The sun is out, the weather is warm, and summer school is in session! Neil deGrasse Tyson, co-host Matt Kirshen, and astrophysicist Charles Liu answer fan-submitted questions on mathematics, the Big Bang, the laws of physics, neutrinos, relativity, Pluto, the smell of the Milky Way, and more.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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from the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming all is based and start with science.
Start your host
the grass Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist, and we're coming to you from my office at the hidden planetarium of the American Museum of Natural history right here in New York City, and this addition I'll start on we're calling summer school,
You said you had. The professor ran Charles Lula. Charles welcome. Thank you so much for having me I love summer. School do love some absolutely. I got my co host for this episode. Macher. She met a welcome back. Thank you so much alright, hosting
we'll be maybe science probably sign who could be science nearly not shore for science? I can't believe is no sign of a problem
weekly review of science. Current events, that's exactly as excellent excited about gas. Keep that going. Keep that go and Charles by Professor
the city University of New York. So what kind of lentils air travel suddenly exactly are? We are so does even upon this, a cosmic queries version, but it is called summer school people just trying to catch up,
that's right with stuff they might miss or get ahead or get ahead. I forgot somersaults forgetting ahead
four motivated students,
and with that in mind, I think that starts with a quite academically advance question: let's do it. I think.
Cooper. Holland on Instagram asks how hard what I have to Fort
nor can I was talking about setting also wouldn't sunrise, be a good time to try it
as to the hollow from Arizona state from
Yes, your go! I'm coughing, because imagining how much gas needs to be used to me?
happen, but the reality is first
I assume you have an escape velocity from the sun right,
If you want to escape from the earth. Oh he wants to.
From you. I thought you wanted on earth to escape from the sun. Oh, that is out of her and ass years and its main larder earth into escape velocity, that's harder than just
wanna try right escape, that's easy. If you can't be married, we wondered why on earth would be
light, hearted because earth
the velocity right out altogether push out of my head his position on again tree, yet it can have a three last through suitable bathes y know
for when I am, but is that, where solid fuel or liquid fuel rock or there will be no vetches,
pressurize yesterday. This is bullshit
the appointment, pneumatic rotten, we're like like a sea or to pellet right up
like us pneumatic near laugh now see
orbital velocity is about thirty kilometers per second.
Erect around the sun. The engine take the skirt to that, and so that makes time one point four times thirties about forty two kilometers per second,
most masses about spheres as acute little fact that, whatever
your orbital velocity around it-
the worrying. If you multiplied by the square were the two that's the speed,
skip that object, yeah, it's a very clear back. It is it's me. It's nice coincidence in math and the earth
massive towards whose eye one point for earth masses. Six
billion trillion tonnes right so degenerate. The amount of
impulse necessary to get earth that much mass up to that velocity. That's a lot of kids,
yeah, because you it's a momentum thing, so you need Enough Ex Bell gas,
that the recoil of your planet can be meaningful and significant
correct me if I'm wrong, but you also have to make sure you are in some way tethered to the earth. So you're, not just blushing, dragged the earth written you always you'll just fly off at a tangent right, yes, right up,
I think, ideally, you want do all humans involved and drank you'd need on holding onto a tree or something he'd also need every cow year, the cow and put him altogether. I think that's a very good summer school problem calculation to do ass, Cooper, good luck with rain, but in principle yes, so in other words, if you are in space,
Various ways you can actually set yourself into motion
to do so. You have to lose mass from your body either Gath through gas, liquid or solid
and if you're, at sunrise. That would be a good time, because the best way to inject that extra velocity, the Delta B, is in the direction of the orbit. The ten
to the orbit, so not straight out, as some people might think, but actually out at ninety degrees. So you can build with to the speed that Europe has itself yes ripe. Ok,
by bite. My all that methane there can be proud
dangerous ITALY drew one match: does it got yeah? They never bother. That's a fool!
air, that's not it s a greenhouse gas. Yesterday, oh yeah yeah yeah, very potent more button.
And co2 through. So you really have the light that yeah.
