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Cosmic Queries – The 2020 Nobel Prize

2020-10-26 | 🔗

Can black holes alter light speed? Is astrophysics the Meryl Streep of the Nobel Prize in Physics? Neil deGrasse Tyson, Chuck Nice, and astrophysicist Janna Levin, PhD, answer Cosmic Queries about black holes and the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics.

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Photo Credit: Event Horizon Telescope, CC BY 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
What, if you only ever changed a line of one person or managed to change a single human destiny. Just one than yours is a life. Where lived because to extend the hand to those you don't know, help them along their journey with spontaneous acts of kindness I notice and perhaps even unremarked is the most remarkable thing you can do
sometimes it takes courage, sometimes something more, but all the good you can do in this life begins with the belief that you can be to change your sick. Don't ever stop believing see how we are making a difference at pen medicine. That is another reason why your life is worth pen. Medicine welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide startup begin right now. This is the start of cosmic queries. Addition we could not resist Nobel prizes in physics related to black holes,
jack. Devoting this entire cosmic queries, two black holes, as manifested in the recently announced Nobel prizes in physics, and the cool thing about it is no one will ever be able to see or hear this video because it won't be able to escape our black hole. It is our right and you know that all of our shows or in black holes are met. Vienna is what does this one? I dont little bit about black holes, but not as much as our guest, a recurring gas Jan eleven Jana welcome back to us. Talk to me here forever as wherever here is now, but for you that you can look like you in a safe house and eyes. is this: are you in our identity? programmers, something I'm at pioneer works which, as you know, full centre in Brooklyn, where I'm drink your sciences. But I tell you: if your pocket, This is happening. This is where I'm coming.
Yours is unique, we were sure to do you then disable your populists was coming. That's where surely that's where she is now right, you're invited. So we tell me what as a pioneer works, so we this place really started as inspiration of dust in Yemen and Gabriel. Florence is an art center, but with a vision of just impact, in culture and creative ways, really kind of breakdown boundaries, doing things in a new way and and and when I came in restarted, bringing sciences in here and we ve been doing a lot of pudding, Credible signs events, not least Interior Extra Roger Penrose last December Oh my god. That's why you're going to cause you man? I was robbed my good Burma on sit. So tell me so the I'd know two of the three Nobel Prize winners
We all three that so there's Roger Penrose, a well known physicist from Oxford, I think, and yet in the UK we have. Who else was that list aren't you a hundred and she D stolen University, California, the use visa you use your legs and we have raised were right. again run against gives us These are so they all split the Nobel Prize all further work in black horse. If you just give a sort of that what version of each of their contribution to our standing a black holes. Well, technically I half the price, airlines and Reinhard swept the other house so now You say: got half the prize. Are we talking about moon? Have the money loud,
however, these give each get didn't, get a half a metal. I already got a metal, but what is a half? They may have the money you have. We can't. Let me tell you that you can keep you stink and metal, but after I want that step, The first super interesting price, because that's happened before that, where it divided the prize unequally amongst the three partitioned then you can never have more than three winner of the Nobel Prize, so Is it just reflect the fact that armed gear and Reinhard their work is observational and they're they're both responses? independently fur, you're standing, supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy. So there, that's why they shared unapprized. They both contributed to that particular aspect of your work. Roger Penrose, was just off on his our enlightened, one, sixty four,
Wherever he writes, TAT was all Roger and he is buried. The erratic also I'd say one of the most surprising things about this war was that people ass, the writer as Roger Penrose for exam. Stephen Hawking job usually get awarded the Nobel Prize? and so this was considered. A lot of people were kind of children delighted. Just He served Roger honoured in this way, but it could be that The trend is not so much that they don't give it too serious, but if they're gonna give it to theorist, in the same breath. They're going give it to the experimental list who verified with the fear. Is that is way to correct way to characterize it better. still, a long stretch between Like Rogers theory and the observations. If you want to talk about what was true with the huge bosom,
able to to Peter Higgs heads himself, but he come up with that decades ago, yeah, whereas fresh discovery. if the Higgs bosun was recent in recent news, but they stay haven't together and then they Avonlea Ward, yeah, that's I mean kids to pieces, production is so very specific that he will in particular, during this one part of all would be We around this mass and it would have been you're properties and it is pretty spot on prediction, whereas Roger just sort of was dreaming bidding Judaic Super are not to be re examined in anywhere, but united with less specificity, and even when Einstein got to know about price, you gotta for very specific things. He did not get the Nobel Prize for general relatively well, which was clearly his greatest achievement. He got it from more specific statements, More specific specific production- and maybe the Nobel Committee coming along yeah- maybe it's coming along
