Neil deGrasse Tyson, co-host Chuck Nice, and astrophysicist and StarTalk geek-in-chief Charles Liu, PhD answer fan-submitted questions on gravity, asteroids, AI, spacetime, and more to celebrate the release of Charles’ new book “30-Second Universe.”
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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from the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming out across all of space and time with science and pop culture.
This star talk audio grass taking your personal astrophysicist committee.
From my office at the Hayden Planetarium right here in New York City.
Jackknife, whatever beyond Mamma S, right, tweeting, a czech nice comic. Thank you, sir, and I went over another chuck. You also check,
Kennedy. Had we call you Charles, but you in your day you were chuck
I'm calling you truck. That's my check, fair and right
I got Thralls Lou on the line here because he just published a book
He doesn't have the book for me to show that draws the name of your book. Yes, it is thirty. Second universe.
And what about you? No thirty one,
a thirty second, even I am always the marble cinematic universal level. Wriggling university look
You saw my there's. The hundred acre were all these universe now universe, where the laws of physics remark. Why,
where his arrival but its brightness and end? Yes,
book is out, and I'm very very was lovely I
He press, Ivy Press which s- and let me shout out gibbey shadow to my co authors as well. Karen masters, who is at have referred,
and Seville solution at Rutgers Candor, the editors? They have offered a record our universities, universe, just towns on a matter as that's right, that's right and then Stephanie
Who was the editor? Extraordinary was really a wonderful Tina.
I was very happy nourishes until I am I looked ordinary editor like. Why am I not helping them right would suck Lou does a book, it's like booting. So true, though, these things are works that are
We can collaborative effort, there is no question about it and it would be foolish to imagine that it was all me. It's not absolute, plus my added
make me say what I mean. I mean what I said. Yeah now
a good way. To put him, that's a good way to do that. So now what
a thirty second part is
three zero seconds. So
means that you're actually supposed to think about, or
sir questions or consider topics thirty seconds at a time, so you ve parts
Old, you're content right in thirty. Second increments, that's right!
is basically one small page of text and
you also have a brief summary that might be only three seconds.
Where we can make that you're you're about to explain in thirty seconds ray
You do this on every page, every page of the book,
thirty, seven and fifty fifty seven,
Twenty four mystery. Yes,
I feel that we are going out Eminem telling and not where our boy got, that you want to see a regular classes from vat, and yet it is also biographies and there's other comments. People you can look at in this beautiful our work on every side.
As well, because even mention the artist. Ah, yes, Stephen Rollings,
Do you not getting really talented preside? Are just great blue Archest makes the page it really does it makes it tastier right through the sky,
it's like they're, so we're gonna do in honour of the release of your book, which we don't have a copy of the Sahara. You we're going to
solicited questions from our fan base rate or say any question that could be answered in thirty seconds by you guys don't has hit them, but now it's the do you now sorry, I mean team effort,
elaborate exactly what is happening not getting out of your life is his book. However, this about it. If I can answer it in less time right there, it's a stroke,
The king and rode down wrote them. Let me get my time as cool outright, but the person who go second naturally has an advantage, because what you are doing is both
will always know the right answer, so the second person I only have to know about I'm dense the first persons answer so yeah. Why? Why are you give away
but now all- but let me say, also check we both might not know the answer
I dont know that Neil knows does no and I would very much like to learn or get caught.
Since from people that I dont know the answer to say you think about it: I've never great
the chances are that have had a jerk. You got the growth arise, so does anyone with all of our cosmic, whereas we you know gleam,
he's from all over the internet and as usual, we start with a patriot patron patriarch page Patria, patron because patriotic patrons out
support is financially when I say we go here is our first question from Grenade Douglas, whereas our patriotic patron Renee. Thank you. How much mass is needed for planetary body to make itself round? Is there any
Rather out of follow up and an end is that affected by the mass of nearby objects and gravity
so these are too complicated and only I shouldn't contract law. Let me look, there's a Renee Course Ethical requested, but I was just Barnett Drug Control, simple question. The answer is that yes, there is an equation, is called equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. It is
who's that if the object work,
able to move freely and were only held together primarily by gravity how
mass would be necessary and depends on. The density depends on
other aspects of things, but in the end, it's about a few hundred miles
maybe a thousand miles around
for example, Series the largest asteroid.
