Itching to know more about the multiverse? You’re not alone! Join us when Neil deGrasse Tyson and Princeton theoretical physicist Paul Steinhardt answer fan-submitted questions about cosmology chosen by co-host Chuck Nice.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free, secrete cinemas trees, leaving us with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time, what what Well you just recently the domain, the brakes, Daddy Glinda, did you grandma South Ass, deep get lab
star talk, but I'm your host we'll be grasped. Ice in your personal astrophysicist and I'm Hail from the American Museum of Natural history right here in New York City, where I also serve as the director of the Hayden Planetarium, my first planetarium as a kid when I was nine years old- and I was never the same since then- I think the universe found me for this addition of star talk. It's the ever favorite cosmic queries fielding your questions and today's how big is the multiverse? I know you read about it. I know you heard about it and I know you're itching to no more at I've got my co, whose Chuck nice Jack
The only hope you can help me get through this site. I have two questions my very have elicited from all over the internet, wherever our fans may be found, maybe further inquisitive little minds want to know also today and- and I need a backup for this cause- I know a little bit about the multiverse, but I'd claim no particular decent it. So we get on the horn and called where my old friends and colleagues Paul Steiner Paul. I welcome the star talk, a thank you for having the professor Physics Princeton University and you are proponent of one of the multi verses their people been talking about. Well I am not sure I put it quite that way, but I'm actually proponent of alternatives to the multiverse. Oh, oh, really, not a big fan of them
ok, I'm not. What did the multiverse do? Multiverse destroy? What am I favorite idea or will the problem for you for me? Ok, so what was your idea that the multi verse destroyed? Well, it's an idea that we call cosmic inflation So one of the long standing problem is that we have had in trying to understand the universe. Is why the distribution of matter and energy is so uniform on large scale and we thought we had a real and others. I looked to one side of the universe is statistically a number of galaxies and stuff in any direction. I look. It's kind of looks like that. Its rights and using it shouldn't, look like well, according to our initial idea of the Big Bang, universe should have emerged from some random quantum. State and been very
very uneven distribution of matter and energy and space itself should have been curved and warped, and all that should have happened is that you just stretch that out your time very, very slowly, so that, if you look at the universe today should see and then said that unevenness and warping like we don't area where there is a tremendous amount of matter and other areas where this hardly anything again and boost bizarre curvature of the space time continuum. Yes, like a fire sapphires unlike unpredictable and the way it moves, it has certain burn patterns, and so you would look for that to see where the fire how it progressed in certain air, but it wouldn't be like. Harry. Uniform thought him as a union fire, but you, I guess a room would not burn uniformly right for some things are more. Finally, another objective may have maintained some. You have no idea bailed you out. I know now. That is exactly what I meant, but I was just like the way you look at me. I was like shit
That again troika rubber heads around assorted continue ball go so we thought that the idea furs having this problem was to have a period of very rapid acceleration. Celebrated expansion occurs right after the bang so that, instead of expanding at us, but a slow modest rate. They would preserve this unevenness. Instead, you would stretch that such a space at such a fast rate the matter and radiation with all that existed before would all be spread out. Dissipated you'd have left is the energy they would be driving this expanding. This super mansion and then when that energy decayed. To ordinary matter radiation that we see today because it made the an energy are one and the same. The he's going to tells us that guy betting also whose light and other forms of forms of energy, then you would discover the only energy that was left with very uniform, very uniformly distributed,
So that was the initial idea that seem to be a sweet idea for explaining how you would get physics. This eventually see universe we see, which is, has its peculiar and Spectre, uniformity, okay, so then we came up with another added idea to this, which is in this discussion. I just gave you. I didn't include anything about quantum physics, so I said just stretching universe would make it uniform, but quantum physics resists uniformity. It produces fluctuations, random fluctuations that that their prevent, perfect uniformity, and they would lead to some regions of space, ending inflation rightly before after the average, so you wouldn't end up with a perfectly uniform universe. You end up a universe universe with a specific non. Deformity and the distribution of matter. You can predict that you that we thought we could predict. Ok seem to be predicted that seem to be some. They could. You could work out on the back of an envelope
You could work out back, in other words, at the back of it I mean my supercomputer eagles, you in the back of your noble our voters that the end in an curiously enough, those naive predictions agree with what we ve observed when we actually look out in space with the pattern of Venus that existed in the early universe. It's not as uneven as it might have otherwise been the right amount on uneven of unevenness. That's consistent with hypotheses this night with is naive. Kaliko Saunders. What's wrong tat the problem well or a couple of things wrong with this idea that, as we ve discovered, the first is that it is pursuing that after the big bang, it would be easy to get this inflation that just by introducing the right forms of energy, hypothetical energy into the universe, you could autumn magically start inflation, and so you could begin with a very random uneven state and start the unfortunate inflation to recur,
