Book passage to the final frontier with Neil deGrasse Tyson and co-host Leighann Lord. Learn about space elevators, get tourism tips for Mars, and find out how not to vomit in your spacesuit.
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Skip the commercials support. Star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free, secrets in industries within this with many questions to be answered, we find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time. What what you just recently. The domain the brakes that you couldn't do grandma South Stream Brenda get lab, applying pressure
welcome to start or radio on your host astrophysicist Neil, the grass Thyssen. My day, job is has director but hidden planetarium here in New York City, which is part of the American Museum of Natural history, and this is start talk. Cosmic queries go with me, Leon, lured, comedian, extraordinarily, and welcome to start talking, not your first rodeo here, no, not at all. I got you just cause. We get some fun stuff. We salute.
The questions from our listeners laugh from many places from Facebook from from our twitter stream. You can like us on Facebook, of course, if you could find us, they are start talk. Radio, twitter stream Start talk. Radio, so though that's all we're gonna do is explore the universally just having quite through the urging of those who listened, and so this is our give back to our listening audience. So, just let the record show and let the record note landlord Professional stand up. Comedian is also a geek energy self Card, card carrying not apologetic, even apologetically, no not at all just to just so. We know who you deal with here right, so you, you got a question here. Idea start start right now. I have a question. The question from Loreen shelter. I hope I shall I haven't pronouncement correctly. The rain and the question is: do you think private companies are going to be the main pioneers of space, tourism and exploration rather governments and
If so, I love this part, do you think? Will of into the Frankie doesn't have a job. So it's over to all these questions. Actually work were category. There are two categories spat horizontally. It runs, Needler, isn't good good. So I think this: Obviously, no reason, there's no point for the government to create a tourist industry. That's not their job, ok, all right, but what the government, do is create the foundation that would allow industries to then conduct a kind of business. So what does that mean? Yes, that's what my place is so What's a good example of this right. So when the railroads cut across the United States, in the nineteenth century, the United States,
Why are the first private companies didn't acquired the land and the United States acquire the land in some cases for wars over that right, so they acquired the land found out where the mountains, where the valleys, the it got Matt loosen Clark, played a big role in this once once find out where the friendly's are the hospitals are the trade winds are whatever are the forces that would influence how you might conduct business too. Invest those monies. Then you come later and say: hey, I would put it I'm gonna pitched head there. Because that safe, because the government demonstrated that the government owns it is part of America. So this an example of the gun doing something. First, the government was the first to go into space. They they buy them. They tap the creativity of private enterprise. To do this, did not invent everything that got us to the moon. In fact, famously the Lamb, the lunar excursion module despite
looking device that landed on the moon, softly that design and build at Grumman Long Island I stay with you. Walk Beth pays the streets of Beth Page people still beam too over the fact that the Lamb was designed in their backyard Rehman Plan, and so it did. They persist as a cultural point of pride for them. So it's NASA has always had a relationship with private enterprise. The question is whether private enterprise would lead to step into space, There is in government. The government has to do it because, for the private, to do something: that's expensive, dangerous and on quantified risks means they.
And create a capital market valuation of it. You can't say who's whose with me, as an investor on this thing, we ve never done before. We don't how much it costs but will be really expensive for sure, and you might die. They doesn't or not a lot of first responders on nine lines, exactly government. Does it first and the government issues, patents and the guy said the government finds the trade wins and light how to do it once that's done, then seeds, the pathways to private enterprise and- creativity of entrepreneurs, and so so What I see is private your sure, creating it, tourist industry further for lower earth orbit, maybe once we get the pathways figured out too routinely take routine trips to the moon. I'd I'd take a vacant. Would you go to the moon? I go to the moon check it out. I go to Mars, you know so you gotta be able to do it in a way that reliable and then you create the capital market valuation of it. So so for business.