In our solar system is not quite a thousand miles by five or six hundred miles across and it is completely round so
There is a range may be a hundred ish miles where you're really starting to see things come around and become round, as for
its being near by affecting the roundness of an object.
Do you really really close in order to disrupt the general hydrostatic equilibrium activities of an object, for
voting in space or even in orbit around something like a son or another planet? Neil am I correct
a minus. Ah there's a my arms ear: albanian minus! You know your emails in your life on even a sad. I don't do. Tell me Charles, haven't imaginative. Getting your life there been a few
and, as you can tell them, I will you that students that I got a name at some point. Europe continues, you just know you are right and the teacher just go wrong.
He's no? No! No! No, not my Rebecca had led to reaffirm my final exams. I would go to my professors. I did go to every professor and ask them to explain to me what I did wrong and that is true, and and for that I am grateful that the professor spend the time to do that
the end. Nobody cares anymore, except union whether I
at an minus right,
Is whether or not you know the stuff nobody cares, and so the matter it fundamentally was. Did I learned
so I made a mistake in the professor. I still remember the professor of actually several professor mind actually took the time you after the final exam when they could just packed up and
and they might teachers is this in this. I really was grateful for the my teachers. Their response was, you know, it's really difficult to cover all the course work to bring
this d, into some type of reasonable explanation as to why you received three had some did pass their path, but I shall try to explain why it was amazing, a plus Aaron. Ok, thanks Universal VIC, the premise of hydrostatic equilibrium presupposes that everything is just sort of held together by gravity
If that's the case, you get a sphere of any mass as lad efficiently isolate right, but what I'm saying is if the straw,
true integrity of rocks is greater than the ability of gravity to do anything with the rocks.
Your object in space. The shape of the rock good point period
parents? Why? For example, Mt Everest still exist right that, because the structure of the rock is preventing it from become correct, so there's a size above which the two
a collection of whatever it is. You ve got away, fails in the face of the forces of gravity.
Cannot hold up whatever shape it wanted in the face of the.
This is of gravity gravity than
get every bit of. It is close to the centre of the object, as it can only one shape. That makes and as always displayed a sphere always an earth even with Mt Everest is a damn good sphere. I too have damn good at. It is not just good God. It's not right
It is damn. Damn looked. So what's the lowest point of earth Crust,
but the mariners trained, you're, probably about six or seven miles tests which are so
of that right highs, point on earth crust
remembrance, I'm out of six or seven miles at six or seven miles at sixes evermore down you get thirteen miles, but that is the length of Manhattan, Rhineland, okay, so
a range of texture,
on earth. Surface fits within.
Thirteen miles on an eight thousand mile diameter planet. Well. Well, that's pretty good
So I have you sure, on earth or the size of a Cuba to be one of the smooth Zuzu border ever ever misled right. Yes- and we say Oda, high mountains, low valleys ain't, nothing compared to the size of this planet, and that's why it looks flat to some people
that's the reason so on saying is gravity would make something small round. That's true! You have compared to whatever the other forces are operating. What he does that mean that the little
curly q, balls of like say water floating around internationalist no institutional dialogue, those are not hydrostatics equally nor those are not gravitational surface tension has also that's all surface tension, so it's just is that big now wait! So is that? Because
the molecules have no place to go except there,
secondly, that every morning has an attraction to every area, molecule rife and all molecules, attract or the molecules and therefore
voting. They make us hemisphere with why air makes a sphere underwater. So it's the same thing the world
we're in space, air and water will not be the same, almost almost a little bit different because you got buoyancy going on seeing the air is less
since then. The water
and as a result, there is,
if sort of water. Where were we try? You get a sphere even if there's no no net force of gravity in the water, I'm pretty sure.
If you you're grounded you ve made a little beer and then you take a straw and push in unsafe blow and arable,
inside a sphere of water, floating, say in the international space station. It would be spherical on the inside as well right, but I think it would be circle on earth, even without
with one g force wreck so into space station. Your agreeing that they would still make a sphere yet right inside out M note would know where to go. Right is standing right now, but the boy it there's no gleam without this also has a mainly offers guys with no other net.
Where's your gravity right. The surface tension wins
and it's another attractive force like gravities and attractive worse, and it makes things spheres look,
Services also shows up in smoking in soap bubbles.
Protection of the liquid of the of the ghost
you blow the soap bubble its round right right and yet fly.
Given the current. Even I mean, if you're really good, no doubt about that, you can have a square right soap bubble,
ray and what comes out of them is a sphere. That's good, however, anew.