you needed to match the universe that we now yes, but you also need to start the inflation it needs to ignite. If you ve is somehow the enemies analogy to flames, he s we thought it would be easy to ignite, but we discovered. Actually the opposite is true. So as an analogy Imagine that I was trying to I sold. You had a theory for how to become a billionaire and I am very interesting I'm right one might be I'm taking notes. Ok, I have a theory of how to become a billionaire, and I show you a little part of my theory of which it tells you how to That's some money and sure enough. It demonstrates that it could make some money by falling that procedure, and so you by my theory- and I give you the book which, which explains the Syrian you open up to page one. It says page one lesson:
that your parents were billionaires. So basically, this is tromp university. Alright, I become a billion start with a billion right and what this is essentially, what happened? The story of inflation? We thought a regionally just simply stretching the universe would be easy and easy start, but we discovered actually we only under very rare conditions, essentially the conditions you needed. You need to start with universal, which was already smooth enough and unwarped enough. Only then can inflation it's. Just like saying I need to have a billion dollars in order to become a normal, to make it very clear that occur. So that was the first big problem. Never gotten around then up to the present time. We have known about this for thirty years, but we haven't figured out despite lots of clever attempts how to get around
draw such idiots. He can't tell anyone early universe, guys thirty years now, I'm waiting waiting is because the problems heart a cardiologist aren't smart enough. It's because problem Lee is actually not a good way of smoothing the universe out soccer, I would say they not a good idea, has probably not a good book that that I gave you for the billionaire rationalization recipe, then the second problem that we found, is well suppose I'll. Let you start as a billionaire. Ok I'll give you the conditions. You need to start inflation, ok, but I let you choose your inflationary energy to have whatever properties you want. We thought that you could then calculate, as I said in the back of an envelope what the predictions would be, but there's a little son things that be left out of the story. They didn't realize when we thought about these quantum fluctuations that Sir
It may change the rate at which inflation ends one place to another. Inevitably, there's also gonna be regions which are gonna, have large quantum fluctuations, they're not going just delay the end of inflation by a little bit, but by a huge amount and the long you delay, because its inflation is stretching the universe so fast, the bigger those regions become so a typical region. Is not the region. You thought it was which just had tiny fluctuations a typical region in terms of where most of the universe is, is one of these huge regions which continues to inflate and then itself. It will repeat the process we patches of will and inflation, but patches of it will continue so that only within it within it s all a key producing choosing patches and patches with most of the universe, continuing to inflate and only rare patches where it ends, we don't see these bachelor we admire
According to this idea, we would live in one of these patches, but these patches are not all the same. This is where the problem begins. The breakdown looking around, we don't see such non uniformity in the universe. The only thing tat we use a visa uniformity be done any everything was our entire universe is one of these patch of which is the is we get that that's one kind of multiverse. That is one patch of multiverse right, and that is but the problem is that so I don't to be clear. This is not a universe in summer. Dementia, and I do not know how this is all one uniform recently when you area Harry volume, whatever in a meadow universe, and we think in it's our only it's our thing is you think it's escalating right, but but outside of that, our patch. If you went far enough outward
more inflating universe, and finally, you had another patch that patch would have different property rights due to want friendly fluctuations. Contacts and fluctuations will cause different properties in that little path. That means you can actually travel with in this universe from one place to another and then experience a different site, different laws of physics, too bad will help, and the reason is because the carries between these patches is growing so fast is contained to inflate. That light. Either you in Iraq. It nor light could make up the difference. So we can overcome the expanding boundaries between us. Yet here beat the expansion guide. You can never get ahead of that expansion right, so you're, never gonna reach their patch. Wow. So it's completely there is this vital because you don't want to wander into a place that has slightly different laws of physics.
For example, where all the molecules in our body would decay into radiation that Wouldn'T- or perhaps I shall in the wrong outfit would be disastrous practice. I wouldn't even this is black eyes before. How would you ever teslas? Well, it's actually hard to test this idea, because one of the consequences of this aid Is over time you produce patches of ever ever increasing variety so that every conceivable possibility that can occur will occur and sample patch for the path that has a slightly different. More physics will have patches. That is slightly different from it. He asked who have purchased, different from it right wow. So it's a theory where you're freaking out is frightening. Crazy man well either.