button bright. Did you something tremendous which was to make generic the prediction that black holes would be the answer? The collapse of the star, he was able to show that the centre they singularity switch. We thought were this me maybe be artifact a very special circumstances and wouldn't really happen. If you thought more generally about things he was able to. Prove that in fact it was a generic. Should have jar relativity that are collapsing started behind it and about horizon, and the interior with creative singularity essential are so it's right after Einstein, first thing, some general relativity that short shield rights to him for that russian front and discovered this thing that we now call a black hole. But in the first World WAR and the first World WAR exciting sixteen and his on the russian front and he's saying you know the world the war, the war has treated me kindly enough and
I've been favoured to the end of your ideas and second ere. He solves the problem at its very idealized. It's a complete sphere. Its personally clouds, doesn't ask how or why he just idealise as a situation, and it comes up with this thing that we now call black hole and so for decades. After that, people thought well, that's just a silly idealized situation, it's not wrong its correct mathematically, but that will never happen in nature, but Roger Penrose does indeed. sixty four, as he uses the most ingenious methods and a paper about Ray Pages long and the final parent. out of this incredibly clear, lucid, simple paper, he proves that in fact, it is absolutely generic protection of general. activity that occur I've seen body would create behind it and event horizon an insider singularity, so he mixed black holes inevitable, they made them real. Let him real well! Well, can I go from this mathematical perfect silly plateau
idealisation to an end. political reality. and I'm now, on the other side of that Nobel Prize COIN, of two people, independent researchers who are figuring out. our galaxy, has a supermassive black hole in the middle, but of course you can see Black also, what light can you shed on their discoveries? What I do there is able to do in your pine stir up minds. They they demonstrated. The opposite. Characteristics is as as powerful scientists low and methodical. They looked at these stars for decades. two decades. Did they watched these stars orbits an invisible object and just then We need at the centre of the girl, at the centre of the galaxy, its twenty six thousand light years away in the direction of the constellations Sagittarius. So we call the object that they orbits
a star sagittarius, a stark is only cause it's in that direction. From our point of view, a cute little nickname so early, answer J Star. They cease from the start, his orbiting and they can follow their entire orbits. Take some one of them takes about sixteen seventeen years on that that's kind of the one that was most helpful to them. They just to be clear. Normally when we think of things warbling other things, we think of planets orbiting stars, tat, now autonomous stars orbiting other things, yeah exile right, exactly So now you have a bunch of stars in the center of the galaxy, a bunch that are orbiting the stay. Now you can't see this thing. It's definitely Dar and it's very massive and contrary. I think tat the popular imagination by calls black holes, aren't huge the whole point of article At that time, any scope for the heavy. The are their tiny, so this object. They just look at the world. Introduce while that thing is four million times and ass, the sun, but its fate.
a region, much smaller than the solar system, not form million times the size of this right? If you, the calculate? How big you think it should be it's about seventeen times the width of the sun across four million and I'm tat ass, an that's right crazy crazy, they go. Look, it's really heavy. It's really small, it's a supermassive black hole, Why do you have an envoy to rebuild our second or third? Our the astrophysics community are second or third, Nobel Prize in a decade generally, they used force a bone once it. Maybe ten years. Are you saying You guys are the Marrow street of the noble no problems, that we are the prizes in the category of physics, just to be clear that we in Europe, my community, we're not living our lives, wondering if we'll be considered occasion, We do something
touches on laws of physics, and then it gets them, and people taken which we just got it for actual planets which is not itself a range branch of physics, but it's a very interesting advance. our understanding of the world and are the universe so I'm to San. Maybe that would damage operators on earth and the best I'm a on the frontier discovery. Are the university so well its fascinating, because hobble lobbied for astrophysics to be considered by the physics know about heavy man and have all the man sat there. Telescope right is not live scans, its happier and could have been badly off names. Inanimate yeah. raising still to this day. In writing, but hobble real, so wanted Hubble. Do that with some tremendous today, humble absent, absolutely an unquestionably with one another?