Who take an interest in space. The governance gonna have to do it first, otherwise, you're just simply never get an investor. Saving is more work to be done on the government side then, or had those pathways really arabian knowledge, and so the government it doesn't need to fund access to lower thwarted law authorities where the shuttle goes and things like that so distant with space acts to deliver cargo to the space station, that's a private company doing should I haven't decades ago, vs me decades ago, NASA taken made a lower thought. We ve been there done that NASA should be advancing. A space won't hear right right next people, so I need NASA to monitor. Earth with satellites does not have answering a space won T get nowhere do that their national ocean, a graphic in atmospheric administration which bridge the clever pronunciation? Noah did monitors like floods and its aim renounce varies very cute, so I mean two other agencies. Maybe they can better monitor earth, but NASA,
even as an agency to advance a frontier, a space, frontier and So and then you see there what what's happened behind you too, to private enterprise. Go for! Let that be our future. And now are you? Are you not touching me for Rinki invited us around with that question where you're going to ignore that emerges, ruined Woodward will tell me more about the forenoon. Would do no well. I always thought of the fringy is representing that very hyper capitalist side of human nature. We know the business at all costs. You know that I am. I right mitya having me for rinki rules of acquisition in my possession? Is there s so, but as Americans we kind of body into the capitalists dimension of our culture bought in no pun intended, despondency, ok, novel, no pun intentions are not intended to that was very
unintended so so once you, except that I don't have a problem with going asteroids and mining mining natural resources and distributing them around the galaxy. There's still some legal issues who owns the asteroid, who owns the materials who brings back alone what the bigger guns scrubbed excuse me I'm sorry, I'm just trying to Serbia. That's how the path it has done it, but it might be that you don't need guns when the resources are limited. As they surely are on limited resources spare us when we come back to start or radio more of our cosmic queries here with landlord might delightful co host.
This is helping me the river start or greedy milburgh restoration, and I'm with my coat loosely lower and lower Avonlea and spoke earlier. I e g age.
The law, and I say that because she tweets Atley, am I do my love hallo me? I love your words today. Thank you and I read it unthinking weight of it. Is that the real definition, or did she just make data while I do both at its absolutism messing with me night is it? Is I give a real where the real definition and then I give a funny definition, an alternate as I call it, what will be the judge, whether it for that I'm fine actions, put it out area there? You go so you're here. Helping me talk about your comment on whether tourism, but what is the future of commercial space rightly and we're in the cosmic queries part of our talk, my favorite, I think of it, as I started,
after hours, because we queries- and this is our so to give back to our listeners because they wrote in these questions, and I want to make sure that we give them. I move that that you don't do that. I mean the fact that the people of our emailing in questions means there listening and they want more information. Do they want that's always great to be hungry ass? He drew yes, we feed you. These signs biscuits in most cases of any sort of peat me everything that is going on space and Nino mining asteroids and who on vat, and why not go out there. We have unlimited resources and allowing unlimited p you work at a bar bases on limited resources here's. My number have unlimited me about how much of human culture on earth turns on and on an axis of warfare to gain me. The recent visit I didn't think about how how we invest culturally, engage
access to resources that if we gain access. We then find a war to acquire rights. Ok, discipline, american and invent this. This has been going now wishing for em VERDI's good and it started with a watering hole. I want the water and I now want to deny you access to that order because it for me this is all because the resources are limited. We gotta play where this unlimited resources, fruit growing on every tree, and they say that's a peaceful culture. They don't fight each other because they don't have limited leaders are, let's get real and we all human here right, survive is the number one instinct we have negative reproduction, but survival comes first, and so basically you dont want to die right. Nightcap then you are more of you are right. This is how this comes so in space asked. For example, have a way of sorting minerals, Floris. Ok, so
Why is mostly iron on earth in the centre, because its heavier than all the other elements, so that its quite simple that way, get in a jam. Iron work it out. We are so there's iron on the earth's surface. That's a tiny fraction of the iron. That's in a most of it is in the centre with earth was molten if you're every you're gonna sing to the bottom right and then every little less heavy than that you're a little higher up the mat. So there are asked for. Doubts here that have been through this process. There, fragments of bodies that once we're we're safe in this way that if they were evermore the heavy stuff goes to the centre and we have asteroids into fragments of what was the centres of what we're once planets. We called on planet earth little planets that formed in the early to Lenity single set of that means it pre sorted. So we can get a rock out there, that is mostly iron, platinum, gold, silver, Iridium and HOLLAND to earth an asteroid like the size of a barn, let's say bring it to earth, it would have more