It is because our goal was to explain why the universe is the way it is and we haven't got our heads exploding, but yours had exploded, wandered over you just go with you. Don't you know. What's what's also like ploy in my mind is that I mean it's so incredible that you're able to conceptualize this as all a part of like you, said, a meadow universe, one expansion aware, whereas our our common perception of a multi verse is we're making jumps and leaps to these people. Well, universes that our existing one different planes, you're saying no it's. This is like whirlpools in a giant link, yes, yeah! That's it, he's acted, connect enough space, Walker S. Ok, let's that's good outlets. You're getting ass? The emerald spoke of work done with you here and I know of flour check what
we go. Of course we always start our queries with a patriarch patron of these people who paid to get their question first. Yes, because even fair, listen, I was now faint light. That's all we! I was now bears the supporters of the child support the cell, and so we support them bad, giving them preferential treatment drawback scratch. You got them reason why my parents, like me better than my siblings- are you at least they pretend to it? We got Christopher Comin from patriotic says hideouts Thyssen. How far do you think we are away from determining the theory of everything I e, a theory of quantum gravity? What will we need to perform experiments that could prove or disprove a particular hypothesis, Christen, Samantha Cohen, from heart, worth New Jersey, soup, so Paul? How how entered connected is a theory of everything to what's going on on the front
we can question, but that's the presumption and suddenly it burst into something space time filled with energy. There was first quantum and then suddenly became later we talked about already, was how he would start the universe off. So a presumption of the this conventional picture is the universe. Has a beginning, the only only cosmology get to sound, like God. Well, this is how we can make the universe this way the power that they we'll go on Gaza, so so that the question is how so they're. So the idea is that at some point there was nothing no space, no time no matter, no energy. That's the presumption that the presumption which we can question, but that's the presumption, then, suddenly it burst into something space time filled with energy. There was first quantum and then suddenly became later feeling really popular
large enough and became classical described by general relativity now those words what actually happened there. What's the theory that explains that creation event or every places it with a better idea. Let's get onto the tape the video to active, never mind. The other said Harris Cartoon who were there to physicist at the Chalk Board and its sealed with equations and then at the end of the bottom right corner. It says that a miracle occurred, so the other physicists we need some more detail here absence at this stage. That's the theory of every! So that's what we're looking for Serbia, so I would die tail into what you're trying to describe what happened after a full theory would would we have to incorporate a quantum theory of gravity and an explanation of either this creation from nothing or something that replaces it was
a different idea? So you were when you hear people talk about the internationally of matter like that edges, it's not about that. It came from some place that it just always existed. I mean I've actually heard that as people that try to explain that's how everything started and that this just goes over regret what so the idea, this creation idea this big bang, the traditional big bang, ideas that there would have been no matter there would have been no space for matter to even existed so matter already presumes notion that exists in some space back and brood. Now we ve got say benefit but bad. We don't know that this creation ideas right. There are some of us and in their self included myself included, who have been been rethinking the creation scenario and thinking
Maybe what we thought was a big bang was really a big balance. Their universe went through a period of contraction and then bound to expansion. Space would not have had a created created moment, but would have existed before during and after that's what I was trying to say that there is your turn out at least of space is least us. What would you call this idea? The big bounces one is just describing this event like the tooth animals, a version of it. The universe undergoes not just one bounds but periodic bounces. So we call that at cyclic Universe, so universe goes through examples, a little better. If you, if you are into your greek one vote,
that is called an act, periodic universe, another version of first name. Thank you. Thank you, Parana who wants to live there we miles all right exactly by the way I want to get done with the periodic universe we over to the animal universe, work so egg products we greek, been means what whether those words from out of the fire so in ancient greek idea was the idea of a universe with when I went under regular periods of creation, evolution and then cataclysm disappear, and then a new universe would be created, an act periodic universe with Phoenix Universe. Maybe I owe Phoenix is another version of this otherwise you're, just showing off that you know Greek and
we'll take a quick break. We come back to start or cosmic worries addition. We got Palestine Heart physicist at Princeton University and he's our export. The in house on the multi in a moment Gallo secret for you Gonna consider singing all of the ads on this show. Just one way to get out a hearing there go to patriarch arms last started talk and the porters at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free. You can download. All current episodes into your favorite park has player and, ever hear another commercial on star talk ever again, you will definitely not
after hear me saying if you support us at patriarch dot com last our talk I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. This is a start. we're back like a star tat caused the prairies addition. Today's topic Multiverse topic. I would not dare to tackle and my own, so I brought in truck nice as of course, Chuck knows everything about the multi various is reading questions from you are fan base and brought in Palestine or Princeton University, Professor S as exists, a fascinating conversation. Thus fine he's been
some thinking of his own as you Multiverse, so we saw a quick question. You're ECB product Universe, which is repeating bouncing you, remove the need for singularity. Is that correct? Yes, says time would exist arbitrarily far back may be infinitely far back in time. Maybe space and time existed forever reduced in the late it most recent cycle of an answer. It was after the question: did you come up with this idea, because the singularity was too hard and see hated an easier way to understand the universe? Oh, what you give compelling reasons to go there actually is a very practical reason I didn't have. Philosophical out look at all. It was to get rid of the multi verse problem because the multifarious cause the hit on the multi multiverse got too on the back of the head after I M tall when leave the gun, who thanked economic as well as
