« StarTalk Radio

Cosmic Queries – Theoretical Physics

2020-05-11 | 🔗

Neil deGrasse Tyson, comic co-host Chuck Nice, and astrophysicist Janna Levin, PhD, answer fan-submitted Cosmic Queries on theoretical physics: black holes, quantum entanglement, energy, dark matter and a lot more!

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Image Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, P. Erwin et al.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Qualify for the sepia examined one year where the University of Delawares Master of Science and accounting practice accounting is a dynamic, fast, growing field. Your professional background, combined with a master of signs and accounting practices from the University of Delawares Learner College, a business in economics, composition, you as a top candidate you'll qualify for the cpu exam graduates from any major can apply for this programme on your degree, in as little as one year with full and part time options offered on campus and online visit learner dot, you D, L, DOT Eu Slash. I may be welcome start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture alive dartle begin right now. This is start on a meal addressed ice in your personal astrophysicist And today is a cosmic queries edition, Your radicals, physics Jack
I was gonna have eight hours. The bigger neil I mean theoretically arrive this is start talking. The corona verse just Marian. I guess in your Jersey home is that right that that is correct, sir. I am the Sarah Palin of New Jersey. I can see New York from my house, I'm in an undisclosed location to somewhere at that summit. Don't got some government underground bunker, a theoretical I know Polly Ten percent, of what I should to cover this myself, that we gotta bring in the big brains for this that takes us to a close friend of star talk, physicists, cosmology, Jan eleven Jana, I'll come back see you through the ether through so get your title straight again. Professor physics, Addison
Let me add, monarch, God why It doesn't mean you get double income for oh yeah, I know that's. A good guy should bring that the programme is a clear now I mean we, you know we're pretty where we're pretty fluid and our subject matter. It can move around. But what would it was that there the press the subject should have never been divided in the first place. That's a good one Fischer, and but that's in fact an interesting point that even as you well know near the word, scientist is fairly modern. Even the idea of separating science from other forms of thinking, about the world or meditating on the world is fairly recent yard thinking. We also suggest because natural philosophers and the dead very actually I'm I'm gonna go with scientists? Is that how you like it better
San natural philosophers sounds like a b s. Art is so what do you do for a living? I'm a natural philosopher, ah, a bit. Certain the unemployed will charge. You got the questions. I do indeed as useful as they were led off only led off with a question JANET Today we did especial patron shoe and I have an arrow posted. Yet. But I answered a question I want to see: giving the answer idle. Almost Two in my answer I just thought. Maybe you could come Gimme, Backup on the horizon. So the question was as we know if you towards a black hole. If Europe's that phenomenon slow down and it in fact, will appear to stop
just outside the event horizon. So where's, If you are, that would beg you should check there sharks move in a real, slow right out, though, if an whereas, if you are the person following it just happens in real time to you, you don't think about it at all. Yeah right, If we leave the observers, are things falling into a black hole, see everything freeze at the event horizon. How does the black hole ever game mass as far as our measuring devices, would ever yeah it's it's actually a little bit of a subtle question, but for a while. It's so subtle. Therefore, well people used to call them frozen stars because they thought that they just short of froze and never actually became black holes, but The argument is actually that, if I'm falling into about com
I have a little bit of mass relative to the mass the black hole, as I have I own gravitational field and, as I get Absalom very, very close, to the event horizon the black hole I actually to form. The event horizon, so that a bubbles awry and me- and I actually fall in enough I night time even somebody far away, Why even ass somebody far away, they would have to say so. I threw in something big like a star another black hole, you see the event horizons absolutely bubble, deform enveloping each other in a finite time because of the curve space time The other object forming that rising, and it will all happen before your eyes So what you're saying is you have your own? Yet I've got event horizon, but you have your own information in this in the fabric of space time yet and that will define the event horizon for a SEC
until it absorbs me and then you know, black holes are perfect. They will shed any of those imperfections very very quickly, but for a second it will do, you'll get absorbed and then it'll usually send out some good. Additional waves and ring down. It's like it's like hitting a tennis ball with. Invisible? Rack that I like it? So that's why, like when we heard the two black holes collide and if it helps and it was over and one black hole formed it. Take an infinite amount of time and as because both black holes were so big that there own. Gravitational disturbance of space time was so strong that it actually happens to us. We really we really serious, getting freeze into their own reparations, for, I guess we're yeah, so so the looks, are both so big and you can actually see the simulations of the event horizon that it looks like a big are about four. As you know it,