But then I like what they would like in this way that you light single wait. I eventually theorist way. If you leave earth you need the greenhouse gases is maintaining its right. It's the balances, the balance as very exciting
you know what I think I'm gonna have to sign that to my astrophysics class next year and the
dean, will call you maybe Cooper will help me out within well. While we are doing calculations at home, foreman, unfair
asked, is math a discovery or an invention
beautiful. Beautiful. Forget me started away. You're trials for okay well remain
that my wife is a mathematician. Yes, she is right.
And so I am my wife has a pastry mathematical. That's right,
yeah twins ease ass. We got math darwinism, family here and my son also given a choice of either studying, math or astrophysics in
college has chosen math. Anyone that
okay? We still levies are at nine
I know that it is applied
When did you know what the signs,
when he was a little kid putting refrigerator magnets in strange shapes. I knew that something was something something was that hiding something something was thousand incorrectly anyway. Math is something that exists by itself, but mathematics as we use it and formulated today is in an invention of humans. This is clear:
reality of the universe, because things will do what they're doing whether we understand the Bernard and weak
aided mass in order.
To try to understand and reproduce and utilise those things that nature provides for us. So, for example, when the ancients were building pyramids, they invented geometry
Those pyramids would have stood anyway if we had put them together and not known the equations, but with the equations the ancients were able to build and proper.
The same is true with say, rocket equations that allow us to
some things out into space. We could
and things into space without knowing how to do the calculations, but we wouldn't had much control over so bottom line. The
you see in textbooks today or in papers. We humans have invented that
following a set of rules that nature has provided for us as a template? Neil I'm ok with their local, I'm! Ok! I don't like
debates about whether one word or another word best describes it
I'd rather say
maybe our language needs. Yet a third word that perfectly accounts for it.
We get rid of the argument. Also,
That will be a discovery or an invention. Is the word between the two that we don't have
convention, which is why we are now that's acts that math is oh yeah, yeah yeah, I have visited his heart, or is it a wave in quantity? Why we arguing that its both
We just don't have a word. We tried we try to tackle.
But it didn't catch her away in a particle. So so I just goes out
some sort of branding excise. When the eighties is amazing, we haven't go seventies, disco, venturing, ok, the fact that mass works at all as a tool to
he called the universe is evidence that
the universe. At least. The parts that have revealed itself to us follows logical. Repeatable repeatable
and math is simply away to code for logical repeatable patterns, and if so, it's remark
Well, that mass can describe the universe at all, except that math is perfectly logical system, and so was the universe. Put it together of horse into marriage maiden have very much like music right now
music. That kind of connection and the beeches understood that well, with their sunk got killed
this. Can you can't get us and, as I said, the calculus was an emperor room.
As an old joke
I'm going out of the brothers Flavius MAC. Why are we talking about things? Get us one thing I would really like. I mean it, I'm going through different questions together, so Eric Hansen on Facebook asks. I recently read that
all of the space were taken out of every human on earth, resulting mass will be about the size of a queue of sugar.
How, then, can anyone adequately explained how the entire mass of the observable universe was once was once a point
only microns, wide,
Then I'm gonna combine this with its other question of beautiful question I had some today I will. This is an old quota question I could have turned out afterwards, but I thought I'd want to leave this just in your subconscious the bubble over while you're answering that from Ashton
what an also on Facebook other than the Big bang
any other scientific theories that have been discussed as possible explanations for where we came from well so
those those who, together or separate as you choose, ok. So this is basically a cause. Malagigi question sure right. So I'll take the car Malagigi question number one: you can take his magic,
number two, unlike both of our answer, each one draft we'll get. You have. Let me little room at the end of it. So the right
is in the universe, is so different now than it was back then
simply because there were some kind of physics that happened between the moment of the Big Bang and the present day that we still don't you understand, it is completely true that the universe back then, the density of the universe right around the moment of the big bang at the plank time with cod was approximate tend to the ninety seven
kilograms per cubic metre and prevents gear, and even if we took all of humanity,
back in the sixties. Now seventy two, the sixtys we gotta, go nuts. Absolutely you said it.
We have as a circumstance where the matter of the
density is so remove from anything we can think of that the human being
who's the size of a cube of sugar analogy when you move all the space.