there was a motivation that actually was the motivation, because the multiverse, essentially as a as I was saying at the outset, destroyed an idea which I thought explain how the universe could have been smoothed uniform just because we didn't properly understand the effect of quantum physics and that, due to these rare quantum facts at totally changed the structure that we start getting a smooth universe. We expected the Gabby got these patch universe, which every outcome as possible. I don't want to. I want to explain it they feel comfortable with me. This patchwork universe, where you have causally separated regions that cannot know about one
whether they are none the less connected in the fabric of space time? Yes, we cannot and should not, think of them as some separate peril universe in another dimension, as is so commonly thought has been movies and the rest. Ok, as that is really just yes, my blown radically mine blowing class at what does questioning. Let's get on asking that investors, when from Gregg Fisher on Facebook says high Doktor Thyssen at all. I remember reading a while back that in a quantum state, electrons were shown to not only have spin, but what kind of able to jump or teleport between and within their shells, while this still seems a bit far fetched, not a physicist, hey thanks for their great thanks, relentless not just as I was for. While I was very concerned what's new and what can be explained about this, so
this, not specifically Multiverse, but if you're worried about quantum phenomenon it's to show up at some point. We know that when electrons jump energy levels or even when particles, what we call tunnel from one state to another state as the time delays basically Zero. Isn't that correct particle can shop in one place, having travelled from another place if it tunnel there it got there faster than the speed of light. Is that It is the wrong way to think about think it's the wrong way to think about it. I think there is a period of time I'm doing, which its location is uncertain, a few account for that that lost time. That's the time it would for all. That would be longer time. They were take fur or equal to the time, take light to travel from its first location to the other. So it's like, you would see it here and then there'd be
area if you weren't, watching that it was suddenly appear here and then that would too that period of uncertainty which account for the light, travels, ok, another period where you're not watching, that's a narrow Kennedy. It that's a necessary part of this phenomenon. Yes, because to see it would mean you'd have to be shining light on it to see it now. You'd be cheating, you'd actually be kicking. The electron and you'd say all the reason why I went from here two years, because I realized the Ashworth, the Laos Important, that you don't look because any you're not setting the for now. What that's like the old joke. I know how to teleport and they say prove it and you say: ok, I'm gonna go to San Francisco right now, I'm back That is why I can't disprove it
so just I've been said something the funding and deep at. As you have been doing in this time, you ve been sharing with us that for particle to disappear from one place and reappear in another spontaneously via some kind of tunneling phenomenon. It does that because you stopped looking at it the act of looking at it It keeps it in that quantum state, if you well- and in this case it out or kicks advocated, kicks act with that now you're setting a different effect right right, and this is happening all the time for everything its
that we can be illuminated by light, but our mass is so high that we don't jump to another quantum state body and soul, but an electron in his such low mass, and it has this interaction capacity without photon that you can't shine a fortune on. It is expected to standard smile for you. Yes, ok, yeah, ass, pretty ass, so the active try measured changes what you're trying to measure right. You can't measure it because once you pull out whatever it is, your measuring that obsolete affects it right in the new age. Movement completely misunderstood this thinking. That is your consciousness. That somehow affecting it and it's a human thing, no it's the act is the act of measurement is, is a thing whether not the human is doing it. You'd never machine right, whatever than men and spontaneous process by the way is
Same idea: that's involved with petitions multiverse it's a similar tunneling or decay like process. This case is the decay of inflationary energy. Into modern radiation. That's occur, randomly do the quantum effects and ineffective random and sometimes produces a huge expansion? Is all part and parcel of this quantum uncertainty randomness That's your problem is some better have limited. That's that's crazy! It's a powerful per year and the fact is that I would be very honest: I don't understand any other spirits for their I'm. Just let you know nobody, but do you have to buy the way by we I mean I almost the whole days. There was a fireman, so one of that one of the great of yesteryear said the day you say you understand. Quantum physics is the guarantee that you do not because this is not something to understand. Is that ok? Well, then, I feel much
Will you just get up? We, we were freaking out we our hour by hour, historical brethren, who discovered this that they were freaking out. Just like you are right now, oh, my God, a particle away. Why? Who? What I'm starting to God, does not play dies people if we cannot even Einstein
Are you in good company? Even today, and even today, people still, there is a community of people that debate the interpretation of quantum mechanics and then it's another community of us who just say it just is set up and computing appeared exact, almanac common that care provided by the way. If I had a time machine- and I somehow find myself in the nineteen twenties- I would be the greatest Harold or of the discovery of quantum physics which I think did not get much public play. Second, the nineteen twenties when most of the foundations were laid to paper. Let me think about newspapers of the day aren't saying our new branch of Physics has just been discovered for Israelis. It's not. There is only when it became useful for the I t revolution in our tyre Lucretia storage and retrieval of information. Has anyone been able to fully appreciate what came out of there
as pretty transistor to you needed even party and prices, because it was a lot of confusion as to how to interpret the idea and exactly what we want and mind. You will convey what it meant to what point it was convincingly true. So the point is as as a professional physicists you, you study Quantum Physics, which historically had only been applied to the small now as a cause Molly, just when the entire universe was once small, your invoking the Lee rules or quantum physics after two now affect the entire universe loud and the effects that pretty ass, a favorite right, given the large or small quantum physics is kicking cosmic. But you know that just particle, but an that's in the Bible. The obvious bomb smiles out a lot of courage.