The monitoring was ever mind in the history of the earth, so just give as an example that, if resources are limited, my only hope for peace in space is that the limited resources is the cause of war of most war, where's that humans have ever conducted, then unlimited acts ass to resources would render that kind of war obsolete in our future. So space may be the one solution to peace for all mankind. That was beautiful. Thank you, but now you know they're gonna be people that are going to be unhappy about that. Their people make money back as things are limited or not sure, but you still have to get the resources right, yeah unlimited. You might think what that means. There's no value to it on an old, but about almond one gettin in Poland
damn asteroid all right and you want to go get your own asteroid, but I don't want to charge you for this and you're going to value it by certain amount set up an interesting combination of being unlimited. Yet it still requires a provide. Right, like myself on plan, none limited, I still had to pay border exactly so it also our I loved, as I have a gene rawdon very question, remarked the creator of sorcery creator of STAR Trek in this is farmer lately White Oliver and she wants to know a gene run very believed in science for the sake of the betterment of humanity. Do you as do our as as do we also say we all about us argillite? Do you think space tourism will help or hinder actual space exploration and do you think capitalism is the best way to make scientific discoveries, so scientific discoveries got through purist, have no obvious
patient to life. That's just the sorry just how that works at its purest. It is driven the curiosity of the unknown, ok, and so there is Michael Faraday in Nineteenth Century England who discovers that a wire passing through a magnetic field is gonna magnet horse. You may take a wire passage through it and he can measure the fact that the wire gives current induced through it for having passed through. Magnetic field. I so has a little. It's called an amateur which measures current right so so gonna? Kick? It makes the meter step are any shows this to friends and it's kind of way. You look what I found. If I move the wire, I can do the dire learns and it's in the magnet that makes him settling such a boring party. Ganz, don't asking about the wire is actually so you say of what good could this
possibly bring the world you might ask, and their is the foundation for how all electricity is produced. That is the principle What is essentially the turbine you, you move wreck rapidly move wires through a magnetic field, single current in the wire and that creates electricity that we all take for granted today, that happened with Faraday and a short segment of wire with an amateur connected to it in a magnet wow. The time it was, as you know, our eyes out, I'm paying you to do so, which is that what you have done today. I would like to ask you to give guidance. Audio plan were wise and mash up, so so so you too can require. The frontier of science serve the needs of humankind the serving the needs of humankind occur later
through the mind of clever engineers. They say: hey, wait, a minute you got and I can think then I created a machine that then serves the betterment of humanity. My physics, Professor college, was interested in space and he discovered this phenomenon called nuclear magnetic resonance. He discovered the fact that strong magnetic field and apply to an atom can a line. The particles in the Adams nucleus, that's kind of we'll because then the atom behaves slightly differently. If you a light one way versus another, ok, it's kind of a curiosity way man if you can do that with the atom. Indifferent Adams have different signatures and I'm a clever engineer. I'm going to make a new device called the maiden
residents image the very foundation of what allows us to know. What's going on inside the human body without cutting you open is based on a principle of physics discovered by an astrophysicist who didn't know or What was going on inside your body and tat, so I wanna get knew. How do we are we together on the ongoing? So therefore, since you can't require a company to make money off of your invention when it just comes off the off the. The lab? the government has to fund? Ok, once that's funded then becomes out and open and available for engineers to take a look at it who work in the import of companies who want to exploit for financial gain. So, yes, governments have to fund frontier science will space tourism? Allow that? Yes, because if you do, if you, if you have
we'll in space and it's a serial gee. I might have a zero experiment. I want to conduct so, but you got that you got platform already because you're making money off as it. So I pay you rent. I rent out a room. I bring my experiments and Ripley Good to go room service rooms and urges the government didn't have to invent a new kind of airplane to buy cargo space, a commercial carriers to carry you s, mail, which is the way people used to communicate. They would write a piece of ass were younger listener to put it in an envelope. So so any sir! Yes, once the business goes further than science can piggy back those advances, you're listening to start talk.
Cosmic queries our and I'm here with landlord. I merely grass Thyssen will have will see before for you, I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there, go to patriarch arms last star, talk and support, where does at the five dollar level or higher, to listen? The star talk ad free? You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me sing if you support us at Patria Dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking, I mean just
breathing space in science down to earth you're listening to start. Just another tours making stamps we're back STAR talk, radio, the cost require ease our meal, the grass Thyssen and I'm with Leah Lordly. An such noble work in your comedic circle can get around not only town by the country in new bid in the Middle EAST. I worked with troops, I bring laughter to wherever it is needed. I like TAT, said so you're. If you feel after vacuums, that's what.