So what about your new rights for a one in the same decade? He real as is that there are their galaxies, Einstein was working in one thousand, nine hundred and five and one thousand nine hundred and fifteen one thousand nine hundred, and sixteen did not know that there was another galaxy besides the milky way, but he wasn't sure. Hubble observes the first external Gallagher, but just to be clear at the time the universe was the stars of the night sky, and how far do they extend? Nobody knows yucca exactly and then the second thing I'm sorry, I'm sorry, I'm guessing eels referring to is he dead also notices that, oh by the way others galaxies are moving away from each other and answer heeded, This is of the universe, is expanding, so so he lobbying to heed turning. He lobbied the Nobel Committee and then what they say. I guess they said. No. I guess I don't know if there are like formal letter is exchanged
Let nobody certainly political arena internal politics, and they said no for one month at nineteen, twenty six, there s another. Fifty years, I don't think I was until the seven days of the Nobel Prize Committee considered astrophysics the first one was maybe the discovery pulsars yeah, and that was then eighteen companies on a discovery made in the sixties the actual we gonna take a break now, but she trusted you load question. Could this is cosmic? Queries got a moral loaded up and ready to go and there are age of up them people people love lack of rigour back more with our friend General Evan. You get us through an understanding of levels, You love your cat, anyone a snug lop autumn as much as possible cats are very affectionate and you went every
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commercial male can keep thinking about Murphy learn more at RO plan live clear, dot com slashed our talk, radio, that's pro plan live clear. A calm slashed, our talk, radio, this add dedicated to Murphy. we're back cosmic were black hole. Addition actually Chuck had other black hole, additions or cosmic but design black holes done one Upton one Nobel prizes. If it is not the first a black holes of one Nobel prizes and less time. We. did that we had to bring engender eleven to explain what the hell was no one on, and would do that again today in this way. Second forgotten cosmic wearies, Jenna, always good to have you back in the loop cemeteries living here What are the times we brought you win was because of the lego discovery of colliding black holes
and I got a Nobel prize the eyes a black holes did so the about me like an them some notes and some black horse lately yeah. Definitely I think probably another one in the near future. yeah, I'm an eye on you now, I don't wanna, know jinx any object. Somebody was this spreads even now. I say we should talk about like, but I think a van rise in telescope which took that image of the black hole at the centre of M eighty seven, which is a galaxy, fifty five million light years away and they image as close. to the event horizon, as is essentially conceivable. all right. I'm lays bare the resolution. Was there a guess? They train you for taking the photo the form of a black hole. Ok, I can say about so. Even so, it's interesting. If you look at the Nobel Prize announcement for this prize, say about
Roger Penrose for his contribution to understanding black halls and explicitly say that, but for on Kyrgyzstan Denzil when they're talking the supermassive black hole, they dont name it they say for discoveries of a compact object at the center Alex at local level a black hole. Let me just say that racism, the arrest of races covered. I say, you are right that a right If anything is a tinge of it shortens up these good. Thank you for polio. The railways noble grown L B. The interesting reason why I suspect they did. That is because, as I said there looking at these organs of stars right around this dark object that we know is really happy and really small and by rights we should call a black hole that it only
Does it come here? They have that horizon doesn't come off. although a close, so I think the closest approach of the star is about a few times. As close as a natural comes to the sun, that's very, very close when you're talking about an object, format, drives them ass, the sign, but if it's only seventeen times as wide, it's not that clerks I know what I'm sayin. whereas the event horizon telescope is seeing stuff like right on, it is shocking. Living gave it to the event horizon tells, You didn't call it a black hole than you have done. I gotta do not gonna case right in saying that it is a problem that case will not take that a cool, oh by the way. One thing about the event horizon telescope image- First of all, a zillion people participating in that, so they probably have to give the noble. eyes organizational, investing yeah,
ass, yet the isolation amateur reminder that today consortia make discoveries more. So with individual for like they gave it to three individuals and at the table there were long before like I was even legs, they were at it for fur. For thirty forty, arrests right before other people joined and set out was different, but some people ass, our It is to be given a Nobel Peace Prize, because here you have an international consortium that transcends all these nationalities all of these political borders, all these languages, all of these cultural differences and content other and then give the work freely and the work is free. They don't even monetize it. That's an interesting, I guess a form of peace. That's exactly rights inside a for peace that scientists have known ever since the beginning collaborations take us international, a quick vineyards
photo extortion, so I use the event horizon photo for a tweet. Can I can tell you that we will now, as some scientists call him, we damaged a black hole in a galaxy in the nucleus of a galaxy. Fifty five million light years away this public who, scientists humans are causing global warming public. I don't that does not agree with. My flock actually went down. It was you know, people its social media or so ago, which way, but always with the irony, was worse than most people, so I mean brilliant. That's a pretty between the answer so give it