really deformed us yeah down well done, bow and learn the gym I'm, not much of a weightlifter. I don't yeah I'm so it happened fast I didn't even to us from far away like you, a clarifying that cause. I do not make that part of this evidence in my answer. Look, I'm juggling. We can put some indicator back to this, so this posting. Yeah it's your own, culinary that we did yeah yeah man that is really cool, stuff, tat S all right. Let's outlets Garonne patria, unspeakable patriotic. We always travel the patriarch patron because patriotic people as support us financially, Thank you guys, and this is Cody Lebowski or killer bosky. He says if time is relative to a person's experience
of it, is there a universal base, time or its time only relative Is there a Greenwich meantime for the universities appear here. We're standard time be aware. What have you done with extra? Well? Actually, when we say things like the universe, is thirteen point, eight billion years old, We are referencing a particular cosmic time that, on average is about the same for every galaxy. So if you are not moving relative to do Fashion of the universe. The time you will measure is this cosmic time we talk about. So it's not. Thirteen eight billion years, just for us on earth and a completely age. For somebody else, and it isn't galaxy, is under the galaxy- is relative? way slow moving compared to the east
should the universe it's just kind of going along with thanks for the ride, then this is Europe, What kind of meantime? It's a cosmic time that we can all agree on what is now galaxies have motion among other galaxies yeah. So that has nothing to do with the expanding universe. Yeah. This motion you can, if they go, they faster slow. There be a time shift wrought ship. But that's that's! That's a detail relative to it's a tiny, small, small correction, basic right and an issue. You were traveling relative to the economy should have the universe near the speed of light for the entire history of the universe. He would certainly disagree about the age of the universe. You would not be saying it's it's roughly four.
Ten billion years, I don't know yet what she's doing now galaxies doing that and in fact, even if they were going faster once its there's a lot of that that cosmic expansion slows them down, they tend to slow Dana. So all the Alex he's, tend to kind of get very slow, moving relative expansion, the universe show what the fact that, as I see far away speed of the galaxy receding from me is greater yeah it's a good question, others some distance at which it might be receiving at the speed of Y yeah remit. I should say no I pass for their object. Is that not correct? No, so actually what's happening as the object itself is not moving in inside? sense relative to the expansion of the universe. At all, it's the space that stretching between US and so the space is stretching to between us faster than the speed of light, but in most circle stances a light. Beam
still make its way over to us. Eventually, if you wait long enough and if the universe is slow down every galaxy, It will eventually be visible to us as we wait long enough, The universe is actually accelerated, which is what it seems to be doing right now their will. You're just gents, beyond which the light will not be able to outweighs the expansion of the universe, We will never see those galaxies and it will be having an event horizon like you do for a black hole will be a cosmic event horizon where we are never to see or no or be able to communicate with what goes on beyond that just because he has receded. Firstly, from a white can overcome the stretching over space. That's right! Satellite is racing and raising racing, but the space and stretching faster, and it's never going to overcome a crucial to one where it is just exactly at the Fanchon rate for the light to exactly cup and say
for the expect stretching the universe. If we see that right, that's gonna be frozen, isn't it Yes, in the same way that there is so if its accelerating em there's something that happens, and there is something it's an event horizon. Indeed, there is a last signal when we will get Oh if something is just on this It is better than her eyes and will see it in the infinite future and just the other side. The light will just seem to hover. There will never seem to get us, That will will we see it reckon time differently from how we reckon time Oh, it depends on what you mean by it there. The galaxy itself could be measuring the same cosmic time, as was wonder but light. You know almost registers, no passage of universals return, Romeo, the galaxy itself, as long as it was just being dragged along with the expansion, should agree with us that the universe is about fourteen billion years old refrain
there you go. That's it there. It is good light. Don't cry! a third less. There is such a night jug. How did you know I M wearing my? I meant to show you this earlier. It's nice a shuttle follow oh very nice, Have to wear something famed for you now breaking their cause. I'd I'd! I got to bear its quarantine, does only so much we can do another question? I right, let's go back to pay beyond and let's go to Peter Jacobs, Peter Jake, says Edam pick just cause you can pronounced his name just yet I do. Because the other person's name was flabby flood, our Peter where's that no, then
better take of says, is energy of thing, or is it just a relationship between thing? and he's coming to us from Queensland australian could I make good I made today an arm? Actually we have to take a break right now. We will come back to that because, as an excellent question, I think it has a deeper broader significance. Does the the measurement of anything? They only have meaning with regard to something else. Can it can have apps woot, meaning without regard to whoever looking at other measuring, it will become We will pick up cosmic queries, theoretical physics edition with our friend and my colleague, today.
