creators more accurately. This presenting the kite sick, good our age. So how can I go watch out because the higher the cargoes of pole wind currents? Aside for the moment, the higher the cargoes, the more
string is dangling beneath it. Wouldn't you reach a point where the weight of the string rivals the weight of the kite, not only the weight of the kite, but even the up draft buoyancy of the kite, and when that happens, the string becomes a burden to the kite and the kite will not continue to ascend. That's a problem. What is the yoke, but your guy could be one mile long. I've had a really huge kite yeah, oh yeah supercool. Oh my gosh, you take it up to the stratosphere, omitting yeah, ok, so there you have a one. My problem is in this in the stratosphere, yeah bonanza bees are about a hundred one hundred miles an hour sounds good sense, Superfund right right. So basically you now. I know why you keep your guided to your fight. You got it up there. You would just fly so before
but TAT s just very little higher than a mile up. I know I mean the side, the kite itself, though the wood, the with one square mile, would be the size of the physical yea and you you can put that a really high, the ok. I now have a new summer projects and by the way, it's good way to think about physics. Problems is compare one thing going on to the other and you don't even have to get a number? Do you want to be? ethical about it right. How high can the guy go as high as the weight of the kite versus the weight of the string? You know you might think about international heights, wouldn't be enough by does lubricate that you and I made. In fact, if you tried with your kind, you will see there's a point with a string starts getting San compared with the ability of the tight to keep it buoyant. I just get farther away from you. Rather than higher up, I feel like you'd Blake ok content if there isn't one initially wanted to build one. If we put you in my team, here's a question- and I was going to give in to this long but because its buck Rogers and that something I love. Ok, I'm going to ask it watching an episode of but rob
from this is re by the way re Beemer Thurii watching an epoch? but Rogers from nineteen. Seventy nine twinkie is missing the supply, was transferring ten million tonnes of frozen. Oxygen from space to the North Pole, where it would melt and replenish the oxygen depleted atmosphere of the planet, the Quote space Burg. Has to hit a window in our atmosphere exactly or be ignited friction in scorcher? Third to a half of the planet? My questions, one what an exchange. I know what an injection of frozen oxygen or anything from please help earth and be could have space work of oxygen scorch the earth. Ok, it's sort of thanks, yeah. First Burg, we german for mountain, say as being oxygen burg. Yeah the spaceport would be a mountain of space. If you want to know, I only analyzed I will let you have a robot Rogers know that they have made some terrible.
Worse still, the icebergs are properly named, object, mountain Iceman, so the here's the thing earth. It has no shortage of oxygen. At the moment we just ever much carbon dioxide weed mortgage of oxygen. If you wanted To simply add oxygen to the atmosphere, what will happen is fine where's that are ignited- will not burn out, as easily as they might today does oxygen, feeds fires rang right. So let's say we have twice as much oxygen as we do today and lightning strikes a leaf and ordinarily, the leaf or just sort of ignite, but then fizzle away, not with more oxygen in the atmosphere. It would totally come to flames, it would catch to another leaf and you would burns I like it was nobody's business, bestow space burg made of oxygen
is what you would describe as a very bad idea would be a bad idea unless were actually for some reason losing our oxygen, and you have to replenish right in what we are gaining is carbon dioxide? We're not losing oxygen is to correct. Now we have plenty of water. We don't need to bring oxygen from space. Water is what amicably nothin. I ate two, oh yeah, so you just what you do break the ice hydrogen away from the oxygen to get free oxygen right: you're, not gonna, Spain, s voice! Yes, maybe the buck! Rogers writers didn't know, this puts oxygen itself is not viable and only allows other things to burn right. So when they say don't smoke in your oxygen tanks, eunuch burn, the oxygen tank, the oxygen tank is going gonna burn you right. Ok, you light a cigarette, the cigarette burns instantly and then the flame spark hits your finger than a merger. Skin birgitta clothes gave, you would explode the, and this is how we lost three out three astronauts. Nepal, one, oh really was appear oxygen atmosphere inside their capsule on the Japan on a practice launch
as they were, testing communications and other things spark inside face craft triggered an burn. Incited spacecraft, ok, but they didn't like laid a cigarette. They were there were no smoking ass. Well, you said that's what happened in annual and then, but now I realize it's a spark notes, good right. Well, she got near the question for our Alex Robinson about the death star in The star wars thinks we clarify. We see the death star blow up the planet, older on set it wait. Setting So the question of how a thing would be possible what would happen to our solar system if the empire blew up say Mars? Yet such a great question, so it's really simple. First, how would you one go about blowing up a planet where you can do is look at which holding the planet together, news all the gravity and is all them tensile strength of all the solid matter, men is the planet and when we come back I'll, tell you how to blow up
plant. Start talk, radio, cosmic wearies addition we'll be right back. Since you are reluctant to provide us with the location of the rebel base. I have chosen to test this stations destructive power on your home planet, ordinary peace, that we have now learned things you carry out another target of totally targets, then name. The system. Unlocking the secrets of your world and everything orbiting around it. This Startalk, radio, Eugene murmured with mean studio, live in New York.