here too? It ok, so absolutely must start with the patriarch question from my son, because I actually among patriarch, so he gives the asked at which is: can black holes told us any about the age of nearby stars were stars that are orbiting them. Interesting. my trying at our each buying Neil. I try and if I miss anything Uganda does, I think, there's a lotta dimensions to the andreasen, a black hole at the end, point of a star of a dead store, their swords in Liverpool, you know, maybe half a million years tops so you see a black hole is freshly made. Then the thing that made the black hole itself, It was not all that old half a million is not long in the history of the universe and not an also black holes are the product of very high mess stars. They have very short lives, and, but once do you make them
all right so, We seen the black hole, get made. Two then know how young it is, but for black hang out I don't know that you can know how old is just by observe enough now. we know this, an upper limit to how mass of a black hole can get as the end point of the dying star. But if you a black hole that much more massive than that stuff happened after that, some other phenomena and went on their way to care, accumulating, kept eating and as agreed It gets bigger and bigger and bigger. So I dont you can know precisely the age of a black hole, but you can get a sense of how long a black holes been been in town. Who is the old understood even more so one of the big mysteries about the supermassive black holes that we're acknowledged. Although by name Sears Nobel Prize. Was that
our sorrow bag, and we definitely no those do not form as the end state upstart collapse. Something had happened to make that thing so big, so either it formed in the early universe and this system. It's really odd the bigger the black hole, the less dense, the material you need to make its very surprising. You can make a really big black hole out of the density of air under the right conditions, but surely surprises pupil, but if you make it from a star, it's gotta be incredibly then. So it could be that it was made in the early universe and not from stars at all, or it could be that it start it is a smaller black hall and then went through a bunch of collisions and and got burger collected other black halls and just amassed in a mass of until it was a supermassive black hole, the center of the galaxy and now requires a lot of time in a lot of sense, just a best around this are currently none of us in my field doubt the likelihood that Every single large galaxy has a supermassive black hole in its core.
Initially was hypothesized, and then we had some early hobble data and then some, other data and then was that you know this looks pretty in endemic but it has to be a galaxy at all, and if you have colliding galaxies that merge you'd expect the black holes are ultimately emerge in the middle. so I got you on that one, but also on its own, I don't know I'm not haven't seen the latest in this, but when I last looked, there was still some uncertainty about whether the black hole, nuclear, aided the formation of a galaxy or, where there. The galaxy had mechanisms that funneled material to the centre of the gods because even if you have a billion solar mass black hole which some galaxies, who, in their centre, that is a tight, is less than one tenth of one percent of the mass of the whole galaxy, So, as ferocious as that sounds the total galaxy wins you want. If you want to
so you might have thought. Even if it's true all these galaxies humbly supermassive black holes there such a small percentage in terms of the master, probably not influential in the galaxy. Who cares what it actually turns out? That's not the case because they can blow these gigantic winds. They could have been very active in their early. History have been like Quasar, as they could have said that the entire gown They could have regulated the size and shape the number of lighted, the stars that form so that they might actually incredible agency despite their smaller for action. In terms of him. is that, because in the formation of a black hole that it is spewing out materials in order for to become what had been comes yet any in the early days he was reading. It was blown out these jets you now, and it was just it was a good man. These whims there there are black holes whose jets are so strong that a conquering neighbouring galaxies and basically wiping out any planetary life in those gothic cigarettes
you can get into a fight. That's all you have you not understanding the dynamics of this since other know about our exit, planets isn't a fight for, but the point is you only get to see all this if the, if there's material in the vicinity of a black hole for you to do that to a black hole, completely eight everything in its view Kennedy, then always mechanism that is languishing. Wow God, that's so cool or over to become a jerk there we go. This is limping digress also from a patriotic. What opportunities for future Research into black holes are created as a result of this particular prize being awarded, So is there anything new that came out of this? that may spur further discussion, It leaves something here and then I'm gonna hand off to Jenin, because
Nobel Prize is essentially always delayed from the discovery of self. It's not funny. Or whether the prize itself is stimulating more research. because the original research already did that right, so the resources already- and we already knew it- was important we already and the best kind of Prize is the one that they affect. Which you already knew- and in this case this we are Did you like genocide? We knew Roger upon repent roses brilliant. We knew tat. If one shall paper, we knew they, the that supermassive black holes the centres of galaxies. That's a long standing project so that did try your other interesting projects, let's look at other galaxies, see if they have supermassive black holes with the next most about powerful telescope, but JANET you think the act of getting a prize itself changes any that landscape.