We're back cosmic queries, theoretical physics, division Yeah but I need help and we got help, but we don't have to reach too far my agenda eleven Jenin always good to have you to be here all year round the corner, he never did you actually work were somewhere and yeah, I'm Peter Jacobs before the break asked. If energy a thing is energy a thin or is it just a relationship between them? since I left anywhere where I come from, is ongoing.
I thought I thought you were gonna have a problem, but I'll do it quick point and then I'd love to hear European to son. You know, I think it's boasts so, for instance, if I sitting still in space, but I'm moving in time. I also have some energy, that's what Einstein taught us. I have a kinetic energy and time in sums because of my motion in time and that's my egos m C squared energy and that's my basic can actually unambiguously bright. My atoms apart and get that energy and blow things up in a real impact without them. Anything out without reference to anything else, but if you, we're astronauts floating in space, and I think I'm just in time with my kinetic energy goals and great in time, but you go whizzing passed me. You think I'm moving past. You answer now
you think I have a relative kinetic energy that I dont think I have My motion in space. No, it's kind of woe. Wow both Ok, so in other words, I, The way wouldn't be both is if The question was asked whether mass energy was something relative to something else, I can measure you to have a different amount of kinetic energy and time verses, man can I say I have no kinetic energy in space and you can say I have a lot of kinetic energy in space because you just saw me fly by and we basically because was flying by you. But how would I know right? What, if I add up your time here your time energy and your special energy. There should be a constant, no matter what you say that interesting question which actually Constance is a combination of my energy and
spatial momentum. My kinetic energy. Yes, that come a combination of the squares weirdly. Of my energy and mice. In time and my kinetic energy, that's that we the same, even though, will disagree about. What's what calculate what would be the same for every observer onto you. That's right ends it's interesting silly. Let's say you tell me that you're looking three feet to your left, I might disagree that its cheer left, I might it's my last or I'm sorry, my rights, but we're we're going to agree on the overall combination, similar was like time, energy and physical spatial kinetic energy. We're going to do. To be in which peace? If it's, how it's just you it had, but we cannot agree on a combination that is really true. I forgot all about their former, we have a squares of the energies.
I remember that now I, the guy, is minus peace glare, familiar directly from a relatively modest he's. Gonna sell I thought you have downloaded bitterly like we can keep going, but we regret the rabbit hold out. I met is irrevocable there for real, but that's very good question. Thank you Peter I, let's go to Facebook and Steve cotton. Steve says: will quantum entanglement allow for, after yell or instinct communication to exist between worlds with light years of distance between them? This is clearly a star talk there. I made a star trek fan, who knows about subspace. It's how they get around talking to people in almost real time, even though their indifferent galaxies. They have this thing called sub space,
what's it mean nothing? It means it we'll talk just to be clear. Laughing at it, but at least they fought about their problem and came up with a sigh five guys on right. Ok I'll give you that desk, Maybe you know what I gotta give it to you. That is actually that is a seriously salient consideration how to give it to you you're right. Anyway, so anyway, Let me leave em honey, I'm not going has tried to build tangle meant, allow for empty or instant communication to exist between worlds with light years. Where distances between them, See gonna, let me just ask you some practice and ask you, Do you even need quantum entanglement if you would have worlds. No you don't need quantum entanglement. If you have warm house,
Where will you can actually put material things through the wormhole and an eye? anything they're in the back door Neil, as I know you ve, made the point before it's, not that it's faster than light travel Eve just found a short cut, its like somebody going between New York and New Jersey by going all the way around the globe. Right and thinking to really far away- and you tell them actually- you can just go this way- the lawyer- the language with ALARM Hall. Gives you a shorter, where you can tell me? Ok, so so the wormhole makes a veritable short cut when you travel slower than the speed of light, and you just have a short distance to go. And your strips slower than has been like, while you're in the normal totally can run. Yet and there you know the other thing that I know we ve talked about before. Is this warp drive which is that its space can expand fast. The speed of light and contract faster than the speed of light, without violating special role.