Oh yeah, you read me questions. I never seen any question before and we left off. Somebody wants so I blow up Mars gas on Wednesdays Lake. If the deaths structure of Mars, how what's a good way to blow up Mars you that loaded with due to our solar system going ok, so here's how to blow something up. You ask yourself how much energy is keeping it together. Google, then you put more than that amount of energy into the object. It will explode so more than whatever so more than the gravitational, so you find out, you can calculate that its physics, one or two right physics, one or one one who has had a blow apart and that's a pretty Clayton accelerated scientists calculate was called the binding energy of the planet right and it's gravitational binding. Israel gravity keeps it together. You want become the gravity, that's holding it together calculate that how much energy is now you have a device that can pump that energy
to your planet. Have their planet absorb the energy rather have the energy come out? The other side will completely destroy the planet to smithereens entirely. So How one would go about it if you did it to Mars, Weed Our curiosity rover. That's fine, discovering science there too, but affect us that much. I would affect our rover. Of townsmen, which leaves me I mean I mean our physical, wealthy age. Our mental emotional acknowledge well being three. We will continue to orbit the sun and Mars have essentially nor effect on us, will will parts of it land here and that, yes, it will enable than gain power, there'll be Mars, debris scattered all over the solar system, the submersible land everywhere. Yes, I'll get eventually land everywhere and woody radiates kids and make them powerful nokias. Mars is not radioactive right now I'll be here illegally get somewhere. Ok, here's another question from SAR planetary Day,
in the Middle EAST, where can I back a permanent year when you make a snowball? Yet how much? How much effort did it take to make us? Nor will not much right, let not amount to much about many throat at the wall, yeah it explodes on the wall. You will think of as an explosion. I do there, but it doesn't bounce off the wall right. It completely shatters on the wall. Yes, that's an example of the energy the motion of the ball of the sub, all being greater than the energy to holding it together in the first place, yes, and so you explode snowball by throwing it into a wall, I would love to throw me listen to evolve a wash it just go everywhere, not irradiate. Anyone actually planetary doesn't movies, which. The most scientifically accurate death destruction of a planet. You ve seen on the big screen how many ok, so two things the death star plan. If it can pump,
The right amount of energy into a planet will blow the planet just the way it shone. Yeah, ok, with all debris, scatter was pretty accurate. I was accurate, probably with a most sight of ITALY, accurate part of star that was accurate. Now Yoda, now in the red matter, Droplet STAR Trek the judge Abraham STAR Trek that one holding aside the, unlike Mrs read my whole holy shit. If you turn applied it into a black hole, it would become a black hole just the way they are essentially the way they show that sort of accurate implosion, assuming that red matter creates tiny black holes. That is a great plan examined. Would you need to drill it into the center now discussing the majority? Don't get me started. Sorry, cowboy! Ok, once that, once the red matter is into the surface it all, you must know that it's at the center
was it gonna know is at the centre. By has no idea will ya know they? Don't you didn't make? It seem like this, the red matters plan and they never leniency legal Romulus idea remnants. What do they know right exactly my went out in any other deaths of planets Superman, I guess the new Superman implodes than in the old one. It exploded yeah. Well it districts destroyed from within Europe as they that's more realism or no they over mind. The plants are he's here, people who have superpowers and super everything, and they don't their over mining, their own planet matter. No, did, you think of any analogies and they can send the baby Superman Moses style on a basket spaceship. I know so anyhow, yet could happen if you, if you don't Syria is unreal, it's you. Can you can destabilize a planet if you make makes swiss cheese out of its innerds? Ok, that's clear, but but I like the star wars, destruction, just that's good, all the good old fashioned planet or exploit them energy into it. You know it up market. Here's a question crowd, sourcing science from Ryan will be with the popularity of crowds,
sing, Kickstarter INDIGO. Why haven't science taken to the internet. In the same way. Why can't we get a mission say to Mars? Why crowd sourcing, true science geeks, who would love to support in a big way for article Mars, can do it so can the real Mars yeah? I think the problem is while the two things there's using the internet and having people partition, maiden data reduction as a sort of another measure way and then getting people to sort Contribute to make him mission. Have space is expensive harm expensive than your laboratory science experiment, that's all it's a matter of scale its billions of dollars. Brain reigns in billions of dollars, so not three million right. So if you want to create the budget to do real space things, it's not really. Billions and that this whole other scale. That's why I gotta take a break when we back more of star talks, cosmic queries Edition.
the future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal starter.