gosh. I I I don't think I'm with you. I don't think the active during the prize does. I think it might affect generations that are just on the rise like you know, Your son chalk asked a question inspired because we were talking but the Nobel Prize, and who knows maybe that's gonna, set your sons, contrary to science, I mean for the scientists, Europe, now I would say no not so much by job, but it does have that effect. I think for the younger generation, because it's and its black holes are in the news now for a whole. Other reason that you deserve collaboration with a big fat check. The money talks as well, I'm glad to hear you say that, because that for his research club, black holes are his are his focused. So, that was asked by the door and asked you to talk to him by the way is lower than winter. I don't care would totally cheating
ok now mother cares. We like must then has the unrest eyes that agenda Levin I'll give it a side, can unscramble crop always wear it so, but I ain't interesting point out that if it's another reason to talk about something in the context of becoming been celebrated results rather than just a highly respected result, that definitely adds a societal force on this Agree with you there entirely and its interest in that a lot of reasonable prices are connected. So, for instance, supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy also has little or black holes orbiting it and, and they did, form from the end state of gravitational class. Now let alone might be thirty sixty times them ass. The sun
and so why go? Which is the experiment that you mentioned earlier in the older, got the Nobel prize? What was it to twenty? Sixteen seventeen straight around him, though their detecting the collection of two by calls that are more around fifty, anytime, soon ass, the sun each and might be doing that near a supermassive black hole, and so these are all connected discoveries, and answer some of the ones that, like us beginning to night, I want to say, observed, but really listen to you. This lack of doesn't take pictures like I listened to the residents of space around these, like orbiting, ballots, we're starting to Think that maybe those in fact really are coming from galactic centres, so Oh so there could be twenty thousand forty thousand black holes around the centre of our own galaxy that are just smaller ones, while there Well. Well, all I can say to that is there
the neighbourhood and gathering coming weeks, I'm gonna, destroy you know I'm letting you know that. They get bring and they didn't rigour. Could you do that whole segment under sons question? I just want our well tolerably. Well, Okay. So, where we come back, we're picking up startalk cosmic queries, we can eleven, we talk about black holes, Rebecca startup Guzman query. Jackknife with me. Always I was pleasure, and your tweeting a Czech ice comic. Thank you
yes, I am so, and we talk and black holes today so coarse. That means Jan Eleven is in the house, a janitor tweeting at work, de on eleven June eleven and its agenda with two ends. We got you yeah, I like an extra cement movie, because one jobs are generally It has three ends in it. Just to let the record up that's funny, forty percent of the letters in your name so with this cosmic query so Jack, you keep coming at us with these questions, I'm staying this. One is from your wife and radio. The whole so there's one is from Grandma Eugenio bad. No, this is Eugenio back. There are says: cage Neil Jana. How are you, after years of following you guys on Youtube? I finally pulled the trigger on being a patriot,
I'm glad I did because now I get my question. Rapture Annie as I was wondering, if black holes had the gravitational pull to affect light, does it also alter its speed so it then. Why does it slow it down when the bends it? mantras stay answers inquired. What do you think only giants won? Aren't you say no, let's go really Soto example that I think, illustrates how bizarre it is your gave were so because you then horizon is by definition the place at which light cannot escape. You could ask what what happens to light up the event horizon, Manasseh can't escape and you could just drop a little beam of light Autobahn.