At density, is still only about ten to fifteen kilograms per cubic,
So there was another state of matter,
about the matter itself. What is it? What is an Iphone? It's not even there complicated, ok, ok,
stays as solid matter
just taking out all the space between the particles, yeah you're, not going to
much more than that, but at the temperature
so the early universe matter is not stable as solid matter. It. Its energy,
you can pack energy into any kind of small volume you want. So
I regret to say that a fair way to it is apparently refer ways it, and so, as a result, the the laws of physics that were governing that behaviour produced something
that eventually vault into our universe today, and we have yet to decipher scientifically the processes that went from that to now? That's a fellow at night I have to tighten. It is neither would have the definite
went from then too little bit after them, because we know we're having a little bit after that until now, yet atmosphere, that's good physical, yeah yeah.
And by little bit after Neil, I think you referring to tend to the minus thirty years, such as rail area,
so the zero point, zero gazillion of a second, we managed trace it back
very long way? Yes, but that last level do not last goes a little bit. His anger is really really that's raising an end that said ways into that. Second part of repression and where
what is going on in that tiny, tiny fraction of a second there
is so different from what we know today in our universe, and so that's where the speculation can lie right. What could have happened other than a big bang, as we understand,
today could something else have generated the kind.
Of energies and effects that have led to the way the universe expend day. There's lots of speculation
was really really hard to be able to decipher or to pinpoint the physics involve its were adding extra dimensions?
adding extra particles riding all kinds of extra crazy ideas, and none of them have yet panned out in a scientifically verifiable way.
Let me just say: do you think we're happy about a big bang? Yet it is a great deal in this is like weird stuff I but evidence points to that. The universe we now occupy-
can be described by what happens if you had a big bang as as accounted for with a small dance hot early beginning and again,
is that the amount of hydrogen and helium and neutrinos in and
the age in the density and distribution of this comes out of that we have a better
For I do fine, we'll take it,
but until then was stuck with the big Bang has effort
The way the side? I think that's a great point. Ok, the imperfections of a scientific theory drive people nuts. We want theories to be perfect right or not
and that's where the science and with learning thought you know
who is whether the addition is just an add on or whether
to throw it everything to come up with a new idea. Do you think that last gazillion of a second will be explained or arisen? Even explain?
we ve got top people working on a right. Now the call string theorist yet topic and Cosmology Ostend, general top people, strength, there's just one group of promising paths, but all of cosmology is really about trying to get that last little type.
Question this is I'm gonna stay on this theme for your question, because Chris Coltan on Facebook asks
Why aren't we expanding with the universe if we are part of the universe
I get asked TAT question a lot and I my students and I'm gonna.
Had a coded too that will I ever break six foot
the growing which no one would have relatively easily demanding very openly there. We will get the answer to that when we return for a second segment
summer school start
hey I've got no secret for you.
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Charles Loop measure. Thank you knew
faster draws, Lou Puny, Staten Island MAC, cushion the little
a little is done. So I told you: how do you like five five five
twenty pounds, eight and a half stone what's best for me.
Stone yak? As Britain really doesn't know what units to equip we're metric, sometimes of Muslims? I'm here I stole in some
This is where I had a view. We do. Freedom, veggie metric normally do Celsius for temperature, but they will do stones here. You have issues metric issue like comparing thinks of a size of animals at that
the stones, come from, I ve known under the hammer and earlier hands hands and whose hands whose feet so we left off at the first segment a question
about? Yes, if the universe is expanding and we are part of the universe, why are we not expanding
and the answer is electromagnetic forces. So,
The expansion of the universe is its own thing, but it does not count her act on small scales, things like Adams and molecules pulling one
it or electrons and protons, or even literally thereat modules in his pinky. That yet point so, as he picks
there's on his hands makes an excellent point. So the reason my pinky nail is not expanding away from my pinky finger is because their being held together by other.
It forces way stronger forces in the short and the short distance in short distances so
out at the distances of millions or billions of light years, the expansion of the universe dominates even galaxies are carried along for the ride, but on scales of humans or even planets. Really, those other forces are much too
even solar system is not expanding, has ok cause. I always
I've been given the analogy in the past of the blowing up the balloon and watching the dots given.