Go on AIDS, then we're back or start toward radio cosmic queries addition this last segment. We traditionally have our lightning round because it takes so much am time answer for credits. It questions are still involved and tell you the episode and let them think of ass lightning. Around I've gotta pretend I'm in sound bite mode and will test our bell there. We go so Gay Eugene near here. For me. Yes, I do. I do it Eric he's gonna question: could an alien species consist of only thought or energy? Nothing? We would recognizes body or mass. I don't see why not, except by the way masses energy energy is mass, so I can imagine and alien species that is energy like an imaginary. A pound of energy, I can allow my brain to accept the possibility of it,
don't know how to portray it. I don't know right since the latter and energy are equivalent. I think we're we're good. Here. I promise energy it's hard to create form the energy, when energy, because matter you can make me jewels and things and objects and brains in this sort of thing. Without it, it's a her face and I might be harder to make amorphous life, then material life. Maybe could you could do could, in the a are being made of energy? Ok acceleration, usually since we only humans. Eating is also give ourselves energy and nourishment if there is an alien that is made of energy you and have to eat it, you just have to absorb it great I'm on ammonia. Acceleration of expansion of space. To see, that's ok just and is this question: is the expansion of space accelerating? If so, will that exists Duration reach the speed of light. If so, what
happens when it reaches the speed of light, it is accelerating and overtime. It will one day exceed the speed of light which it can do, because its expanding space, not objects moving through space is allowed by Einstein's general theory of relativity praised and nineteen. Sixteen by Albert Einstein, and in so doing as the universe expands faster than the speed of light, the objects that it puts beyond that horizon forever, then be visible from your view, so they very distant future. All galaxies will accelerate beyond your visible horizon and the night time sky. Beyond our galaxy, we'll go dark and our entire known universal just be the stars, and our nighttime sky sounds fine pretty far and that we know of and what we call biology will no longer exist because there be no information, the rest of the universe other than the stars that are sitting in front of our nose. Next. Ok,
wants to know lunar lunar terrifies me if we tariffs in the moon, wouldn't nights be darker due to the last surface, relic reflectivity, oh, I almost anything you do to the moon will make it reflect more is one of the worst reflecting the moon, reflecting adding skyscrapers the moon reflects like aside Wall Tyre. The moon is a bit like I've. Forgotten is like five. Percent reflate low, single digit, reflective them. We cover did in mirrors. Would that be helpful? What would happen to the earth? So, for example, earth which has oceans in land in cloud earth is like a tent. I'm more reflective than the moon is, and so the moon is is bad. Reflects my dark. Yes, it's So much like more reflective as a pancake mono is reflective. As the surface of an iron skillet
gave so anything you put they're going to make it more reflective around. I couldn't even believe we can see it because of how non reflected by skill it was most because how bright the sun is. Son is very, very big exactly so, when you do this, if we want a tariff format, you will make the foreman brighter at night a really nice right The universe is expanding. Can we use the direction of expansion, determine the center of the universe, a k where the big bang occurred? It is expanding in every direction. Therefore, there is no centre and the best analogy I can think of as if you inflate a balloon, everybody on the surface of the balloon is expanding yet, but you can say, whereas the center of the surface of that balloon, where's the centre of earth services and balloon driveling a rabbit night, zoning got so their certain geometries, where there is no centre, even though it can be expanding in the universe, is one such shape, racist, as the minimum size for something to be labelled a planet, and why is it that Kepler thirty seven B, which is only a fraction larger than PLUTO, has been labelled
as an ex so planet, while PLUTO was devoted to a dwarf planet there. So a couple of things in Indiana, two thousand and six definition of a planet s to be large enough for its gravity to make it a sphere. Pluto checks out on that Kepler checks out on that fire, but it also has to be significant enough with its gravitational attraction to have cleaned out its environment, in which it orbits An PLUTO has done no such thing at what is in a keeper belt. I see, bodies in the outer solar system, PLUTO Dwarf, planet, Kepler, planet, real planet, Diego so just get over that so so Kepler is not covered in nice Can I see you could be covered a nice but where we don't of surrounding the S exactly negative, quick, if some are of lightning stars and its distance.
If a quasar or a stars billions of light years away. How do we calculate that distance of light digs billions of years to reach us because the universe is older than that and we waited around for it to get here and finally got here and the light that reaches us is light that left that Quasar back at the big, king of the universe, so the stuff that sent a slight that hasn't gotten here. Yet we don't see those, but we will. We will eventually, as the universe gets older, knows object, we will see them being born. They will rise up out of the firmament of the cosmos and their light will show up to us and will say, there's an object being born now that the universe and the hour cosmic HORIZON has enveloped their existence and universes olden efforts like to reach us, we gotta go thanks. Eugene for being part of cosmic could be wearies the you been listening to start radio on your hosts near the grass patient, thanks always to Eugene Merman, does such
a job with meat. As always, I beg you to keep looking up science like Galileo job, the organs which you can listen, the star talk, commercial, free, joint start talking, It ran for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com, slash star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.