Of light, and it's called a photon and it would sit there out the event horizon. It would not move it's actually a completely state, not stable, unstable, but a place for it can be how ever you don't sit there and not move serve your falling across the black hole that rising and you fall pass out. Little piece alight. You go. Oh it's moving at the speed of light Nobody can say it's not cause. Nobody could stay there with it because you have to be travelling at the speed of light to stay there with it. So we use I therefore wonder where in wonder was at TAT, always otherwise JANET and Wonderland. That is that is a rabbit black hole if I ever heard, while the other way to think about it is it's like a salmon swimming of up the Niagara skimming upstream and the waters Our space time is just falling in so rapidly that it effectively stand still
but where nobody can stand still with that everybody else's gone with the waterfall radio, everyone else. If they try to measure the speed of light, is like oh yeah, it's travelling at the speed of light. It's nearly three hundred thousand kilometers a second nobody says its standing still, but technically at certain right there, that will finally get out it's trying like how to get out of but if that is so, why Rihanna get out rigour so now? So what what's? The observation outside of the black hole where we see it. If you do, they see that Photon Cosette ever gets to you when you say why do I see the only way you see something as if the light hits your eye rifle You can't do it because a stop there. You don't owe me I know it's dark so there then start its work. All that's cool Well, another just just to add another point there, I see that phaeton that photon enters awry right, so do it for you,
no ideas even there. This was my issue with the with STAR Trek. They have these failures that neither the phase is right. When it shoot lasers at another ship, ok, again, that arms sales of ass soon and then at full time for political centrally. So this sending this in a direction towards the ship, but the camera views from the side. but you see there's, like you see if there's no not be sending this energy to the ship there's no way. I would see that laser going to the shape leaves us no way sending right in your direction, but there there won't be inefficient weapon like any news yet, or you may think I gas cloud and scatters. Oh yeah, yeah yeah, that's you ah the chamber, and I thought the machine you hit the chalkboard razors together right I checked, is more China is a cousin of Alice in Wonderland.
Ok, this is from is achieving this even called me go to go with you, I'm going with that says what Roger Penrose do that wasn't all ready, dawn Einstein and source shall before lobe of Haider here a little bit of age or sierra. You hinted to some of that yeah. I wasn't lifetime solution it or disworship solution in equitable. What is the different thing that the pen rose did to make it a natural instinct lump sum in the simplest terms, he was able to show that generically without assuming any special properties, like some things are perfect sphere, could
an oblong kidney shaped eggplant thing. Doesn't matter if it collapses, he was able to prove it would inevitably reform that event horizon and within that event, rise and inevitably would be the singularity and one way to think about this, which I think is really profound is he was able to show that all powers of light- and this is technically one of the ways that he did it points towards the singularity, Technically, what that means is that the singularity is in the future. We look at a black hole, we think of his vehicle them with a central point that this point singularity in space what Roger Penrose showed is the singularity not in space it's in the future. One answer inside that back and so nobody who enters the black hole can do anything but plunge into that singing. where are you can no more avoid the singularity than you can avoid the next moment in time? Ok, so why
like I said that I was in wonder where they would like to call on. You know gimme. A second amicable what myself may move faster than we don't come back and talk about it. A lot of you definitely missing some mind altering. we're LA suggested have our after party is inlaying JANET just a two. If I understand what you're saying, if all light beams go to the singularity, then all all possible paths into your future as you fall in, would go to the single cause you got is like a path, that's not and the path in the line taken. That's so, basically, what it says is if I should basically he says if you're going slower than the speed of light, you are definitely going to that singularity, because the only way you could not go into that singularity is if you went faster than the spotlight, and you can't do that, you could write so subtle
the technical language would baby discuss it, sometimes poetic to hear it. It's not necessarily edifying, but its poetic is that he proved that all of the future light cones pointed towards the singularity but he showed there isn't. One said earlier in this paper in nineteen, sixty four, where he draws that all out, I'm telling you it's just the most beautiful. It's all compact, it's all right there in this one picture where he just shows that this absolutely inevitable that the black or singularity forms and that it is in the future of any any pass on the interior of the buckle. Turkey become Ok, all right- this is easy. Roar says high Neil chopped JANET's, while my mom is and twelve
result from Birmingham Alabama. I love all things. Astrophysical professor guess says that the data collected, which ultimately prove the existence of Sagittarius A, are consistent with ants times. General theory, relatively while absolutely one hundred percent not consistent with newtons law of, Poverty and even then she said that Einstein is right, at least for now my questions. how can something? A major thing like this in the cosmos, abide by general relativity and yet not follow one of the most basic and fundamental laws of physics. Does this mean we want me to do? cover? A new law of gravity, and does this mean general relativity means that we are created or expanded upon PS, JANET? You are the first woman s refuses. I ever saw an episode of start talk a few years back and you have inspired me so much ever since. Thank you for rock
science so hard for girls and kids like me all over the world, by the way, none of none of that question impress me like the way the question began, because she knew that the word data is plural. Data on these data are if you know that you're not ready What has happened bought out well, I myself flattered and flush life without question, but I think it's actually,
think it's if, if it violates newtons laws, hausa possible of news laws apply across the universe, but it satisfies Einstein's laws with our own. So so I like him at this way, just because newtons laws are on compensating doesn't mean the laws are like wrong: they're not dead wrong, and I sometimes I send demonstrated Spain it this way ass. If, if you decide English was the only language in the universe, and then you discovered there was this broader concept called language We're gonna make English wrong. It was useful. It just has a limited range of validity. The it doesn't help you with french word, arabic or whatever other language. It turns out that there are extensions, that's a much bigger umbrella, which is this concept of language so to a certain.