There is no, however, that no there is, if I was going to say, though, however,
you can, you can see the surface tents in at work before
creates this we're. So if you have a giant hope you just just
but like movie blowing unifying you have just given days and we organised way we think but the right. But let us please let it allows it'll come back to combat says you know how you can make a square cubic soap bubble.
Are you blow six round soap bubbles around the outside in the seventh one in the middle, that's formed by the result,
the other six can be acute, o o.
You have power over super, I'm not like. I said I wonder why we got on where we got a nasal. We have totally let go of the premises we do when we have already said that we were all. There is a majority of us, so so warder makes a perfect sphere ring in a Euro G environment
right because surface censure, which surfaced tension if you bring it to one g, ripe, gravity, winds and the water, just flattens outcry. Ok, now we are not.
For years. Most of us are not spheres causing earlier that we are not held together by gravity right,
my services held together by intermolecular forces of our flesh, right, ok, and that is
stronger than the gravity exhibited here on the surface of the earth, which is why we can stand up and walk right and not just fall down into a pile of goo or pile of a puddle of fluid. Like a book, a sphere of water, we do have an yes, it was a testament to the store,
so the electromagnetic force compared to gravity that we can have, is not all that our aid and was anxious to influence not too in a completely different direction. That fish are to a new trust. Our Williams Neutron STAR Romania's efforts on to the service of a neutron stuff right. Your head will feel so much less gravitational acceleration than your feet. That will literally be squish like
Meanwhile, if you're on your way falling down, your toes will actually be pulled toward the surface faster than your head will, so you actually be illegal,
but ass. It is falling towards its register. Put around these are fanning on it. Put him on the service will recognise the gravitational for such services are so zero strong high.
Then you're, the structural tundra, most of your body. While is there anything that wouldn't flattened out at sea
Look at other structural integrity of things on earth, the material of a neutron star itself.
If you put up a new trial, if ever there was a cop out, asked me that that reminds me of the joke this says so after replaying crass, they find a black box. Why don't we just made
playing out of the blood I wildman
was a lot out a warm little question. We totally highlighted Matt Mass is needed for planetary, but
they make itself round. So the answer
Is there an answer? Yes is it if the object is made of rock it's a couple, a hundreds of miles, then you under miles
their answer. Yes, is it if the object is made of rock it's a couple.
Hundreds of, however, was that you hundred miles of mirth rock
whenever announced made of water, it can be anything
size of one right right? Uk cool quota whole cocoa.
Subject, another question: can we live by the rule of law, but a thirty second universe? If we might have we actually expound when the question afterwards we're just gonna answer,
We sat very good. Ok here we got it. I do then yeah. You did
You do not earnest barristers that we answered some
questions which have been I Salvador Bela, wants to know they left. Their name is arguing about how the doorbell is bawled. The best here
do four zero. We will ensure that when we return embedded first break this special episode,
celebrating the release of Charles Lose Book, a thirty second universe, Cinema
hello secret for you,
when I consider singing all of the ads on this shell there.
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This is a start,
what back answering questions in thirty seconds? Why controls Lou has a book out
a thirty second universe where he and to co authors. Yes, do just that on every page now Jack we left off. Yes, if you can, if you tuned in, if we left off with Salvatore,
It's what I said about low but its bay. He is indeed
its ban. How do you know because he wrote me a note- is reading these? Are the two girls made the wise out? Necessaries Bell, Yosemites branded a vain occasion there I'll read that an trouser oratory exact goes out. His question was: is Baldos hairdo, four zero
oh gee, now drop buzz cuts. Better bald is good because it will find your face rang, but
actually the helmet material will stick to your head. If you sweat than you, don't have like this extra little cushion. So we have a little bit a hare around
maybe a centimetres worth all around and that sort of cushions and nation more comprehensive. Your space walking if you're in
zero g environment where, wherever women up front
floating the space station Neighbouring Mohammed, ok for enough, but
what then, but then, sooner or later you put a helmet on right, I guess I'll go up or when you come down when you're out taken and if you're nervous, you'll sweat on your head. Yes, ok and not even nervous people just went under heads. A lot of us don't realize that, but because we have here most of the time that list sweat,
like glisten and doesn't get sticky and things like that. How does have some gaps rights having little tiny bit a hair off one of your god we're out so so Buskirk best in my
just to put a little insulating layer between you and whatever you be wearing comrade bread, a comforting layer.