This is my elaborate constraints book that was great question that we are now Elaine from Facebook and also from San Antonio Texas. Little more, it was another more accidental. Why should we take the multiverse theory seriously in the first place? Might there be extraordinary evident
for this extraordinarily claim is not the least bit sceptical of the kurdish people like this question is pretty gotta admit Paul to certain multiple universes is extraordinary and if you're not on the tear and your theorist last, I checked so you not even though, of course, good theorist. Think of how to test policies. Have you ever set with fear is do this? Do you well, I think I've already sort of played laid out my cards and said that I think the multiverse is a sign of breakdown of this inflationary idea to failure to failure motives series, something we didn't expect wasn't designed to produce a multi verse is something we discovered after the fact, and the problem is that, because it produces,
for a number of patches of every possible variety. If you ask what the theory predicts, the answer is nothing or everything or anything. So it's a little bit analogous if it explains everything than infected explains nothing. Yes, that's what that. So in my view, that makes it no longer a scientifically interesting theory. So it's not testable, even if it's true, which is not interesting, without interesting. As anything you'd measure. You could say we live in that patch of the universe and the new measures something else tomorrow and it doesn't fit that have I owe their mother, but not we're. Both of those are the fact TAT S right and if that makes us a meagre and according to the Multiverse idea, if its physically possible and obviously our physical world is one of the possibilities, then it must exe
Someone once we're a simulation, but even that would further out there they can't get away. I did hear ass. You have a bad idea. You can get it right, so there you have it down very mad. Likewise question: do you agree that it has it doesnt really set the standard for testable theory? I think by concern action, it does not, and if you read what the proponents of the multi verse say, that's exactly what they'll tell you that that is so. Why not? What about? What about the quantum foam bursting? Fourth: multiple whole other universes from the very early universe, and these would be universally You would be able to see and a higher dimension, but they don't interact in their perfectly separate family, desperate fabrics. Yes, I know it to make That is another an untenable idea in principle. So as it is,
their version of it if it about so there are two possibilities. One possibility is that those different fabric regions have completely different properties. Again, like the multi version, you and eight just random checks, patchwork multiverse, like a patchwork multiverse in which we wouldn't, in which again you everything could possibly everything that could happen will happen, which case it has no scientific predictive value, or it could be that you have a theory which says actually this something will happen each time every time you produce when these fabrics, so that, if I suddenly transported to the other one imagine doing that it would look familiar to me. That's a different story. That's a predictive theory at his right here, but the problem is you can't get. There is what you're, saying here an end, so it doesn't have a meaningful scientific value and causes to my poor could isn't true for reasons that I never learn, because I never took advanced feel theory in graduate school, for my wife did
Ok reaches a Phd mathematical. Now I know your life and smarter than you just say so, but from what I've been told, gravity is not contained in the space time in which it is formed in which you have it. So in other words, The effect of gravity can leak out of whatever is the membrane that it contained and be felt by other universes outside of that. So, unlike electromagnetic radiation, which is trapped within the space time, gravity is not. I've heard that I think you're referring to theories, likened string theory, you have extra dimensions and where we might live in a membrane like surface and which we seem we
think we're living in a world of free space dimensions, there's actually extra dimensions which we are particles can't access. There are light, can't move there, so electromagnetic radiation move there, but gravity would be felt even along that extra dimension, so that a week so that, for example, there were another. Similar membrane parallel now we are thinking about this idea of parallel. This is our low yet and something were happening over there that sail matter lumped together to form a star right or a black hole, or something like that. That would be felt its gravitation with their wives and dark matter. Are you need at our greater, are yours would be ordinary matter in a parallel. Universe is leaking into ours that we're mysteriously event and stuff to account for it when affected just ordinary matter. I think that's it. That's a conceivable idea, that it could be matter on the other side?