Activity or any of those laws, so you can also bring Something closer, take a short step across the pond and then pushed further away again by just expanding asperity. They all some control over the space time continuing to yeah. I was this. The awesome control myself. So what would what's more likely to happen that we perfect want entanglement so then like yeah, that we open up wormholes throughout and without quantum entanglement is actually happening. Like we do it in the lab, I'm awake. Don't do it in a scale that Question was asked from one galaxy to another, because we also can't get our own selves to another galaxy, but we can do Lee. Do this experiment where we throw things faster than they withdraw information faster than the speed of light? that's amazing! I mean that I made it is amazing I mean I even think it's amazing, like I know the theory and then you find
somebody's John it in the lab in your life because the implications there are kind of like? If you look at all of our telecommunications today, it started with one quick one sentence: you know Watson, come here so yeah about them and had been was literally in the next room and they thought there was like all my god. It's amazing copy. You could actually would like this. Why wasn and it would have been more honesty. That's what you're saying is just mind. Blowing. Chuck, don't you think we're we're we're so unappreciative of how amazing this is right. Now, like I've, even know where to look, I got so many squares to look at my screen. I don't even like I'm looking all over the place but place taking so for granted that we're doing. This is amazing. This is phenomenal.
We're just used to our a quick question is: what's the difference, functional difference between a collapsed? way function in the quantum entanglement information is shared. It instantly just faster than the speed of light instantly, It wasn't between then see here is also going to drop you but instant, according to whom So there are some very tricky things about because, because in sight, Ultimately, it is relative Ok, that's errors. Very is over. I gotta go. I can't dropping my headphones doesn't seem like an listening and I'm not dropping his microphone dropped. Ok, ok, sorry,
go ahead, what you get so it's in Slovenia is according to the personal done. We got information turnover a particle is over here and there barrier of any kind and theirs chancellor, just show up on the other side of the barrier yeah, but when it does so that happens, instantly yeah, that's it does so instantly, but you can kind of calculate the natural time scale. For it to happen, don't you doesn't, but it doesn't mean it doesn't happen instantly, but it does mean Like how do I have to wait for a Google plaques of years for to happen, or is it likely to happen? and in a year or in seconds, and you can to expire- That's where it's more likely to happen in a short period of time do a whole bunch of em. If you put a whole bunch of particles in a box in your laboratory, you'll see a whole bunch road tunnels.
The other side at about a second answer it. So she all right. Still instantaneous, but it's just what's the likelihood of it happening in a certain period of time, night unprejudiced other senior just being professor Neil in this moment, but we knew for the longest time that it there were ever gonna undergo nuclear fusion anywhere in the universe that the centres of stars would be the place, but that would have to happen. Yeah what people did was calculate the temperature in the centres of stars and be getting millions of degrees. Just do the thermodynamic. You run the quantum calculation each aren't you the calculation of. Is that a high, of temperature for proton? overcome their natural repulsion. You have to George, I didn't want to get close to each other. He added. He's gonna bring together two tournaments when other elements. So can you over what they do, the math and they couldn't
overcome the repulsion so he said, the centres of stars can't be the place where this happens, because we did the math We know thermodynamics and then quantum physics gifts, covered. Then we learn about tunneling. And then we learned that act, the temperatures in the centres of the stars, the proton, can do appear from here and show up right next to the other proton by passing electrical barrier when it so the barrier fuses. U turn hydrogen into helium, and it was the tunneling that enable anybody to accept this this could be. The source of just haven't. Thought now the temperature is not high level it have. You never told me this story, the poor, let's not really a story by stealth. By the way,
is just at so that the original calculations led them to believe that this is not the place that it could actually happen it, but in all fairness Arthur adding to him, I think it was him was one of the great our in theoretical physicists at the turn of the century a hundred years ago, someone came up to him and said you see, impossible. You can overcome this electrical repulsive and he said I dont care if there's any place in the universe where this is gonna happen at all. It's gonna, be the centre of the star. We're gonna find out what s I mean you can kind of you know when you get in ozone, and your numbers are off by not enough for you to abandon the idea there. All right after you don't know, you haven't understood everything, but not. Afraid of about three stick with it. While the soup
