« StarTalk Radio

Cosmic Queries: Space and Science with Bill Nye

2014-05-25 | 🔗
Guest host Bill Nye the Science Guy and comic co-host Chuck Nice answer your most intriguing questions about space and science, from asteroid deflection and life on exoplanets to the Large Hadron Collider and climate change.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode: commercial, free welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now, bill nigh the science guy here sitting in four Neil digressed ice and I'm your guest host for this week. Star talk, radio and our guest this week. Everybody is none other than Chuck nice, hey. How I a bill oil. Now that I'm here with you, I'm fabulous. You know what. Tell you had me. Add I'm bill nigh. So it's great to see you it's great to work. The word c is something you have to imagine on the radio, the most visual medium, but my understanding chalk. Yes, is you have
the questions that are listeners serve provided absolutely. This is what we call our cosmic queries and you do not know the questions. I have them here in front of me on my little tablet, even though I am I'm feeling the drum and what we do here is we just allow our listeners to submit any question that they would like and when I say any I mean indeed any. I believe you understanding now. These questions are submitted on the electronic internet on those computer machine. So they have not like you gotta twitter handle. Yes, he's gotta, you have a photo, you sort of visual. You know it's funny, as this is the first time I've actually use my tablets to access the questions, which means that I am able to see not only the quest but I'm able to see the twitter handled their profile pictures some of them are coming in from Google plus some of them from Facebook. So I
I literally have either an avatar or a picture of the person who's asking me the question. You have a picture that they ve chosen to send. Yes, a picture like I'm pretty sure this cat didn't ask our first question. You never know cosmic cat. Yes, so try the first quest all right. Let's jump right into this bill! This one is from Google Plus- and this is Michelle Rivera and Michelle wants to know this. What's the closest that any comment has come to earth and what was it named and when did it come close? Also, what's your favorite ice cream finished with the ice cream, but the I think that my understanding, the closest com, it would have been common, Howie, Comet Holly back. You knew nineteen ten, I believe people that you could read at night by the light revive in light of the common, so it is reported and so
then you could argue if you want to which is fine, that perhaps the impact, or that became the deal chelyabinsk bowler. Did glowing thing in the sky over Russia last year, or maybe you could say what about the Gus GO event, blowing down trees for hundreds of kilometres in every direction. That's coming real close your eyes when I hear less? Let's, let's go back to that when a kick ass, the other stuff I've heard now go back to ten, does get on Gaza. Thus there was a party nineteen o eight June thirtieth is reckoned in the modern counter. Ok, you know back then even Russia, they because of their history, historical affiliations with certain certain religious saurians age they didn't Graham, would counter to use, but in a modern counters, the thirtieth of June nineteen o eight something hits earth's atmosphere so hard. How hard did it it so hard that it blew up? Knockdown tree
hundreds of kilometres from just like charges, shockwave yeah, only So am I remind you last year in Chelyabinsk every theirs much insurance fraud com which insurance fraud is theirs. There's so much people dashboard cameras right track record, so there were dozens, hundreds of it. Because of this thing stricken through the sky, everybody runs up to the window, to watch it and then three minutes later tat the sonic boom. Hit the ground and other would actually address yeah. You had a lot of documents because a red everybody does You know what, if there is one more parliament than that, here's, the other part, what's your favorite ice creates vanilla arms. Whenever his genius and people say vanilla, boring I go you'd kidding vanilla is, is it is perfect? It's it's a perfect it doesn't get any better than vanilla, not for me right, eight, almost flavors at but vanilla with something added to my point about to bring up my point. What
strawberry ice cream, it's just panella with strong areas or the board. Just for now I gotta among ok, they're pleased by no means that I need to diminish vanilla. I'm not gonna get an fistfight in the ice cream waiver want if you want to enjoy your chocolate chalk, which, if you want your mint chocolate chip, if you want your peppermint stick knock yourself out. Ok consists more for me more for me right, Freds ass. It were let's move on and let's grab another I stood here, and this one is from. He calls himself red king coming to us from Google, Mr Nigh, which occupation would best fit for stew majoring in aeronautical engineering and minor ring in music theory. What a weird
not weird combination at all or depends what you want to do. If you really dig rockets where I got to point out that the biggest the biggest a significant problem in rocket launching are the acoustic waves, the acoustic energy in the flame tunnel, the flame ducked, ok, so to me, acoustics and sound music theory are related, intimately are smooched, fine so I and I encourage you, devise new, terrifying alumni! Bon courage! I recommend that pursue aerospace professionally, and you please keep playing music for kicks, because we need you. We were you to take us. This red were what's his name red king red king. King will. I say he read king. He or she wants you to take us too to Mars.