I never thought of it that way. So I've got you cause you you're my question reader today, I haven't seen any these in advance and you're picking them out for my arm, and I go for these are from our from our listener. Yes, he's a friendless and they sent in questions in this case there I think, all from Facebook, but we also get questions from our side will start on radio that net and actually, if you like what you here and you want to pick up on, episodes. You can get it from STAR Talk: radio dot net, this, like a blog on there in this fund staff, and you can leave your comments, but if you're sort of more traditional and you can find every star author ever was on Itunes. I love that's the traditional
that's where we are now boys and girls that the technology is move in future, for if you also ashen marsh, just download Itunes. What what do you got for me? I have a question from Brandon Miller and I love this is a double. He said: how can we have space tourism when most tourists would be puking everywhere? Very practical? since sir we're bringing back the earth. So all these questions are space tourism based. Yes, yes, so if it known by many suspected by the rest, going the space You upset stomach and of one of the primary reason, for that is when you hear this year in one g we live in. One g
that one g changes to any other kind of g. Your body reacts year. Your ear canals respond you're here your brain has to try to reconcile. What's going on in its effort to do so. You get an upsets the commotion sickness. It's called right, however, once you have reach the new gene in which your embedded itself this issue from one digital zero g can give you very queasy stomach, but once you're in zero g you can just get accustomed to that, because Gee force is not changing its just constant, it's just that a new value and that new values zero does so in he's tourism. One of the places you Miko is orbit and by the way, when orbit you're in freefall towards earth. If you knew that I did not
How can that doesn't mean? I'm in a bad Tom cruise movie so asked how come it doesnt have how come it doesn't get because so how can you for towards something? And never hit it because you're going sideways so fast that the very spherical shape over the earth has come, its surface away from you at the rate your falling towards it, Ah, that's why orbit requires such high speed? Ok to keep that to keep them, I want an Isaac Newton figure. This out in sixteen eighty six be published while the Pub data sixteen eighty seven, he published print keeping the the the mathematical principles of natural philosophy, that's the full name in Latin there was published and latin and in there he thereby actually it was. It was the man knowing this is in there and he would later publishing work called new. System of the world and in there
it describes the very first orbit because watch what happens if you tell if you through, if you throw something horizontally, it falls to the ground or ass. I thought I was just me, but I can't later learned, as we saw it. Faster it'll go farther away from you before it gets the ground, yes, but its falling. Whole time or gas I was strode even faster. Annie goes farther along earth's surface before it hits well there's speed with which you can throw it so that it how do you think one sixth of that way on the moon you can jump high and run from it while it for towards the earth and, as it keeps that up it will stay moving, powerless the earth's surface and make a complete orbit around and if it makes a complete orbit around it'll stay in orbit, and that is the definition of orbit and for earth. That is seventeen thousand miles an hour at that speedy. You go
You are moving so fast water surface. The curvature fault with you. So you were in free fall when you're in free fall. You are in zero g I've gotta be a geek, because that is so high. That aside, I got your hearts. Writing that really does I can do. Is yes? Ok, so so that's why astronauts in orbit or weightless, because there is free fall towards her there, just as weight was as you would be. If I put you in an elevator and cut the elevator cable news in free fall I'll towards are ok. I could see that soon. That's not, it does not have exerted. Ok, so the tourist destinations that in orbit, you feel good, Is he getting there because we have to draw from one zero to one zero, zero g? But if you stayed long enough in Georgia, you just get used to it. You buddy says I'm cool this, let's keep it now. Even so, if you don't like zero g will take it to the moon, that's one Gee. Then field superhuman, because your muscles that accommodate your body weight on earth.
Our accommodating aim, one sixth of that way on the moon. You can jump high and run fast and do cool things go to Mars that forty percent of earth Gravity Rice a few way If you weigh one hundred gimme some pounded year, twenty, I don't really want to know. I was adding to the hundred arrogant Bryce. If you re a hundred pounds on earth, you re forty pounds on Mars and you'd way fifteen pounds on them hey, Ladys, yet so picking spot, we don't get queasy stomach and you're good to go. You're listening to start talk, radio, the cost Equerries will be right back.