other Bray and another membrane, that's a small distance away. It couldn't be like our matter, because if it were. It would also when it gravitationally clumped it would produce radiation and that radiation would affect us well in a way that we know we know there are those sources of radiation there and the dark matter. One of the things about dark matter compared to ordinary man There is dark ordinary matter, collapses to form star and stick together. I stick together an sits in a halo, a very diffuse dark matter. If this dark matter we're like us, but on the other side it would also collapse and it would inform the halo which no of dark matter that we observe that we infer measures Edna and there's another little vacuum. A gravity drops off as one over distant squared, but if you're feeling gravity from another universe, that's gravity permeating through another dimension as and then the therefore gravity from another universe would have to drop off faster
moreover, our squared little, but every suddenly now as nice, as, of course, the four the authority on this in that room, let me just say what the hell are. You so how does this arm for commercial? you lost your unsolved whenever I go gravity thing there, if you spilling out and you gotta go through another dimension to prove to be felt, then you're equations have to somehow Rick it recognised that fact I gotcha the dilution of gravity, as you get so, in other words, gravity the surface area of a sphere as it grows up your thinning out, whatever the fabric was by the square of the distance. So I got a sphere that's three times
bigger social sphere is expanding as nine times the area, and so you see so is thin. It whatever was there before is now one ninth is so gravity things out. At that rate, ok, I guess, but now that makes sense of grave, even see negative. This has a blowing up balloon. If you want a single area into a whole other dimension, that equation consciously went over our squared catch it now that makes them. Let me just go Paul was I without its Erika. I write a good progress, but for those listening at home, you're welcome, we're talking rack more Anatomy of the multiverse This is starting
Are you drunk nice, sir, an old friend and colleague of mine from my Princeton days, Paul Steinhart, professor physics and law, the Phoenix Universe, so support is that Europe does your chair habit endowed name to it? Does what what it's called the Albert Einstein. Professorship in science excuse oh that's pretty, that's pretty rough man. Ok, some named guy that just gave money that Albert Einstein- ok, I just showed you realize you could only be a disappointment.
That's the prize so wrong side. Not just talk about a memo. I'm sorry shocking, we're cosmic. Whereas what s let us move, Multiverse cosmetics, reverse we are talking about this- is somewhat in that range, but Michael Ranger from Twitter says this. Reality is granular. I love help. People put their, we'll start everything lender. Let him go out, then I can say the earth gravity reach infinitely, far wooden it eventually winked out. So let me let me recall that question yet its request. If, in a quantum construct of the universe, you cannot
yet arbitrarily small things, you cannot have arbitrarily short time intervals, because there is a quantum size that limits it would do. We agree. Okay, so if you have gravity dropping off ever so slowly when over our squared and that means are gets bigger and bigger gravity get smaller and smaller, but is always something there. You can always calculate how much is there is there's some calculation where the gravity is so low. It goes from some quantum higher level too two zero did I say that it makes sense in question. Was that affair interpret it s? A very interpretation ensure if you are talking about timers space, though you talking about just gravity, described Israel outcry from the gravest way way from our thoughts are gravity right. Rain programme veto. It's you noticed like it's like cleaning up broken glass
This is like a gazillion piece of that you'll, never get it all, but eventually there's the last piece of glass you cleaned and there's no more glass left, even though it felt infinite at the time. So is there last piece of gravity the earth is expressing into the universe I give you one interpretation of that question and see if that echo will help answer it. So it's important to appreciate that the earth has always existed. It came into existence so before it came to existence, there was no gravitational the old associated with it. Ok, there was matter. There was eventually come together to form the earth. So if you go far enough out and assessed so there, you go far enough fattened space. You would not know that the earth was about.
For many years why, when we go to read my head around that, so earth is about four and a half billion years old. Yes, if you go four and a half billion light years away, there is a point where earth had not yet assembled. From the void. If you are looking at how they feel their gravity only through measure and I'll k, I'm telling you right now there are people listening to this, and there it just lay never dawn drugs. It is all crazy, methadone. Drugs again soon, there are just two cars mileage exaggerated. Do let me that's fucking crazy, like a cosmopolitan just single cause balls, you people tell you right now, so what you're saying as you could be there and you would watch the formation of a source of gravity in front of you. Even though is twofold,
see? You would feel you measure. This gravity arise s so be like throwing a it's rock in the end, in a puddle and and eventually the way. Is going to meet. You is going to reach out to you. And then you'd be aware that Iraq, if you weren't, using your eyes, you feeling the water water he'd be aware that something happened except rocketing. The potter was a spontaneous thing as the assembly of the earth slow with flour and a piecemeal. It's right! Ok! Ok! So that's that's an awesome reply, but I think it still avoid the question. Yes, is there a point where the gravity of something wanten dropped to the strength of gradually quantum drops to zero from some quantum level above it when I see Quadrilateral even mean, could derive any women quantum physics. So much as Canada smoothly go to zero asymptotically or not. That's really. The question
You could say out yeah yeah. I say they know your president, professor, I don't know, but the question could mean more confused because the question in various things. So let me mention another issue which, is there in the other way? Let me just say: I am glad that right now you guys were not to surgeons, to figure out how we should approach this open heart situation. But we do. We think that on paper stone and find a sensible papers down, so that there is a deep answer which is, if you, if you buy this idea, the universe began from a quantum beginning which, rather than abounds one of their puzzles, there is how do you go from a quantum world?