The reports on the surface- that's right, but is it? Is it then
was more like a blowing up a glow,
the has like ice,
these floating on its, but the ice sheets state the ice
you stay in one colombia- is a correct. Better risk assessment, I may become further part, is in a glow of expands. The balloon, if you drew a galaxy with a galaxy, would actually would actually be a big government. Were this not so, she put like will sticky notes on the balloon, and that would work right
He knows this. I have the ability to the and lifesavers. Your Google,
no you're right and Jerry converted to Ngos so thus taking those themselves and the life save as would become further apart, but within themselves want. We want in the same size, correct got it. Ok
is there something I looked at in a very good question. We do. We do have what an excellent audio
besides, this is an excellent already unless they just called,
no, I'm sure deserve
but our research man next aright from Ben Retina at Ben, makes too
the on Twitter that guy I've heard of Ben says please disk,
The laws of physics sounds like we're doing:
homework? They're gonna pull rank Harry Ready, ok,
in one of my books yeah, I have a chapter called on earth
as in the heavens- and that is all about the effort to discover laws of physics on earth and the question about whether they apply in places other than earth.
And it's not a given that that should be the case.
Been that summit
discover. Earth is different on Mars or different on, but it turns out it's not saying what I would be interested.
It is not a sir. The laws of physics cassettes when ITALY, with all my life, do you yet
do have. Otherwise what are the laws of psychics? Ok, I've never been curious about that really should be now
misery? Yet we make the headlines
you ve never seen. Yeah psychic predicts winning
that's true university or get there that's true, but otherwise was
six are very simple. Yet mean they fit, you know if you
I remember I was a school summers taken in accounting class. I saw the book tat. They were carrying it had like a million pages in the book in my book.
Which was, unlike all of gravitational physics, have like a third that many pages
I can understand the whole universe in recent weeks in my book, but they need about four times a fat just to be able do. Somebody's tax fairness and, I said
because you can't reduce the tax code. You can. I thank your reverence. The other groups
of physics. Is you learn some rules and then all the rest derived from the pretty my very powerful when and in every softened,
someone come along goes actually those rules, rules like yeah and we're Rib Newton
ethical samurai. You got equals empty square, got Maxwell's equations, yet we're done praying Aisha, Young thrown a few quantum theory,
Ex Declares year roadway regulators years worth of physic study is just f on one side force and then am I
a mass times acceleration on the other side, and you just change
in a gazillion different ways. You change and may in a gazillion different ways and that
that spring and run springs always thought for free gap. Absolutely as an absolute is beautiful gray, question
I really enjoy this question because, apparently ass it came from a four year old, oh
the four year olds Llanos after stormed the four year old Son of PIN tee from Lass asks
nice. Why do
punctured balloons fly around chaotically. Why
fly on a straight line, wonderful question: the when you have a rocket. Actually, you know how they travel and straight lines are always very
impressed right, but we don't see, is the amount of control mechanisms and structures within the rocket that make sure the exhaust comes out in a very orderly and a very directional fashion. Right when you puncture balloon, the exhausted coming out is coming out in a way that poorly control, it's not a pin pricked hole. For example, just there's a difference, you can try this it put a little tiny hole.
In a balloon, as opposed to a large hold the boon, the larger the hold more chaotic, the flow, those. So it's
matter of whether or not you can control the air coming out in a row
the bull ever linear away, compared with whether it just rushing out all at once, but also you
What's a movement of the air,
line up with a centre of mass of the balloon
So if that lines up in the balloon will just be pushed in one direction, if the jets
There is coming out at an angle dick,
some straight to the centre, mass you'll start rotating the balloon
possibly is not symmetric, did a little at the bottom of it. Would you, rather than yet did not the not so
the balloons weight is not symmetric and the censure the master, the balloon would also move around as the limit deflate. Yes, yes, Sir, what you have to do is configured might get us
raw, maybe two guys
the air a little better, have some stabilizers, and then
make a balloon rocket yeah. That would be a lot of fun, but I love that question. Cigarettes are like a kid that
the Terran a birthday party. I want that kid on my research. Ok
So when we mostly time any pinprick uploaded blows up right right. So you have to do this carefully. Yeah, I learned as a child. If you put a piece of tape on the balloon for her than you put the whole through the tape, then the rubber or the outside, like flexible stuff, doesn't rupture in a rip and you just get little hole and you can have a gallows, have done this
of course has never nor haven't, put tape on a balloon to puncture all give it a try. Somebody's waving inclined to just pop isn't fair city
to face to face too, that you are correct and I'll try this from now on
masking tapeworm, I used like plastic invisible to book a scotch token, so pulses pray vomit
Now you put on both sides of their you. Does it won't go away, go against our spitting. That would be fun right before your old balloon experiments like that. So far,
surprise on histogram, says high quick question
would you explain you tree knows too dumb teenagers who know nothing about astrophysical, gay, ok and then I should it doesn't make clear whether they themselves guns. Are you nature or a threat of red, fairly hundreds pointing through? I, let me jump in right now and say that there are no dump teenagers they're, just art, I'm an edge.