Turkey was at the end and obey say that or a super fascinating, though that I mean that's got that circle french people NASA whatever free as ever apply to work at the United Nations. I will start many global incidents like what you call me anyway, the translation of whose life is this. What is space made of? Well? As you know, we hear about the fabric of space. What is that fabric? who shot? We don't have time to answer that until the next break, our canning, like that, love. That question and I know general of the two smile That's gonna come out of this matter that we have to equip break from start for cosmic wearies, theoretical physics,
they would like to give a patriotic shut out the following patriotic patrons Marcus, Guerra and Mahmoud Hyatt guys thanks so much for the gravity assist without you? We could not do this and for anyone else would Their very own, patriarch, shout out. Please go to patriarch dog coms, less STAR talk, radio and supporter we're back to the third and final segment. Startle cosmic queries, theoretical physics edition we should do this more jack
That's really good, really good. Of course. I need help for that. Generally, JANET, such we left off, we borrow Fred, Oh right now, No, you Vanessa. P their fear of his hammer, that's what the overseer! Ok as sorry, The office animals writhings Fred, is probably better legal or Frederico, and I just went with Fred Israel, making it easier for check right on improvements to notice what is space made up, so everybody talks about the fabric of space. What what the fabric, is, it is gloomy led into your here Jana. So have we like to just may easily there. Okay with this earth then air and then
There's no air, there's empty space swim. We have a word for what we think contains nothing though the cat, Holding aside stray atmospheric particles there might be voting is not what we were talking about your now. You can only worse than what it was between the particles, sober you meet the most empty space. You can yap audible wow well, I'm gonna give an answer that I don't a hundred percent under stand or belief all the time. Right now. I just you mother, understands nor believe, that's about all the time. It that's what I'm a Viking either this is how it is. I think this is how we can understand it now, our understanding will change the way tat. So.
Right now, I, at my room is full of electric and magnetic fields, and I cannot see them, but they make a fabric. Of the electromagnetic fields in the universe you're, just there? I know they're there, because I'm looking at you right now on electronic instrument. And this is just a reality that the fields are here, even though I can't my eyes round could detect. Some of them, my fingers, I detected at them, and I dont know to stand by just to be clear. The fact that light can move through empty space wherever it stood. Yet your retina yeah being space, is permeated by electromagnetic energy, and we can see those we can see that version of electromagnetic energy, the one that oscillates at just the right frequency that my eyes evolve to be able to detect. But I can't see it. Answer my phones, detecting location, It found goes on. I don't see like flashes, pursues microwave life,
yeah or even not late at all, like steady lectured fields, but yes, most of are usually light signals, but right now, there's probably just a steady electric field in this room that permeates oval space. It's just pointed out That is why, and I can't see it feel it touches I'm my ass, you know doesn't resonate with my particles very well, so I can say that there are fields. The permeate the universe and they make a fabric of that fields of electromagnetic I would say in analogy: there is a additional fields and the gravitational field is analogous to a curved space time. It describes the curb space time. The gravitational fuelled defines the shape of space time and my eyes good detectors of it and my hands dots, don't touch it, but I fall along it. If I, jump off my chair. I would all along this gravitational field, and so that
is the fabric of space and sunset I put down. I think that answered go on my deputy paths, I'm sure you're, far away to be imprisoned. No I'd know I'd, told me the answer, but when Turkey was steps push you get, you are describing what happens to be in the empty space. Of the universe in which we live. Can you imagine empty space through which- is no electromagnetic fields field and where there is no curvature from matter yet I cannot imagine. Space is separated from a gravitation field, including a flat empty gravitational, feel
but we we learn when we learn general relativity one of the ways you start there is imagine a flat Spain with no matter yet. I still. I would still call that a gravitational field. I would just call it a flat. Great, very boring, grant haven't. I feel proud of sources of gravity in it yeah. You knew what it isn't doesn't mean. It doesn't have space in it. I so let me put it this way. We finally to give the existence of space, credit the existence of I'd say that something happens to be in it. I would say that I would say there are gravitational fields even with zero sources. So I would put it that way. So I would say I take Einstein's equations which, as you said, has put in a source, a son a buck all a moon whatever, and you will find the curve.