to a world which is described by you won over our squared force and by the laws of general relativity. How do we go from quantum to classical and at this point, what purports proponents to simply waive their hands and said? Something must do it, and so I will just you know. Sometimes you on one side of this, something sometimes on the other. But exactly how that occurred is a mystery and is another reason to be suspicious of the set up of a big bang leading to classical expansion. Catherine, Michael here's, the deal we didn't answer your question at all. So I don't know no history, they say we turn it into a better question that we have that's very rarely, have weeds merger, coincidentally, better question more equality. I would answer eight days here we go ahead without Maria Simon from Facebook would lead to no doctor Thyssen. What our perception of time be
throughout the Multiverse thanks. I can't wait to see you live on Monday, where you goin. I have no idea what his job out are actually in the Pacific, northwest I'll catch and public talks are right, but ok, so upside. I liked what were the question so she's talking about the perception of time? Are you
and is that going to be as because system? Ok, see soap, so Paul? We know from relativity that the passage of time is relative to an observer s so other than that which were kind of we live with, and we live with. In fact daily, you realize the GPS satellite at their elevation above earth, experienced a different strength of earth gravity than we do here, and I started general theory of relativity prescribes the difference in the rate at which its clocks tick compared with ours, and so we saw what that means is when it is telling us what time it is. We have pre corrected the change. In its time because of Einstein, gentle thier relatively so that we all have the same time here on earth, surface gotcha, the Saint Amazon and now that send that make sense, courage and a relatively at work right at work. Ok, so Paul! So we got. This
If you go to another one of your multiverse pockets. Could just time have all other kind of thing going on out it well let there be no way to synchronize compared to our time. So, for example, one patches will be born at different times so period. The title time, though, it has transpired, since the creation of our patch to reach a point where there's earth and people would be different, may be in this other patch it might have. Has been born in their country, would be BP for before patch. As I gotta go, I guess so. The they simply no way to to to correlate our time. So, unlike the case of the satellite, where we can send signals back and forth to the earth, due to matrimony green eyes, and let me make this correction and only by having their communication, because we can communicate with one another.
No meaningful way to synchronize quantum fluctuations in the quantum fluctuations of these patches. Could time mean something different? There could a quantum fluctuation change. What time is conceivably, not part of the usual multiverse picture. Ok is rather conventional in that sense, at the patches would more or less have normal space and time like we think about here, although some of them could bees. In some cases, this space could be a space. Time could be so warp that time could never lose its quantum its quantum. This might remain quantum in every sort of that no classical meaning in some patches. That's conceivable, that's a kind of version of which her what you're asking like that so time it just now.