Later- and maybe I'm I'm showing my by us here, but I've never found in actual dumb teenager. They can be pretend to be dumb. They may think good, oh yeah, but they're not actually dumb. I want people always to feel like that. They are smart because they are and not have to act dumb or pretend to be dumb to be cool. So there's no such thing as a dumb teenager. That's just my opinion. Sorry had to get it out there now to answer. The question
a neutrino is just a little tiny particle that comes out so that in atomic interactions, nuclear
nuclear interactions, energy is properly balanced, gave both in the
ocean and in the amount
That's really what a simple way of describing it achieves its a pretty weird particle
because no one knew they existed?
and there is an imbalance in the experiments that were being done in nuclear physics and was Enrico Fermi. Yes, who said, there's gotta be a particle carrying away this momentum, Thou hast, we're lookin. We don't fight scattered people
it's gotta be what properties would have which can have any charge? You gotta be neutral
and it's gotta be really low. Mass little
he's got a little and neutral and
the funny thing they lead so in a neutrino.
I Bambi, no new says just a diminutive version of right, neutral, of neutral or of a neutron right, but the funny thing is when this was first proposed. A neutron had not yet been discovered. So when the neutron was discovered, people like always this, it did
calculations, not notes that it does not it there's. No, that's even smaller than a neutron, there's no charge right so yeah, it's got its business,
very to what's going on in the universe. Bad is very hard to stop plows through anything, but what's the number neutrinos go through?
some every second from the sun, many trillion trillions. Many many trillions review Mohammed real
it could be the conditioning themselves. So how do how do they don't interactive? That's why they're, so there were so hard to do what they do interact.
Very many money right. We can detect them and it was one of the great experiments in astrophysics that allowed us to find new trainers coming out of the sun. What happened was that people took a very large vat of
dry cleaning flute very pure put it down more than a mile below the surface in a spin South Dakota
and surrounding nothing. Just a preexisting salt mine was in it was a gold mine or go home. State
old gold mine I saw, and it was
all the way down to the bottom they put
there and they surrounded it with a lot of cameras, and so they just watch this tank of very pure cleaning fluid and when a neutrino hit, even though trillions and trillions pass through every second, if I don't get, one neutrino hit everyone once in awhile and when that happens, there ll be a flash of light, and so they watch it and make sure the flash of light.
Not caused by anything other than a solar neutrino, and that's what I thought was like these livid every turns out that that particular molecule perchlorate
rising and needed the korean and yet- and it had a special nice property that it would, when hit by neutrino. With that interaction, very rare occasion, interaction would cause a flash how long?
Did that experiment happen? Is it reasonable decades? Over several decades ago, was still seven raise Re Davis Jr was the experimentalists John. The call was the theorists that we re neighbours. We got the Nobel Prize. I guess it s, not job call. Yes. Yes, people didn't fully understand that the syrian experiment in the observations they all have to come together to make to make them discovery, that's Craig, but that was a real triumph and it led to a second
Rediscovery actually because turned out that the number of neutrinos that were being detected from the sun were fewer than we expected, and so for a moment, people thought wait. A second is the sun deadened. We just don't know it. Yet it was known as the solar neutrino problem, because those neutrinos had to be produced in order for nuclear fusion to be going on. So if they were half as many as we expected, then maybe the sun itself was starting to run out of fuel scary Brian scary prospect turned out, though there was just something happening in our upper atmosphere called neutrino oscillations. Another amazing does
yes I'll be, I throw you a basketball, but you catch a football right up with those of the experiment was designed to detect basketball and but you're actually receiving.