You're in the shape of space time also known as the gravitational field I can take Einstein's equations, put in zero sources and find, The solution, a grab rotational feel better, just extremely plain, where things travel on straight lines, Ok, so in other words its the ground states or the lowest energy state of the fields and nodded it is no state of the field where space doesn't exist. Asked just now state in old ground state I know, but what about the universe, the pops out multiverse that has no matter and no energy in it and well Are you asking whether it would be well? That's it. You know: It wouldn't be impressive, all
There are no observers, it becomes one of those questions of there's. No, to measure time there is no path, your time. There's no experience of space. It's gotta have something in it even ask the questions are so, but but a universe that pops out of existence with nothing in it could just be a plain old flat space with nothing in it. I mean I don't know you bet you're, really you're talking about something where there is no meaning to the procedure for about nourished you're, twenty mongers yeah I've read about, and I just as you said earlier, I accept it because people, I trust I've thought about this for a better experts, a quantum physics than I am describe space as a seething soup. Those popping in and out of existence. Yeah patrol met anti matter particle pairs, yeah, But what is a virtual particle?
This goes better. As unbroken uncertainty principle, which is really initiates the whole quantum revolution and the answer in principal, I not from breaking bed just to be clear. How do you think that my fancy physics, That ties! Heisenberg! German physicist to realise that there is a level of uncertainty to how much we can know, but the real impact of what Heisenberg said, as he said in some sense I can never know particle is precisely there. I can never know particles, not there so have empty space. The answer You principle ensures that I cannot declare it to have nothing in it, because I can. Never say with certainty a particle. Isn't there in the same way that I can't see for certainty a particle. Is there and so virtual particles are in some sense a man station of this fundamental.
One certainty. You cannot have an absolute vacuum empty state. It cannot be certainly doesn't allow it. It says that there is always I'm possibility. Are you measure being up? Oh you know We ve, never measured a vacuum. Fluctuation and this is a really interesting, really interesting point with something I didn't appreciate until fairly recently, but we You see a fax like there's something called good. We have here a fact it so the Kashmir effect where we put two metal plates together and its away of limiting the number of vacuum states that can exist because of these boundaries. It sort of like excluded, all, but not not. Every possibility is allowed and it creates a difference in the back and fluctuations and besides the pilots than on the other side of pilots, and that creates a pressure differential and you can actually see measure it sure I'd forgotten about
a chasm Europe as I understand it yet and if we need very flat place very parallel and they have to be separated from each other on the level of the wavelength of the leaf rational articles right. It's a very subtle Small small detail, very fascinating experiment. Let you do that they want to actually came together with a view to the next. Or is it just shows up? Because, yes, it's like saying the quantum pressure of the fluctuations on one side exceeds the quantum pressure of the observations the other side, because you ve made it impossible for some states to exist between these boundaries, basic and button, but it's not exactly a direct measurement. You dont measure a virtual particle and seven some subtle sands. It's it's a beautiful indirect measurement,
but leave we can't be like. Oh, I just saw particle pop into existence and disappeared. We so basically work what you're saying for Fred is that there can never be nothing. There can never be nothing can never be nothing. They can do this. Basically, what it comes down to tatters, yeah yeah. Just a night. So not even nothing has nothing, nothing right, nothing! It's nothing! Nothing is something which is one of the arguments Broadway brought away acute traveled some, my wife did it like, if it's one of the arguments for dark energy. Is that what dark energy? It is in its connected to the two questions that water. Energy is serious pressure in the vacuum of space. It's the mysterious pressure in the vacuum, a space for quantum behaviors and its because even in an empty fly
space, the universe that you asked about now there is a gravitational fields and the ground. Taken field has an energy associated with it and its energy associated with the bottom fluctuations. Wow job, something's exhausted? We do more to raise my love I welcome the physics is amazing this is crazy. Stuff is Craig. I gotta tell you the truth. I am so sorry that I spent so much of my gun life I've got a bit yeah. I got it. Recently. I was hanging about what the work I am hanging out with still breathing and what we eat and drink I said about the has about out what the dog is this an entire year? That's how we roll
yeah always great to have you harm. We always find a beyond these storms of theoretical physics. Me. I haven't seen any time and everyone hang in there. It's good to see you in the corona vesture and a kilometer association, a pleasure Stacy. As arise eyes, you'll addressed. It's in your personal astrophysicist signing off from cosmic queries, theoretical physics, addition, as always, looking up.
Transcript generated on 2020-07-20.