Being a threat, not even a thing may not. They may not even be real writers through they figure out some other way to meet that name. They put it in a bottle, could meet you at the core because space wouldn't have a meaning either owns the coroner, would of course wouldn't be higher. Either we get time just for a quick, lightning ram. Ok, let's go right would go you sound bite answers Maggie Jonathan that you want from twitter wants, and others will quantum gravity Mean GR is incorrect, since Q have tea is based on flat space time, Angie are, is curvature So what I would say. Yes, yes, that Gabriel from Twitter wants to know, there's what, if anything, is stopping gravity ways from travelling faster than the speed of Light That's a good idea! Well, relativity,
What really good at this area? Ok, we go! Take it as an answer to this is the lightning regulation, so you're a good answer because Demand Steinway, Gabriel, look it up, in other words, relativity, does not allow any thing to go faster. Why therefore grabbing waves and travelling faster than light correct, even though they be gravity and not light? He gets right. Ok, I grant you gotta, get that arms. Dayton's uncooked twitter says this chemist telescope be made to see so far that it sees the big bang. What is the limit of telescopes, including the ones that we launch into space, because right takes time to move from one location to another, means, as you look out in space, you see things not as they are, but as they they were and as you just take that foreign of back yes in principle, you can see the birth of the universe, provided that there is a matter out there that is as old as the
verse, okay! So now the reason why we have any evidence of the big bang it all is because we have this expanding horizon that is washing over parts of them. Hey Universe, that was born thirteen point eight billion years ago. Here's what we're scare, the daylight sodomy. If all of a sudden, the cosmic microwave background began to disappear, oh would mean that our cosmic horizon would be entering a region of our universe, where there is no longer any matter We reached the physical edge of our universe and then that way with this coming our way, then then there would be no cosmology, because we would have no information about what happened in the past. That's why we can see the big bang it all. Ok, you ve been listening and possibly watching star talk. The cosmic queries addition on the multiverse. Let me thank my friend and colleague, Paul Steinhart Princeton
diversity, Chuck NICE S becoming, could not my mandate, I think Chuck Norris value. They recognise that comment, com and confused when start talk, returns, shut nice and build take over the studio. For a segment of me. Her seemed cosmic, where it s. What do you like Free space and saw him down to earth you're listening to start welcome back to start our cosmic worries. This segment has brought you by Google and this is the maker additions
was making science got with google dot com. I hope you're feeling the excitement you're feeling the electricity, because this my friend is the lightning round Gimme a query Here's the query this when coming from Steve. Why, Nick and Stevenson others standardization of parts made the industrial revolution possible? What will the customization of parts for three the printing do well and make things fit together, though still be standards will be pressure. Vessels Anderson, threads per ensured, threads per centimeter provides for meter. Millimeter standards will just be available. Everybody in the standards will not be made through hardware. Research will be made through software download the eye thread spacing thread pitch and you'll make all your parts perfectly fit. I was trying to get.
Perfect pitch, but do you know what I'm DR and identify new electronic standards? This can be a piece of cake, a piece of electronic cake. Very nice, Christina Lula, Tick, Boola tick comes to us from Twitter. It. She was there's what progress has been made to use more than one type of material in three deep printing processes or there's all different? Also, several different kinds of plastic already and people have managed to prevent certain metals, so all sorts of progress being made, and I, like the term truly printing, very really prefer the term added to manufacture? You added had material if you think of it that way, doesn't necessarily have to be a printer head, Goin back and forth. Sorting out do it could be added in another coup away additive manufacturing, Christine that there is your answer Joey Rudy from Israel must know? There's he says: hey Bill three,
protests have made it into the household, but they're not quite a homosexual. Yet what is the next step to making three printers in the home as common? this washers an laundry machines. I think more, people buy em the cheaper they'll get like anything else. Engineers will be motivated to fine tune them any you make more part so with it. If you make more printers on an assembly line, the cost per Brenner will come down to you'd have to worry about it. Embrace it it'll be organic. It'll just happened: he's right. Oh here's something was speaking of making. This is from, oh God, former stags, I'm going to say that, but it's a widening, rather mistakes. Here we go. If you were to build your own classroom with maker things in it. What would it look like? And what would you?
include met from Kentucky, wants to know this. Why? Yes, your dependent many students but you'd want to have a printer firmly for students. Maybe every six students valiantly war have competitions. Who could make the best thing? What thing would you make, my god? That's a pen, drinking cup right, that's all shaker a rocket engine, a planner box- and I wanted to not only be functional- had wanted to look good. I'd like it to be artistic testing that my little body, my son, and I'm sorry I know we're not like it, but that's what they're doing in his them. He has an after school stem cloud cause too, and that's one of the things they did. It was very upset me, a bridge horns why he made a bridge that failed, let's make a difference in the bridge and it failed, and I've never seen a kid more upset life was you're. Gonna rebuild is decidedly to it right on a girl. I raised this issue. A girl, twelve. She wants to know there's what do you think will be the best or most important use of three d printers and what
do you think it will have Whitney from Seattle? What's the most important and will be printed throwing hard to predict? future women do not have to worry about it. Brenner, we'll be made, or I don't have manufacturing systems, will be made for every place. Words appropriate because that's what people do so what we try it, but the first thing for me is repair I feel there will be several years where that is wearing out, can be repaired by going to your local additive manufacturing. Place akin to Fedex can go ores apples and get a new juicer, Middle Rimmer thing. I love that and the fact is that everybody is thinking of having a printer in your home. So will it be like you have a printer in your home? I have printer, my home, but I still gotta Kinko's right so that our stuff Brennan, you need both the small scale and big scale
are you go with me? There is your answer me last question. Is Russia's onshore question and answer they also Clark coming towards from Twitter and he says we're pretty pretty robots must we be capable of making a treaty printed army to take over the world S Ah, here listening discharge regulating round with with me Bill Nye and our worldwide citizen Chuck nice keep looking Bardell lay I'll drop the orange, we should listen. The star talk, commercial, free, joint star, talk on pay for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear, learn more at patriarch dot com slap star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-24.