That was easy question. You didn't thirty seconds little, here's my well! Otherwise your hair is flying,
All our younger you have given us throughout terrible Saigon, be trouble when I commented that Sandra Bullock, hair,
new, which way gravity was going in a movie gravity right. When everything
floating around in your hair? Just stay out real? Yes, oh that's all told me that it's just that I mean.
I said, mysteries of gravity, while Sandra Bullock, banged always newish way, gravity was going. That's why I like this. She called the expanse because when there and zero g its it
like the underwater, the guy and they can't control their movements like ok direction like for if they start drifting to the left, no matter
What data, because it aren't flailing wrecking they just keep drifting out, which is pretty glad to learn, is that IRAN Leslie Break wind, in which case they can then direct. There would have to
in the right way. Algeria has ever been
Have the lawyer draws so that an actual
you can't tell adult man would never thought about that girl.
George using the waves were busy,
I'm wearing terms like like, like like space pay
space and let go of wind vantages hits the pants
his back and is no net Meda. That anything that does you need, like escape. Pole just became your own worst. Enemy ready reacted, so you need to escape inexhausted hash hatch that you lower.
I have a comment and then you can promote values and the good thing about bout flashlights is that it
almost where your centre of masses, so would you
This trust, so that the you push yourself forward soda uniformly. But if you did it, if you like Bert heavily, you can start rotating backwards, deputy carts, not while because
European, that exhaustive, not near centre a man right, so you start wrote in a useful move, but also raises rotate you don't. You
you celebration is very, very slow either way right for, but I think
I asked of Gaza is low compared with the mass of your body rang. We presume
Brazil. Has you don't know what I have to see? Who have? No? That's all
a guy named Seal Caskey, who created the thing, called the rocket equation you can make the cap
delay for the russian guy from a hundred years ago and turns out to be one of the most
significant mathematical equations in all of spaceflight activity, louse
ok, I think if you live in the expanse or if you like, travel through the expanse, you have to have some sort of show. Is it's not my your loader? Don't look at me like that, creates look if you're in the expanse.
I presume everyone whose there has to have some sort of an emergency propulsion system. We have used their stuck,
right. So you gotta have something like, maybe maybe some sort of exhaust hatch and you have in your pocket
and if you need to go somewhere, then you just put it on.
And then you'll be able to transport yourself in
of emergence. Thank God, I ain't. Broccoli gangs are right next question here we go gases, Paul waste
from where we would oppose coming to us. Also. He is a patriotic patriot. Any says instead of deep thought, the answer to the universe with specific question, would you ask an all powerful sir?
computer O. First six point: ok in the hitchhikers guide to the galaxy, very classic, first radio shows which then was turned into books, and then
movies. Interesting, not really beautiful, multi, part, B, B, c production. The whole point of the existence of earth was that there was a computer name, deep thought they could answer all kinds of questions, but he could not answer. The ultimate question to life
the universe and everything he gave the answer after thinking about it for millions of years, forty two
he said if you actually want the question, so the answer then
have to create an even more amazing supercomputer, and that was called earth and what happened
yes and everything was supposed to be the computer to to solve
the question that, for which the answer, only forty two
nor any hiding getting that out of the envy. That's what he's got no second tropic drugs, what they do and when they came up, that's the showed did come out in the
in that area, that period of time. That makes us ok, we're not so easy answer to question the questions that I would ask that which is do these close make me look that, and this is why a true supercomputer like a human
takes into account, not just individual numbers or data that comes in, but also the
entire structure of all.
Information that it has ever experienced to come up with an answer,
We all know that if somebody asks you do these close make me look bad
I don't want the aid is a loaded question or even the computer understands. It is a load of questions and answers it in a way that is satisfied.
Three for the social environment, then I'll go on and as ask other questions because in all know it actually knows what is talk. You know, you only know that it knows human culture right rather than
the universe well or maybe it's just a really is computer about. Yes, Sir Charles you giving the computer a stepping stone to judge whether it is worthy of your next question. Correct, that's what you do
that's right because is really important to do that, and it doesn't even to be human rather better than can be. It could be a martian version or some other version of like a question. That's loaded and Scott contrive loaded question. The riddle. Ok out, ask the computer didn't
Don't don't do that? Bulgaria will fly like an arrow or do fruit flies
I got banana that is it
was it ever and a brilliant question to ask the commission,
every word is in every place in that sentence in
corresponding noun verb location and they mean to completely everything's yet yet so try once the
once the computer answers that question satisfactorily. What is these single deepest question you can think of asking. I would ask it: what
as the Big Bang, who great
Lastly, I would ask them why not
Would you know so much by knowing what exactly cause was wanting fluctuating, not interest lies it any answer to a question. We know how to pose so what you asked the computer.