Wrecking is a guy once has a guy has a guy? It's a male designation King Red Queen could go I've loved. You said, yes, I'm glad you show that he died. Ok, is anything wrong. Eustace used our I did started briefly about web. That's quite all right! We're going lessons learnt there. You go! Let's move onto Aaron W There are no no air, our area of the hour. I am Aaron W and Aaron wants to know this. What, if any, is the best way to presents tight scientific fact in the way that won't make people super defensive? I am thinking specifically of anti vaccination crowd, but anyone can have a rational B beliefs and fake science? Basically, how do you tell you might get people peeled well in the face of sites,
special thing about vaccinations. Is there are proven to work you? Everybody enjoys his or her pasteurized milk and the other thing to remember not only are vaccinations designed to protect your kid from diseases, but there too there designed to protect my kids from your kids. Right, vaccinations, work and that this very well known woman associated spurious we, her kids vaccination with autism, but at the same time here she was diagnosed with autism- is wrong. Is bad and suspend disproven rival for views are discredited soon enough. Meanwhile, jock we'll be back after this.
Welcome back! Welcome his dark startalk radio bill nigh dear guests hosting for my beloved good Buddy, Neil Degrasse, Tyson Thyssen, I'm here being intent, gave it by none other than the chalk. Nice who's got your question submitted on that electronic computer internet with the electorate computer machines that their kids using And he can see your avatar yes for the first time when you, when you putting the question, we know what you want to look like. That's right. We know who you are now and we actually know mark cigarette is and or cigarettes on that particular short. Don't want to mess that up mark, but he's got a pretty cool question here, for you bill what the majority of stars in the universe being majority of snow.
That's what he says. The majority of stars in the universe being read dwarfs and a majority of planets revolving around red tours. Is there any chance of life on those particular planets? And if yes, will it be completely different? Will plants or micro organs, sums be able to use the much weaker solar energy, so a different. Take on photosynthesis. Basically, would there be, I say that have to be reopened. So I would say- and- and the reason I would say- that is there so many stars when people throw around the expression billions and then Billy, civilians billions. It's really beyond imagining for most people. Now you know what I was young people speculated that there planet around every hundred stars, one in a hundred starch, is one planet for every hundred stars, then
those how many those would be earth like you, take another fractional turns out Kepler space Telescope, Hubble space telescope right, apparently every star is a star system right with planets. Now, why would you know? Why would just a quick aside why The assumption be made that one planet for every hundred stars when our son is a star and we clearly have eight planets around our saw. We were just that we were just dealing with it man, nobody, no you didn't have a Kepler space tat. We were german, I'm talking about Frank Draken, Carl Sagan, in our work and our predecessors, predecessors, ok go ahead, the chances of their not being life when you have billions of planets register seems extraordinarily love, that is to say the chance of their not being anything. Just gotta be vanishingly small. There has to be something out there s just because we have green plants which reflect green light, mysteriously,