Stand in its limited range of the of validity. Newtonian physics is graves works, terrific. It just doesn't work everywhere all the time. It's just not not big enough. It's not that it's wrong. It's just it's just a subset of a larger concept. So the first thing that Einstein did when he was trial, to arm test. His own theory was exactly to make sure he he match. He respected Newton, that he respected newtonian dynamic dynamics in its range of validity, which would be we are not moving very quickly when you're around big things like the earth when your mother, slowly? It should look like Newt inside it should so. So it's not as though, when I drop an apple and no longer does, but I used to think it does just goes on general relativity. Should rights should show what you were saying there is that if you take a stranger
equations and put in low gravity and low speeds, are they become newtons equations? That's right then become Marian, closer approximation, straightens enclosed here exactly the same sandbox sandbox, bigger yeah, It's just get me Newton, never considered whether what happens if a crush the earth to appoint- and I was going near- those required- is to endorse a kind of thoughts, extreme events, a kind of balances that lead Einstein to realise that only told me and mechanics. Slowly look different than we presume it is, and we would start to learn that our general is ancient. That start to look very different and certain extreme circumstances. I check we only have like a couple of minutes left, Gimme CPU Squeeze too in Europe, an agenda for sound bite answers Ok, go I haven't, go Cameron, bishops, similarities or ring celebrities. I just gotta know what we know
about the geometry at the centre of a black hole. Irregularity Jonah oh and a spinning black hole, it turns out that the singularity has a different geometry than it does in what sports consider, which was just kind of a perfect implosion. but I think that organ donor and wooden wouldn't most black holes them these spinning black holes. Yes, most black holes are spending buckles, yeah absolute and when, when things collapse, just like us an ice skater pulling in her arms, they tend to spin faster and faster and studied feebly that black holes are likely spinning bite but, most to be honest, most astrophysical and they were consensus. It is believed that the singularity is is where general relativity will break down kind of connected your previous question. We believe that there is another thing Very that will make us understand that singularity actually don't exist and that their signals they're telling us this is it, working anymore,
breaking down, as has been said, the similarities were, God is dividing by zero. Would you rather no doubt if not so, So you're not gonna, have a colt Why didn't you can say it out loud and clear and we're gonna diverge boys. Some very thorough uniting by our global gridlock. Due to me, I very quickly this SAM Ass SAM says this. If you want to throw some anti matter into a black hole with that Shrinketh or make it better So a lot of people have the misconception that anti matter has negative energy or negative mouse, but it doesn't there's really not to store knowledge. Anything was negative mass. So if you have an electron, its anti particle has opposite every other quantum number, for instance, of electrons negatively charged the positrons positively charge.
They both have the same mass, so mousing energy is what matters when it goes into the black hole. You might change the charge of the black hole, but you're just gonna made its mass go up. Are you gonna get heavier said? Yes, really matters, not some panacea for fur. From doing the universe and the damage the gravity has done right up the ass, the guys. I think we ought to call it was there. Time man. There are also always some good. It's always so go with general level. I have a guy. I hear rumours that you workin on another book. I just rumours of disdain. where's that I'm going to book a second. We bring it back black holes survival guy, we need that, but we gotta bring it back for them. and we bring back I'd love that ok What about your we'll be back soon? I think your book is coming out even just a few weeks, yeah. I check always go to him. I pleasure
we love. You hear it start talking thanks for always Asians our allies. This starts a cosmic queries, the boy called Nobel Prize Edition, of course, with John Eleven annealed address Thyssen, your person sure.
Transcript generated on 2020-10-28.