What is I put out asked the computer does? Is it true.
That is the area of our knowledge grows? So too does the perimeter of our ignorance.
Or will the day arrive where the perimeter no longer continues to grow and we ultimately learn everything?
There is to know about the universe I want to know. If
Is everything not related to that? Not whether everything is knowable is the human mind, capable
The difference of understanding
the complexities of this universe. That's what I want to know a great quest
Because if they say it is possible, we all get back to work going here,
The one answer to the one question it is, I think the one question we need now is how fast the universe expanding
we have an answer now we're onto other questions right, so I just an answer to them.
We ve already posed this morning
out there and are more interested in ok. He's out is, there
see, and I think that with I think the answer is we can. I don't think we could wouldn't basing them
I guess what I'm facing. Are you the computer and that's your answer? I'm the computer. Okay, that's really that, and the reason is because are there things that we can't see like, for instance, dimensions?
and those things just don't exist, ass. The.
This is why I am asking the question well, but what I'm saying is but
we, the computer, Perceval you're right, I think he's here, is that you have access to all the dimensions and your brain.
Sufficient to to
the questions and pose new ones. To the point where one day you will know everything there is to know about the universe. I want to know if that's awful, unless we
unless we have a conversation with a computer. The way we would have a conversation with a chip and say to the the chip says: will I ever?
throughout the universe.
I don't even know your timetable right through to limit to how much the triple ever rather right, even though it is all world is doing. Just fine pull
pull in step with the answer right ended and the termites granted world is fine? That's ok are we? Are we chimps pulling termites out of a mound with a stick to an all?
knowing computer so before we leave this. Let me just say that the great science fiction writer
Isaac Think wrote very wonderful, died twenty years
one of the most beautiful science fiction short stories. I have ever read anyway,
precisely about a question ass to the greatest of all computers. This short
where is called the last question. I don't even want to talk about it to anybody, because it is such a cool story,
in such a short and quick rivalry. Everyone should experience I will read. It is an amazing story
not one week there on a mission to the supernova. Not about that. That's it that's all
asked question by isinglass question. Thank you. For that reason, this is Sarah sell a bit,
that is LU, LU. First of all, this way
Let me just say that junior readers phone name into this away like fanatically spearheads eradicated by no help, help help a brother. We all right. Here's what she says where he says how come
he is so weak that a mosquito can fly but so powerful that it holds together. The entire galaxy yeah Charles wonderful question. Basically gravity has no negative, such as say electricity as both positive charges and negative charges. Therefore,
if you build up enough matter in a location, the amount of gravity grows as well without limit, so some
things. Small, like a mosquito ease,
can cold it all in, and you just can't escape the mosquito can lift off the surface of the earth, but it can't escape routes, gravity
worth of matter in a single area or a volume, that's even thousands of hundreds of thousands of years cross. Perhaps you can call it all in and you just can't escape the mosquito can lift off the surface of the earth, but it can't escape scrapping right right. It can ask
leaving and never coming back right, where's that mosquito, no matter what it does well to start flapping its wings is falling. I bet it back on earth right right. I hate them. Ok, let's move on Crete out now I here we go
leaving a never coming back right, where's that mosquito, no matter what it does, but it's not flapping its way.
It's what I bet it back on earth right right. I hate them. Ok, let's move on Crete out now here we go
hi there. This is Angie from London. Do you think of a distant future? Artificial intelligence will sort out the population
growth problem by releasing viruses to kill you,
No, no, I mean,
let's let us use our way back when I was about to say, let's just take this to its logical conclusions, you give a and a I the task of filling out our population, nothing just control controlling controlling controlling our population, and it comes up with the
best way to save the human race is to kill off a certain number of people, so it's still actually living out a directive without in it's mine, harming us, but because in a ai it should also have the ability to
to perceive any other directives that you have given it thus far, because if its ultimate goal is to save us, it has two now disregard the fact that you don't want to kill a few people. This is a classic actually quandary. The author friend Isaac, Asimov
and in his robotics laws the three laws of robotic so which is essentially an early version of artificial intelligence ethics right all right. He said that in the end robots
reached, such a level of sentience, that they realised that there
the superseding ethical law, not just kill, but two
if humanity from itself, if necessary- and
What happened in that case was robots, did wind up killing people, but in
way that you wouldn't have expected was very creative, an interesting way that Isaac did that, but our economy,
this name based my letter. I call my well. The thing is: if, in a I were told you have to control the human population, it wouldn't do it with a virus. It would probably do with a whole bunch of nukes. It will probably do it by shipping off a whole bunch of human beings. It wouldn't just use a virus.