The boss and when it is, someone in between us is swapping them out, and it was amazing that was what was heard. These neutrinos come indifferent flavors. It turns out who knew who, at the time,
ok, so there isn't just the one you Trina pots called as three yoga three different kinds: electron, neutrinos town a tree knows immunity names and their matter counterpart and they enter matter covered with six.
Sprinkle physics is amazing. I love summer school great question summer. School exports arrive, Kyle Ryan, top unpatriotic asks, ignoring the
old. Could a settlement survive on the surface of PLUTO? What would radiation levels be like
any useful resources allowing water ice I'll back to that question,
The future is space and the secrets of our planet reveal star, die
starter Somerset Map before the break. You, you had a penal question
It is yet how many people have of history
What are we bury the hatchet long ago? Well, whether as applies are not, could a settlement survive on its own? Will you can ask? Why would you want to do such a thing right because, but just take? For example,
Charles is there a line of people waiting to settle in an article no end,
is warm and is bombing
and wetter, then PLUTO
ass. In the best of my knowledge are on, additives are independent out. You can eat a penguin and through so PLUTO imprint on trial. In principle, we could just pitched head anywhere. You just bring enough.
Towards yeah right yeah. The settlement could survive their as long as you could shield yourself from the cosmic rays that hit it and as long as you can keep yourself warm because the temperatures so low
That distance, innovative generate. Fellini now faces the sun. If you, if I was standing on the surface of PLUTO and staring straight at the sun, which I presume will be safe to do that
is only about one. Sixteen hundred the amount of flux that we get from this
here on the floor, but I believe that much I I thought
A memory now not on a calculation that the sun from PLUTO is about like a full moon night. Here
Secondly, is it a brighter than the calculation there well Absalom magnitude, negative? Twenty six for the sun and minus fifteen
no twelve managed well over. The US has fourteen magnitude two sets a factor of ten seven yeah stuff. So ten of the fort, that's ten fourteen, not quite them seven magnitude after five structure to vessel its effect of a hundred thousand says a little bit, and you said it, I said: ceased
hundred because of forty eight you re prodigiously voting is easier, okay, so afraid so their family up or to find out of here
Are you in the middle of an active calculation papa of old age? No, no. This actually brings up a very good point and I teachers to all my students is this. This summer, school episode is quite appropriate. We are forty PLUTO forty times farther away from his son than earth is about
rich and so one over that square. That's right! So let us
yet this one hundredth as break that's right, but but the ideas,
that a person every square love like bristle beat the idea that a person can just pull up the answer on Google faster than we can do? The calculation brings up a really important point about school in general, an education in specific,
You might agree with this Neil. We can no longer think that we are educated
All we can do, is memorize fats or calculate things that can already be calculated and sit on a database. We have the world's in
nation at our fingertips, the only way that we can remain viable as a product.
Remember society or as a civilization is if we are better than Google, we have to do that.
And I'm not picking Google stood out like you, don't wanna be replaced with a robot tat. Does that sound like that to you? It is absolutely right. We all can easily replaced by search engine our
learning our interaction with nature
and with the world and with other people, must be better
in the search for we know that President Santer, as we know the chosen a better singer than Google. I think those trolls restored
He's right day out are you here. While we are talking about singing and the like markers and I'm going to apologize for between this neighbour.
Going maras I apologize. If that is way off on patriots asks I headed.
Bait with a friend of mine when he said that scientists hate? Ah, I think
not true to itself just my while off and starry night bilingual. Could you please tell us something about the products
does the UK that seem you seem you seem pronounce of aids are no way
then I don't know way. First, I don't know any scientist who hates ordered a b
many scientists- I know not only just don't hate it but love it.
See the one of the book
behind you on a shelf is called mathematics and art, a book written by an art curator who
fascinated by the role of science as it has influenced art- and I was privileged to be asked to write the forward to that book.
And, as the writer knows, I'm a big fan of the starry night by
Vincent Van Gogh, eighteen, eighty, nine and so on.