The future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal star, tie we're back start talk. Radio. This is the cosmic queries part of the hour, and I would leave lordly and always good to look across
the guy. He wants me comedian, extraordinarily great, to follow. You follow me on Twitter and is what city as you now we're in the world, as we are well aware, as Leon where, where the Lord is we're, Lord, so you're reading me questions of asking the questions. The call from the internet and decade, Facebook on space tourism and the last question was about you know. You know people going spacing getting. Second, as I just wanted to understand, are you saying you know people will get queasy like in the transition but think it used to it? Will they not get sick now at all? How interesting mild motion sickness? Who do you know what those symptoms or no sleepiness Billy yes, that's why? If you want to get it maybe to sleep. You put it in a car seat and drive. The car out is, I know, people there,
you then I just never knew why and if you're out of what. Why are you more prone to sleep in a moving vehicle? Have you noticed that yeah yeah yeah so knocked I'll call you I called and knocked out cold, and so you, the they first sign of motion sickness sleepiness. Ok, so if them, Sicknesses mild, then please simply go to sleep. So if you're in space in your transitioning you're going one location to another, just receive, you can park yourself their first symptom site for breaking out everybody here, because if you are in a place where it zero g and knew it fully open and pressure, I so you breathing any start, throwing up. That's just bad. You ain't something, and then the development flies all around. It gets in other people's pair and things it's not good. There's an applicant for not could first impression, so it is possible to go Accustomed to that state, but initially yeah
wanna just take a nap or or pump offer driven me in on the way, that's what they do with vomit comment. You nobody vomit comment and no normal, but of all the comment, I don't get you gotta get. Will you do get out? We may well wrong prizes into the wrong the wrong puddles right. So there is a factor. Is a company called zero g but have might have a new name now, but their several organisations that have a claim that the charter charter display All the seats are taken out and the walls or padded and your no you strapped in until the thing that takes off. Goes in these loops. These parabolic. Trajectories. So it goes to a very high part of an ark and then falls to earth and in the future member. I said in a previous segment yeah in freefall, your weightless, so this goes in a dive towards earth and you get about.
Team twenty thirty seconds of weightlessness court in any got dubbed the vomit comment, but lately They ask you: are you queasy cause? You know cause you been to amusement parks lie. I have you know your regret risk. You know right, so they Pompey with Germany and then make sure you don't eat for me, no six, eight twelve hours before then ok scenario, and now your stomach has got nothing to give. So now they reduce the sort of the vomiting factor and you just have fun. Wow know oh yeah. They use really
Did you bring a cat into zero g because cats always want to write themselves when you let go of them as if they were on their feet? Are you are me, but when there is no gravity factor which is the cat do yet we got from this footage of that go, go Google! Why are we putting shuddering? We have you set out to strategies get yeah. We can. We have the zero vomit comic cat. This is bad. What it means is the deep down we actually love dogs, better switchover cats are allowing experimental. The cats are the guinea pigs. So you have another question I do. I do have another question. Let's see and the mechanisms when you should is, if I can't, I will tell you that this is a real mark. Russell from Facebook wants to know is a space elevator feasible at our current state of text No, now
What's a larger space, elevated just for those who didn't know a big concern and space travel is what how do you get to space really cheaply and it turns out if you orbit higher and higher around the earth, it takes you longer to complete our right cause. You need right speed to be an orbit. Lower authorities, seventeen thousand miles an hour ago a higher up, a lower speed. Will enable you to sustain an orbit. There is a magic distance magic. Special distance at which you warm speed equals the rotation rate of the earth? So you will, you're hover over specific spot of the earth, it takes you twenty four hours to complete an orbit just the way, take twenty four hours. First rotate at that distance. You can principle, could just lower down a cable, and then you climb up the cable and get into earth orbit
engines. You'd only watch pads right. That would be the space elevator, but now the cable has to be strong enough to hold up its own weight and right now the Urban. Nanotubes are the only thing that can do it and the longest one of these to those that we ve ever made is like a centimeter want, and it's gotta be twenty three thousand miles? The answer is no we'll be right back here. Listening to start. Marking the secrets of U world and everything orbiting around. It start eyes