Would be too subtle, take too long and have too many variables to many unknown out of a created the virus, not even if,
creates the virus, because, when you create viruses, viruses mutate things change
move out of the control of the creator, that is our age, are very complex as a very good. So I apologize I apologize gave you ok I got something to do is just for the air I to inject a large amount of kinetic energy into the human ecosystem. That would you
emanate a substantial portion of the population without harming the rest of it. So it would
a smart nuclear bomb.
Our bomb or something I Marlon on. I think the smartest ay. I would simply figure out a way for us to expand out of earth environment and
humans to live elsewhere safely and freely, so that overpopulation never becomes an issue.
Because we can go anywhere the heck we want to any time we do more space, so there
they really stupid. I bet it s an artificial stupidity. I I did the whole universe,
population is not a problem when you have the whole universe to expand into get back to? How did you get it back to work, get back to what it back to where we got a break? When we come back the third and last segment,
episode of starch or celebrating my friend and colleague,
lose new book. Just came out a thirty second. Yours would write a we'd like to give a patriotic shot out to the following patriarch patrons Agnes Dose others, and
you guys for helping us make this show what it is and if you would like to get your very own patriarch shall go
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free space inside science, down to earth, you're listening to start,
The bank's star talk celebrate a thirty second universe. Thirty second answers to questions
they have. You had total scope of the universe. That's what this whole thing this! What you hope in your body
collected questions in celebration of there,
two questions from all frontiers and Charles
I answer them in thirty seconds, given
we go so after this one came in specifically for Charles also this map anguish.
MAC, which was, though this Charles. Yes, what was the event or moment in your life that made you fall in love with comic book hero- oh my god
had a thirty second universe questioning, but he was just when they went off. We re a clown, Pierre, you man, while output. Now you tell you there was a day when comics were mostly aim for children and their children.
Yeah, and they were racks comics just sitting at the check out the supermarkets. I remember human
And so, when I was a young child, my family would go to the supermarket and I would come along and I would convince my parents look, I'm just gonna stand here by the complex and I would just pull one comic at a time and read them and read them and read them. So it was a really really fun thing for me to do that sort of how a development early appreciation of calmness. I was not a collector, however, until one year for Christmas,
I brought there. He gave me a comic book. He had bought an issue. I believe it was. A venture is number one. Seventy nine, the debut of a character called blood hawk. It was costs thirty, five cents. At that time, he rolled it up really ratchet up nicely gonna. I still remember
to this day and then I own robbed us. Oh wow, this is great and I enjoyed it was lovely and actually it featured amongst other people, the black Panther well yeah. So it was a really really neat experience for me there. Even then I didn't start collecting.
Makes until had enough money to buy them. That was nice great, but I just remember those who want to be a superior, since I did think about how or what kind of superhero might want and were carried out. I want to tell the kinetic powers generally, my my thought was. I would like to be able to move things at a distance, not just because it would be power, but because I could do nice things there.
If I could do maybe not like get cats out of trees kind of nice, because your choice I get off the couch ability to achieve even want to wear the thing is that you want to move, and I also remove it, and also one thing about telling kinetic power which I like is its can be completely defensive. You dont have to hurt anybody, you could you have let you can deflect at all times. You can protect, and not just yourself but others, and so I found that to be something that really.
This very confident there's not a flexible rounder. What's the one we have little, I can't data is a wonderful martial arts.
Here we go. Let's move onto John Layered, whose, where the single journal layered legacies, what is this
was my employing fact that you can share about the universe in under thirty seconds. So, Charles,
so many, oh, my gosh, ok I'll pick, one that's kind of earth and space science that I was recently thinking about. Do you realize that in
Its atmosphere, a one degree increase in average temperature means that throughout earth's atmosphere there is additional energy.