it doesn't mean somebody else who has an asteroid impacts. You didn't have all the sulphur, whatever the heck cadmium Whatever else we might have on your iridium right after the impact from the kill the ancient times or who knows what plants came up with or what Things came up or there's gotta be something out there and if you mean Somebody who says he or she is never wondered if there's anything out there, their line, They're lying just wait. We already know we don't need a test which is now you're a liar. So you know what if I ever encounter anyone who says I have never really thought about it. I'm just gonna call him above peace lie right to read out just what am I not trust you about. I write so that's cool, so there you have it what a great answer, because, yes and yes, there ought to be open life there and are those organisms out. There are wondering about you and me now: that's a different story:
what is wonder the same things? Where did we come from? Are we alone those two questions they're, not wonder, and maybe they already know the answer. Suitable programmes should be here Jack. That's not my strongest material, thirty hours battles dash though I like it. I like your silly- and I didn't know that about you. Look around everything right. Less. Let's move on em get too Mulder and bread, sure rich more Richard Mauler is: what's his avatar? Look like I'd, say it my business, you know our ears
looks like an accountant. What is no, I tell you raise a family man. His keys in the picture with his son or a child was going to say a child, because I have my eyes made assumptions with facts and not an evident sell the throat. He is here with the child, your kid, your kids, that my kid yet thoroughly out. I don't take pictures with my kids, you know of so here's what richer ones now, since people at the equator go faster relative to people closer to the pole, yeah. Do they age more slowly? It seems to me I've done this calculation in physics class, real. Ok, they do, but it's not so much so it's insignificant oh it's insignificant for sure, but when you get into these thousands of billions things do not add up right, I've got it, but it's a call. Question astronauts age ever so slightly more slowly than you and I do just by being up, there might be in orbit when being an orbit nugget phantom,
now. The astronauts of the very near future, if we can this term will go into where the skies dark. Hundred kilometres the beer Carmen limit, the Karmann limit they're gonna go up and down without going in orbit the We'll be slightly younger, oh by the way, when you're in a jet aeroplanes flying around me continent occur around the world. You're going your time is passing ever so slightly merciless slightly more Iceland. For those view, take physics and have not computed that. I encourage you to do that. It's fun and then the other thing that's just used to river me was there was a question. What is the attraction, but then in parentheses, gravitational tween, seventy kilogram boy and sixty kilogram girl in parentheses, gravitation boy, that was a awaiting science problem right there with you
gravitational constant Times Mass one mass to over the distance between them to, and that's gravitational computation is herbs shop, it absolutely shocked and fascinated absolutely are: let's move onto Voir Dan Narras a hand or just to do your before him really sorry that I'm about to, but you you you're, not a native speaker of Hindi or do right, it's nice, red Gian NASA rhetoric on Nazareth. Yahoo adversity is our body, that's right. So what is the best way to utilise an asteroid? Deflecting too, without actually having to use a spacecraft if possible. Like some a space station on the moon that will deflect asteroids they'll. Maybe a tractor beam, some directives,
type of similar text so that it is, is already just kind of you're, right changes? My German wanted to start record is is is this? I don't think you can watch too much STAR trek debt so to write about I'd, say I've tried, I haven't I'm having overdosed, yet the thing I'm fine, I can quote if I wanted, that is as soon as you say, we're gonna have something on the moon did deflected. That's just going to involve a spacecraft, yes or their correct that the questions, trick. Oh, we worded, but I think I have a tractor beam. Is technology he beyond us right now, however, you may recall Tom Swift and is repeller Tron Skyways terms with Junior he had repeller trans, which beams. That would repel objects instead of that taking at once yep less farther into the future, you could use earth moon, based lasers, to zap.