And I'm not unusual in this regard. There are colleagues love music. I love are
on levels that you might not even know or suspect, because
they're in the news is not because that is because the science there doing- oh, no, no, we we're we're art
having a community law the way back, and why do you? Why do you think universe
They called the schools. Are diseases,
You go way back with the two sides of a coin: each the pinnacle of human creativity and expand
one constrained by the universe. The other constrained by imagination itself signs, and I could not say better knew it is absolutely true. Science and art are inextricably intertwine. There is no
scientist. I know that doesn't like haven't take up their question with Leonardo Da Vinci, absolutely and Albert Einstein himself wrote in nineteen thirty that the sense of the mysterious the wish to be odd by things we don't know is the root of all great art and science, and I agree with that statement
Trina Jennings on Facebook asks, if we can figure out the center of the milky way, Galaxy smells like raspberries. Can we figure out what things were smell, like elsewhere, with the centre of all galaxies smell? Like raspberries said the centre? The gulf is when all is acute, press release about people who are looking at molecules,
sort out loud and turned the detected certain aromatic compounds which are found in raspberries. Ok, so I said
Oh, it smells like raspberries. Oh it
smells like raspberries, because there are these
volatile organic compounds that are in gas clouds. Did the milky way. Galaxy sent us a lot
all their two? Yes, some sort of slaughtered Yahoo, Israel, like hundreds and would at least I think that now is the pronounced right right in a blue. That's right! The cinema was still original. Yes, this law of organic molecules space, so
and there's even son. A sun was turning lotion to deejay in molecules over there, so you can not only get a great suntan. I've never were also
yeah! I do no such thing exists. Yeah, sorry up in a hood, tiny watch tv as it doesnt have that we Europeans have now about
so so so so
so little deceptive to say that space smells like that. Respect smells like nothing unless you put
molecules where Europe sniffing and their molecule
was everywhere and then so there it is. Then you're smelling molecules in space, rather than
the basic right answer that question and constructively
is yes, as long as we can find the molecules that create certain smells in our brains through our noses in a location, we can tell you exactly what they are very small amount precisely, but there are a lot of particles out there and they can spend a lot of different things
indeed. Nice aren't you also relativity question bring around here who say
such Swanny on Twitter says I'm still having a hard time understanding the concept of how if you'll twin, is on earth and you travel at almost the speed of light. You will not aid.
That much is them or something like bans. Can you really try to dumbing down or using analogies again,
nor, before Niels Montana, amount of his one got? Please do
use the term dumb down. We are
dumbing things down. We are merely translating the concept into a language that everyone can understand, and I guess it can.
Smarted up, I think you're gonna be ok. Here's the basic point, someone
down. The smartest out time is experienced at different rates for people who are travelling at different rates of speed. That's a very, very complicated concept,
If you're trying to lock it into our idea in our regular time that a second as a second as a second, but the moment, you acknowledge the possibility that time is a dimension like length within height and you can move through it at different speeds. Then the twin paradox that is described here or other paradoxes become not too difficult.
As we are doing, is measuring time intervals right, you're, not measuring, actually the amount of time at this very instant, but your measuring the time from the time you experience one minute to go to the time you experience a minute from now that person who is travelling at a different rate through time and space will simply experience a different into.
And you'll both called a minute but relative to each other, their different links. So
There are only realise that, once you come back into contact with each correct, that's right! That's right, and
the way to know who
we'll be younger because both of them
motion will say that the other one is tick there. The opposite clock is ticking slower is at the.
Your twitter who went out at it.
Slow down, turn around and come back and that breaks the
sure, you call a paradox
If I see you travelling in your time is taking more slowly and motion is
and you see me- I'm actually standing still buddies
for your concern, yourselves staying and I'm moving. You see my time to time taking slowly. How is it
that at the end of this exercise, one person is younger than the other right
How do we not like, if you had the train, is going pause, the platform Robin
I was going past the trend, the motorway jokes against Icelanders at eyesight. One grand central station arrive at the next tracking people, you that everyone is try to get their head around. So it's always is specifically the acceleration of the
the ones who goes out and regulation and goes out an entire run. It comes back aesthetics, the symmetry raise that acceleration then deceleration right there. The whole thing.
It's either positive or negative acceleration. But it's just that would matters and acceleration
one that leaves and comes back, that's the one. That is the thing that it.
Here's to be set. So it's it's! It's an uncomfortable concept, because we don't experienced that in everyday life
it is an act of sensors. Do it was not
sorry to know this on the plains of the Serengeti.