Just in the heat floating around our atmosphere, equivalent to me
then one hundred million atomic bombs. So
when people are asking what is a
I'm degree increase going to make what differences are gonna make. The answer is immense,
there are a hundred million atomic bombs were that energy is floating around at any time, creating hurricanes tornadoes, droughts, floods unit
it can happen. So maybe we should just knew the hurricane. Ah,
don't go there. Please don't go there.
I'm gonna, let me run a bunch more questions. Ok, Charles yes, there's gonna be the fifteen second universe, not a thirty second you're ready to go.
This is like an universe. If the universe is infinite, how is it still expanding? Girls go
Because the space and time are not less
it is by the way we think of space in a box or time on a clock. You can expand
generously islamic of extra dimensions to work. We do our work.
That was wrong. Craig approach dimension car right away there. Ok, here we go James Thomson wants to know this. If the earth were flat with gravitational pull or even satellite orbit, be possible.
Oh well, I answer is. If the earth is flat,
but it still has mass there's still a centre of gravity, the middle of the disk right. So you can
you'll have orbits going around. It would just look very differently from where we are.
Break it here and I M just your orbit would have to be sufficiently distant from the disk rise so that you didn't really know it was a disk when you really close
then you have half the mass on one side relative to the other, and orbits would be very complicated.
But the farther way you are from the more it looks like just a point of mass to you here,
That's ok! Without a dictionary good, Charles ok, lawyers are requesting,
That's what you just said about the desk. How is it that we know that we are not looking at a galaxy on its side or looking at is face front if it's a disk, oh well, if you're looking at a disk galaxy and it's on the edge kind looks like a cigar right.
You're looking face front on it. It looks like the circle, but then you ask yourself was at an elliptical galaxy, or is that actually disk that we're seeing on face? And normally what you do? Is you have to look to see what the dynamics of the things move
around, because if their swirling and moving in a orderly direction, it's a disk. But if it's mine, Gout
yeah. What if it's moving around and sort of crazy ways like a hive of bees or something rouse likely and elliptical,
let me see there at all angles on the sky. Well, that's why we re pretty. We think we gotta we got here.
But pretty my sight whether there was a Linux, an excellent point, that you need more information than just what you see in order to make a decision about three dimensional day Judson,
So I want to know this. I love astronomy because there is always something new to discover. Could it be possible to have discovered laws is worrying
There were not undiscovered laws of physics. We
I'll go home and just have a beard, their ab.
The loosely must be laws of physics we have yet to discuss. Absolutely every mile
bottle to that go ahead. I do please I do. I do details a new laws of physics, we're all discovered historically, when
with some phenomenon going on in front of us that we could not accept.
Ah that's true. When there are such it's always went, Faraday moved a wire through a magnetic field, the needle move. What made them
oh, he induced a current anything other just how we
turbines and energy has today as how we still Miguel Stomach and obviously we we do. We get
down into the Adam and weird things are happening with theirs: Quantum Physics: we the objects
they heated they radiates, but the radiant away. We don't understand new laws of thermodynamics, so I ask you: Charles yes, is there's something tabletop on earth:
happening in front of us that we do not understand that is waiting for a new law physics if by tabletop.
You mean the: U Avatars Laboratory if the laboratory well there's light, for example, the quantum doom nature duality yeah.
The dual article away when article duality there are aspects of some of the quantum behaviour of products, subatomic products that come from particle accelerator,
regions that are still not quite well understood. I think it needs a new or physics. It might ok. Yeah
And I will just say that these days, a laboratory includes the entire universe and there are plenty of thing
dark matter, though you re not a whole back. Ok, I got married dark energy. There d be the laws of physics, absolute waiting in the wings and go for that.
Here. We go Marco's cortex wants to know this. The earth rebound
around the sun? The sun revolves around the centre of our galaxy. What, if anything, does our
Alexander revolve around girl. We are in the outskirts of what we call the Virgo super cluster. There is a cluster of Gallagher,
he's called a Virgo cluster and then around it is, as Malta plea struck
highly diffuse but really clearly existent globs of material called the Virgo Super cluster
now our orbit in or around the super clusters, not a hundred per cent clear. It is very hard to measure starting over there
around it or whether we're going into it or we're going in a sort of somewhere in between, but that's the general answer, the Virgo Super Clusters centre of which we are part of, but not at the center
Ok, ok! I knapsack nice has asked a question on the back about the way we can make an area something so earth has been around the sun.