Asteroid, if you could find it an aim it with such precision and keep the beam narrow enough and cause, the material on the asteroid, to volatilize to a boy to burn off right to eject and then the momentum of the ejected material this latin word the agenda would then have you pretend hypothetically imagination, Lee have enough momentum to deflect asked what we only need to change. Typical asteroid might be going twenty, Kilometers a second twenty kilometers, We gotta deflected about two million there's a second about a ten millionth of its momentum, a ten millionth of its Delta Let's be, has to be changed of its velocity, indirection direction has to be changed. This is that's not a bad insightful, thoughtful insight. However, problem is going to be an international one. Just finding the asteroids is a huge deal and it is Chuck
only as far as anybody can reckon the only preventable natural disaster. I am delighted. That word out there. Thinking about this right has done a great job to go about so you're saying Similarly, it would be more. Is it more feasible to repulse than it is to guide it? Yeah, ok, sir, but created like there. There are co interrelated together between themselves. I got that is to say ponds intended in that deflecting one is gonna, involve changing its blue. See changing its burden direction. Somehow you re smack into it or you get some with mutual gravity to tow it off course right or what we at the planet very society are all hot forest volatile the surface with space based Lee that's an awesome laser beam spacecraft. I gotta tell you that's a person. I've ever heard there and I think it's fantastic, that's good! I keep thinking about
and we'll be back right after this goes before you. I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell, there's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support? Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen, the star talk ad free, you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying
Well, don't I hear here guess toasting on star talk, radio for my beloved buddy, Neil digress Thyssen. I don't want you we'll be jealous, but I'm sick here with short nice bill, each your hearts out people, join us by by audio by sound to check, has thoughtful insights that you have provided, and that is to say some questions x, Ray Macsharry, cosmic queries and we have taking questions from all over the EU whatever source, that we are part of an allowance as far as you know, as far as with all of these questions, yes, already all over the are from earth. Is that right? As far as I know- and I cannot confirm nor deny that except in my limited understanding of where they from where they come, which would be from what I know the internet,
love earth on earth. That's all I know, but it could be. Let's move onto Madison, Barnes and Madison has also included a picture that I'm pretty sure this is his child, because it's an faint and he's lying on the bed with it and look. Really happy, that's why that description, we had not is China is going to say. Are you associating with that analysis of this completely unrecognizable apparent as apparent you're right? It's completely unrecognisable debate. So sixteen miserable year yet there you have it and most of them because of the children bill I know they re it's it's. What is it insanities hereditary? You get it from your kid. That's out here we go from Madison bards Matter. What's this finding the Higgs bosom with the alleged
It was an amazing achievement. What are we looking for next with the alleged c, and is there a bigger em better accelerator being built to succeed, it wow interests, our children collider. As far as I know there is not one being built if I The king of we want builder bigger one right: does these people the atom, smashing people physics, colleagues, they cannot get enough of smashing, they love smashing and they learn something every time they smash right. So what would I yes, everybody wants to do is reproduced those results of the Higgs both on finding. Which gives everything apparently gives everything mass and then what I want to know what we want in science? Ours is to find laws or rules or theories that make predictions that are too
Who are the things they protect? Our true here on earth in their true deep in the cosmos gotcha. So if there's all this stuff, energy and dark? what flying around out there are six times the mass of everything we can observe. This some of that stuff here, and would we find it by smashing things with even more smashing us perhaps, and so you es. I would like to build a bigger collider and look deeper, but this is a civilian universe, genetic engineering? I took a lot of physics. I know what you're thinking did you put it back? no. So that aside, I like it just seems to me that what we ve seen deepening as we should observe here and I'm pitching right now here on Talk, radio or with the circle copyright bill, darkens darkened particles of dark particles of dark physics, people they love, they love their particles, good enough for particles. They got their neutrons or protons. Are they really articles or
just imagine them their photons? Are they really particles in this sort of a wave of thinking about things? And so maybe there are particles of dark energy that interact with dark matter that direct and with our darkens interact everything we know and sea, and that discovery would dare I say it Chuck change were I would change first what changes are our understanding of the universe, and actually the universe would remain exactly as we know is unless there's that that extraordinary. Maybe we could build a collider big enough to change things. Yes, I don't feel like they do and then the dinner movies was it in Cyprus question. I have to save nice job to sound, so surprised like it out, because the guy He's got a kid doesn't mean you can't think. But ok I had a joke there there I'd, sir. We cannot say, are you said just cause he's got a kid doesn't mean I can't big, but their say