To avoid any eaten by a lion, you didn't cantonal relativity, but is absolutely necessary in this day and age of atomic energy and very very high speeds.
It it's time for writing round.
Okay, ok, ain't suitable works, it does so
so I will try to answer them sound, but our right well we're gonna jump back from Iceland to Newton Dj Milky on his two gram says. I read a few years back that the earth is technically falling into the sun, but doesnt actually go into the sun. Is that true? Yes and the region
it doesn't go in his because its travelling at orbital velocity around the sun, if we, if we
any slower sideways. We would fall towards get closer to the sun, so
we are falling towards the sun, but we're being held up. If you will,
very high sideways speed. So yeah we got this and Isaac Newton first damaged
to this end, I gave you the principia first drew it in the system of the world that was his cliff notes for his principia tariff written in English. One article I you got it
alright code monkey, I on Instagram, says what cause
the earth magnetic pulse to move and what would cause the magnetic north and south to flip very good question. Our magnetic field is
the by the dynamic motion of Pharaoh magnetic materials inside our earth iron,
almost all is also down was all iron and because of that, because its fluid and moves. That's why our poles, it's as if you had a dancing magnet inside but it
kind of somewhat semi solid, somewhat liquid.
Potato, not exactly the same rate of earth does so
these dynamics, influence which direct
on earth surface, you find the north and South Pole and whether the north is up or down relish,
to it in history has shown that the poles are flit multiple times get asked next about. If our
earthquakes completely and core become Solomon. Mega feel shut off frozen yeah, it's done good aright
we should offer if you'll, just a movement of minority rights. Good Evan Harrington on Facebook says if the universe is infinite than how could time exist other than the meaning we give it if the universe is infinite is the key point point we don't know necessarily yet tat. The universe is in you, savers, infinite lit
let's change request. Supposing you ve had no beginning and no known and is infinite in time and space? Was it
mean to have a calendar grape. What are you measure?
or whatever kind of a per phrase. Of course. Can I think I know the airlines have been way to put an end. What we would be measuring and time is, the various atomic process is going on in our bodies, and a clock like establishing a second is just awaited macroscopic. We allow us to know whether we're getting older or whether were not so you need vibrating
heating phenomenon to measure time actually at all. So in a universe where nothing repeats, there can be no measurement of time. Well, what you think of it! If you
can measure. The passage of time are defined the passage of time as the expansion of universe. Then you don't have to have a vibration
Just have the change its going in a single direction from smaller to larger
you ve got time, then I guess measured by size, yeah size of real interest in rather than repetition. Matlin,
I should go for our I I'm gonna go with this one. Then Billy
in queens here out of girls at college you really billions or college City University of New York. Oh yeah, girls meekly curious on Instagram said what are some tips for an everyday.
Stir physic students who wants to
I'm an extremely successful science. Educator reveals books ILO. I really love it when educators
express their knowledge in the language of the people who are listening. In other words,
A really good sized educator is essentially very good interpreter. A very good translator, not someone does
dumps things down, not just someone that turns things into soundbites, but
one that can really take a concept. That's should have been described.
Math and science and turned into English or french or whatever language that the person is fluent in that is the mark of a true science educator thinking about the audience and not necessarily about the source,
I can't I can't touch the cancer and other than to add punctuation and say that
Galileo and academic fluent in Latin
when he decided to write about the weather,
was in the center of the known universe or it orbiting the sun. He wrote that in Italian, knowing that the common folk would be able to then embrace and appreciate the discoveries he was making, and so that was quite a striking that that's, like Carl Sagan appearing on the tonight.
Yeah yeah. That's your crossing pivotal moment your crossing boundaries there and then it became
regular guest on tonight. You come into the people where people
where, where people are right and never like claiming that he was somehow smarter or better than they were in power in people to think even more highly of the their own intellect that maybe they only just discovered for the first time. Well said, sir: we gotta ended there.
Charles Neil boot do love you man, I love you too, family, everybody's, ok, everybody's good. Last, I excellent man in a job.
Probably science is going strong. That is the fact that we are looking for their doubts on the broadcast and you ve been watching more likely, perhaps
Turning to this episode of STAR Talk argued,
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.