More about a trillion times, idea
That's not true, four and a half billion time
If we have the EU summits. Sunrises we ve had is about accountants, about a trillion sunrise. Zanuck assert, spun, faster, sober,
goes around. The earth is four and a half billion years. All right. The sun.
Right. It is just not quite old enough to vote. I think, if I did, my number is right in terms of
how many times has come under his words time around the galaxy it takes two hundred and fifty million years, roughly four, the sun to go round the milky way. Gallagher Weren t where five billion years, all so psych it out.
Being the eighteen nineteen, just not more than twenty years, all twenty years when the galactic years old, but our galaxy has not really finnish one orbit around the Virgo Super coronets comment, so we're still in infant. In that regard,
Every time we also these conversations. I just get so depressed that you can't be here to see
what is going to happen?
trot depressingly just let her out. I got an excellent, I hear it is have a shot Emma Chandra wants to know this. Please somewhat it's time, for all time is one of those mysteries that may be. Laws of physics can improve on, but it can be measured and a bunch of different ways. Cosmical speaking, it can be measured as emotion from ordered to disorder, that is by the second law, thereby dynamics it can be measured as going from actually disordered to order where you have a lot of crazy energy going eventually to where you have no background temperature of the universe or it can be measured in terms of expansion like house, it's getting bigger cassettes. What we're doing right now it can be measured time that is as a demand
like length within height and tied together in a way that general relativity describes it, as Albert Einstein put it a hundred plus years ago. So there are a lot of different ways to describe a tech speaking some people even considered time as a resource
We only have a certain number of hours in the day. How do we allocated properly so time is one of those
who things where there's a lot of physical death to, but there is also a lot of sociological and mental and other kinds of death to events were thinking so who came up with the saying time was invented to me
sure everything doesn't happen all at once now, as it was at finding an idle those with somebody clever one of these matters. We regret
in time or related in the same way that length is related to with or with is related to height. It's another dimension in this for dimensional thing: that's called space,
Tell me how space and time are related. This is something I have trouble understanding so another
What, with I'm sure he means is space time. Sure drop,
space and time are related in the same way that
think this related to wit, or which is related to hide its
third dimension in this for dimensional thing. That's called space time. Those described by Albert Einstein's, general theory of relativity so length with height and time are the four dimensions of space time. The weird thing in that construction is that time only moves
forward in our understanding or our revelry leaning forward aunt. I regret we can only move
in time we can go forward or backwards up and down or left and right, but we can only move forward in time. So we are prisoners of the present forever transitioning between our inaccessible past and our unknown.
Future or with that I'm just gonna go home is rather didn't know. I was present, but we know that a great many, not others of the project. We are treating. That's it. I love that.
So poetic we're not prisoners in ways we are. We have been gifted the press.
In order to enjoy it to its citizens through therapy. As most I dont have slick Israel's illegal description. I have Stockholm's. Add one thing: if you think there's a separate, but physicist are forcing you to connect
you have never met someone at a place without a pre specified
nor have we ever met. Someone had a pre specified time without identifying a place.
So once you realize this, the connection between space and time has actually been a fundamental part of all of our lives and all of civilization. Ever since we ve even
thought of time. So I will say I'll meet you at the corner. Thirty, certain! Third, thanks!
I'll meet you at ten o clock where you
oh intuitively, it requires space and time to isolate you in this continuum of the fabric of the cosmos wealth,
well well said unless you're, an intern, in which case you just saw them, wait up. We're gonna call Acquit Joe Congratulations,
You will therefore, when I finally to carry out my to show people applied, puts up put something online. Yes, yes, exactly,
always good to have you on child. What a pleasure! Thank you so much! You know his his knowledge of superhero. Ok,
It's not that he knows a lot about super where he knows a lot about everything there.
That's just? It is just the index cards right out of a hundred other right in the role of debt in the role of stuff. This man, no as amazing, so dont, be impressed by just the superheroes.
Right maybe help Charles, while you know so much about old old tv, sitcoms rancor. Well, because I was a kid I bet that best MA am I wrong. You are very kind. Thank you very much. Jack Odin could have now is a place to write. This has been a star talk, some of you ve been watching.
Others have been listening, we'll take it both ways: I've been your host any other grass Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist,
in this special edition of cosmic worries. I was delighted to receive your queries, instructed pretty good pronouncing.
I ll catch a next time has always keep looking.
We should listen. The star talk, commercial, free, joint star talk.
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.