we're back. I'm starter radio, this, the cosmic queries part so openly and Lord you, my co host, guess: composing yeah! Thanks thanks! Banks will do in the glad to be back here here. So you know, the previous questions about space elevators the angle- and you said something that in forgive my ignorance. I wasn't sure I understood you talking about that we don't have a cable strong enough to in a hold of its wait far less at an elevator to it years. That's why we're not vary so that space elevator is essentially part over surface at a distance of twenty three thousand miles from our centre, and at that distance it orbits once per day, which means its hovers over the equator. At that distance. Tell you
the voice of a cable, you block air traffic from going through. The YAP guys go, go snare. Aeroplanes that go through it and then so the cable has to be first, that long enough to be able to hold up its own way, and then you attach an elevator to it and then have people in the elevator in their overnight bags and whatever else. So it's a really cheap way to get two space, but the techniques she isn't ready for it. We think carbon nanotubes, which is a very it's a new form of I ve been discovered ten fifteen years ago. That is extremely powerful and very light, and when we pioneer that that will transform construction materials right, one of the greatest challenges of a big building is: can it hold up its own weight? Alcohol I got, this is why bottom walls and click the historically bottom also thicker than was at higher floors until steel was invented. But then you need, you know, structures to hold it to do so. The base doesn't buckle. How so, if you're, very like materials, you don't have a problem so space elevated would be
from the same advances that would take place if we pioneer the carbon nanotubes and is pure carbon straight the tubes and its way stronger than steel or anything that exist today, Serbia, others there is some up there. Looking amount will yet available honey, but what we really need not really available will really be of good roles of it. But what we really need is someone to compose the space elevator music. What right have twenty three thousand miles space elevator dj jar has now open. How long would that trip? Take their elevator go you I don't know about you. I wanted to be fast reviewing three thousand miles, that's almost as far as the entire circumference of the earth. So, if you're going to speed of an airplane, harmonious to go around the earth takes allies at takes it essentially day to completely travel around the earth in a very good in a mock one speed airplane. So but it
view, is constantly changing. Earth is getting smaller line. I know you can and pushing of entertainment. You know it's not. The act of taken spells. Space elevator itself is part of the vacation. Ok you can you? Well you? I say that, but people get bored quick, you know used to be wearing an airplane was exciting, and now it's pathetic actually give them a video game just looking at the video exactly exactly so. Why don't you go and get other question? I do have other questions see here in this, the cosmic. Wherever we go here we go. We have a question from Sheridan Mc Gowan on Facebook and she wants to know. Where would humans land on Mars. If we ever, the planet landing there and why it isn't quite space tourism but its spacey, because its basic welfare, I think of Mars as the american Southwest their pay
this where there is the Grand Canyon, yes, there's a beautiful structures that that look great events in the setting sun painted desert there's their different terrains that attract different kind interests more money. It has the largest volcano in the solar system, really Olympus Mons, which is latin for just Mount Olympus, Wainwright, and what's that addition. Over the years had been too Geologic features in this is more as a logic features, but features on the moon is well after corresponding each was here on earth? So, for example, in the Abbey nine mountains on the market and on the moon- and we have ebonite mountains here on earth correspond. But his Mount Olympus in Greece is Mount Olympus on Mars gas. So so maybe your mountain mountain volcano person, so they be a tourist John to their give here if Europe into valleys and then in a river beds, you go to
vows, Marineris switches, Mariner Valley, and so so Mars, not just one destination it. You can go to a floodplains places where water had once flowed river deltas. You can go to lake beds. They have long ago, operated leaving salty.
Residue at its bottom salty. We call precipitate wanna, be chemical about it, and no different from like SALT Lake in Utah that used to be a liquid lake, the warder evaporated leaving saw behind. So it's it's a geologists dream place, but also, if you just simply a tourist, it would be studying, and you can hear you not out look out not only look down. I would look up and I take a picture of earth in the martian sky. Now you Pekin my Year and Mars actually has to moons of its own photos. Indeed, us they can a lame moons. They like laying out completely like one of them is like eight miles across the other is like fifteen. Did their tiny? You, like your lies. Only that more should be wound. Excuse me, you know these are my country, like I'd, openly, shaped and them near a small. So this
to do a lot to see and Mars has called distortions to yeah. I would go to all those places on ten different. I'm gonna wait till they get a spy. You ve been listening, a star talk creatively and thanks for me and my guess, how both think yet another time starts radios grudging in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. I've read you farewell and, as always, keep looking eyes like Galileo job the organs which you can listen, the star talk Commercial free joint start talk on pay. We're on for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com slap star talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.