about you. That's right! I'm saying that a very lonely depart here. We got let's go with you're, embarrassing me dad you better, my you're very little of her tail Eric of them. Day wants to know this bill. Ok, so thick about relativity and how time does funny thing when something is supermassive we're moving fast, I haven't my kitchen, a stove and a microwave each with their respective clock. I have synchronize the clock clocks and, after a few weeks, noticed that the microwave is run. For the five minutes faster. So my question is you: is my microwave moving faster or slower through the universe, or is it denser Dennis stove Eric? I Say neither neither are moving at Bernie. Exactly the same speed through the universe, but there's different circuitry running the clocks now back in the day. This would be
three and a half years ago. The power company is required to count the number of cycles of sixty cycle power a week they know. Have that requirement. Although by long tradition, most power companies do so what you witnessing is an art effect of the circuit design and so on. We'll see in the near future of the next generation of these appliances includes Clarks. It are coordinated with the global positioning satellites, and that is a fantastic system. If you think about it, because Bobby back right after this. Welcome back welcome back till night, here, guest hosting for my beloved near the grass Thyssen, and I'm here with none other than
I say Bill who, with his electronic tablet machine is wrangling you're, a brilliant questions which you sent to us on the internet, and I just want to remind everybody. The thing that truck seems to be fascinated foresees fastening with your questions, but I can tell he's looking at your avatars would a picture. I have to tell you and this next gentlemen, which is Danny eight as tweeting was from you know. What's a guy, we ass? I am, unless a lot about this picture will reveal something quite shocking. This is a guy in a border. Ok, so Danny Danny wants, though this gravity can affect light as in general
El General rail general? We call early, but Kevin of FAT, strong nuclear force or two black holes already do that black hole certainly affect effect, and why right and the strong nuclear force, I think I am not an expert on this, I think is independent of photons mean that's one of its deals. It is comprised of photons Photons can affect electron orbitals, but I dont think they can get in there to the strong nuclear force. Now, perhaps, coming weeks, our beloved meal will have a great deal. They say about that, but I think for tonic interactions, don't happen, don't happen inside between corks and Ryan's her heavy nuclear heavy particles in atomic nuclei with,
That said, the stuff that goes on in black holes is not very well understood. So Maybe things are torn apart and photons take on a new. Something We don't understand inside black holes, gas investigating black holes, tricky business- I would say so I would say so. I can't see him ah ha what about that flying blind is that our earth rigour, I daring edits there- you have it meant. The answer is pretty much. Harbouring problem will probably almost certainly not yet get so. This one is from an old man Carson, and this is Jonathan Karlsson at old man.
Also wants to know if you want to send a money may yet, if we once, if you want to tweet Jonathan, it's an old man cross it and maybe that's an old pictures, he looks like a very young man if, in the double hull, electron experiment e goes through walls and I made of E. Why can't I go through wall? You maybe you'll be able to, but making yourself out of ease a big tackle therein. Ice T Electronic for electric field. There's the rub her, but once again our heroes on STAR Trek there they do at all times. Absolutely you can transport down to earth if there's a cavern couple miles round. Yes, yes,
right there. When you get there, everybody will speak perfecting, except as that is the call to. However, not that's very funny, that's true. They also perfectly was well. It's a big time savour when you, when you're gonna, do a tv show, hey guess what it's in the United States for audiences than native speakers angling is the business language of the universe, piece of aerospace it as there is for sure, o cool. Knowing you travel around the world Astronautical Congress would have you as I have speaks english cousin, NASA, Justino and bowing right it was just establish this, so the Wright Brothers just established has so far back exactly that b, but who knows what the future holds? Who knows what your children will be speaking when they run their own software companies that Mandarin an Cantonese and the earth do
hinting at the inevitable decline of our great empire bill. No, but the developing world Those developing the developing world is developed, so you say that we might have to learn care to these mandate. Well, cancer visa will because wanderers what have you tonal languages and so This is not a bad thing. It's a thing. When you meet people from Europe, they routinely speak two or three languages, because after and that's that either here or there? But you know you can drive all the way across the country of France in six or seven hours you drive hours out of here, you barely get to Buffalo, I was gonna, say yells examples of where we are going to bed spark that we're all bad! It's that the? U S turned out to be this huge country. So, why do we have one more question because the bird the brakes approaching, I feel the excitement. You know what I'm gonna give you this question, but you might have to
after the bring well well, because I think you them some time for this, but this is what I at Archie Feely wants to know. Climate change deniers drive me crazy. How can we convince them that the, It is real and not some scam. I'll tell you right after that, real guy here guess toasting for my beloved, my good friend meal, the grass tiresome Eurostar, talk radio. I don't want you to be jealous. Yes, I'm here, woodchuck nice,
and he is all about Ladys. He is nice chalk. We had a question right before the break. Yes, we did and artificially wanted to know climate change deniers, rapid crazy. How can we convince them that the data is real in that com a scam? Well, here's the thing about the scam conspiracy theories, are lazy, wouldn't it be nice if there were some one in charge, screwing things up on purpose, but actually things you screwed up just sort of by accident, we got seven billion people living on a planet where the atmosphere is. Is this if you could draw if straight up on some crazy road with some crazy caribbean outer space in an hour and a half the way people drive in New York, you'd be there and where I live and let live without Venezia? Exactly so conspiracy theories are, are not very good, explanations for things, especially something is complicated, climate change. I encourage you to read the hockey stick, Michael may have full disclosure paper bag version. I wrote the forward now Jack. It's time
for the lightning round. Yes, it is, you have the bell there and what we are going to do is we are going to zip through these questions as quickly as possible. Let me remind you: This instalment of lightning round is powered by our good friends over a g. You should hand over to their you two page and take a quick look at some of the all things there doing, quick right after this segment, W w w dot com, slash all right. Let's move onto the bike. Looking, lightning round, and there you go. Let's start with Rachel Pomeroy Aunt Rachel Palm, she wants to know this. We know some things can be ignored it with light, can anything be ignited with sound? Oh yeah really sure what
you get it. You get it vibrating at its natural frequency. If you have something that's gonna fatigue, you ever try to straighten out a paperclip, integrated, warms heartache, a rubber band stretches Treasury gets hot. You can get it hot enough to burn well. That was awesome. I right this is at corporate bonds. Bad ok, this is Daniel, is his name. He actually sent this to you because you're at science, guy right guy, so he wants to know at science guide. We really could that's a question of I lost lost the question, but here we go lids. Could we build a space elevator to the moons pole from the earth's pole most base elevator? very difficult business, because the more he's going around the earth its warbling, although because, even though a little over Bobo vibration? If
It faces the same face to us. It's an eigenvalue of yours, going on with us a proper value, so it rotates once wow every month, so you're gonna have to have a pin. You're gonna have to have something like cowboys wrist with his lasso. Excellent Answer is no, as this one is from at one guilty pleasure also for you. This is straight to your bill. Is it possible that dark matter is the x, Men of a black hole is being funny, but nobody's ass. Yeah, it's going to be early. It could be that the what things that fall into a black hole come out another part of the universe at another time have they been modified. The things that fall in have these has to stuff turn into dark stuff Has it become comprised of dark archives? So the answer is no
maybe maybe maybe clear. Maybe that's right. Ok, let's, let's go it's light. Josh, let's go here. This one is from and he wants to this. Can we protect a spaceship with an artificial magnetic don't say, wait around our earth. Hypothetically people talk about disquiet about quite a bit. If you had a huge, Power, sort by power, mean electricity powers or some reactor with a sterling engine and a generator out there on your spacecraft. You could maybe make a magnetic field so powerful that you deflector, solar, the solar wind and all those particles and cosmic rays. That could mean a cosmic rays. Things that could cause you trouble are the radiation could be. The radiation could be deflected around your ship. So the answer is yes, number one shields up. Ok, this one from Adam Forest buckling. Poor, has always trouble lead on
this is from at Laura Lee Biology can build comment on how brings new claims regarding event, horizons yeah yeah. I mean it's apparently he's things that following two black holes mean come out and another part of the universe at another time, you may be a way to get the energy back. That's the way. I understand the paper that it and she asked. Can I comment I did ignorant fantastic! I write this one from at sea. J Robinson wants to know this. What would happen to our atmosphere? Gravity was turned off for one minute. So no, Are we on earth for one minute? What would the effects b we remind you, inertia pretty of matter. So I guess, if we turned off, gravity fermented the everything would continue to spend through space for a while. But then you start getting a lot of out gassing, random collisions. The atmosphere would be farmer than space. So those molecules about
off each other and disappear forever. Ok, so we're running out of time we're down through the wire. This is from Scott Avian and he wants to know what advice. Can you give a new science teacher from Katy Twelve trying to really engage their children in x and get them excited about? Science is on its fabulous question shock. What's your favorite thing about your favorite teacher, they made me want to learn the mayor, passion ass if their passionate so what's his name, S got Scots. What here come through and we'll see you next time on STAR talk, radio, I'm here with Chuck nice and we have had nothing but fun. Thanks for listening wish, you could listen to startalk commercial, free, joint, start, compatriots for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com slap star, talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.