In this Cosmic Queries episode, Neil deGrasse Tyson answers fan questions about exploring the solar system, the possibility of life on Europa and black holes.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free, welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right. Now, are your host Neil digress taste in your personal astrophysicist, and this is start doc. Jack. Knife chop were complaining that show that we have me back me. I will not soon forget this. The Superbowl show that the football show I was on five: do that was great fun. The work you are out of control that was great fun, mad ready to get back into it to day
get high on science. We're gonna, get really high on science. Today show this tour of the solar system sweet swore the soul. I think you ever Norman. You gotta take a toward your backyard and has asked if that's what you get do we have here tonight. I will be your tour guy, but I have some help from two very competent colleagues of mine, one of them Steve, Squires, he's thus scientist behind the Mars Rovers, you know, we will all read about the rovers and saw pictures right of the terrain, he's in charge an end and that these are his baby. Did they blame, when they broke down. I don't blame him when they save these. Things should have broken out long ago, a really way long ago, although even save and am left he's he's there. Savior, as it were, tat were also will be hearing from Highty Hamel Sheep new research scientists at the space scientists Institute in Boulder Colorado hung around of yeah. Yes, there should be fun, but you know you know who's a friend of start talking
I do not build a nigh the science gas or you were you influenced by him when you work out an absolute the absolute and by kid? If you mean twenty? Yes, so I got a hold of build might by the way lately he's the executive director of the planetary society rightly have like a real job. You know I really like to get a paycheck everything Yet neither honestly I always wondered what else does he do? It doesn't show up on tv and talk to care exactly no, no he's actually talking to grownups now, including Congress. So he's gonna start us off and give us put us in a good way when needed getting us to think about where we are in the solar system, where we might one day go. The most recognisable image to anyone on earth is the earth as seen space when you look above you at night. These is, I hope, you notice occasional, very bright objects among the stars. Other planets humans have spent centre
he's trying to know all about them by or in the solar system. First with our eyes, then telescopes in these days with extraordinary spacecraft, we have come to know that Ursus, Cold, venuses, helplessly hot Saturn would flow if it could and our earth is but one world among thousands of objects. Whirling a common star between on beyond the planets. Are manner of objects, comets moons, asteroids, distant icy, Pooh toys and die. Often is a young scientists. I'd be given a textbook with poised to write my name inside the cover below that my street, my city state, but I go on United States, north american continent, then son, because we explored our solar system? I could have added the third rocky ball. The medium sized star Have a look around your life is changed every day by exporters who ve pondered our place in space. Four star talk: radio, I'm bill, nigh the science guy, my boy boom, nice, ok,
gotta ask when I was a blue towards Peter like a cosmic meant that will apply to what are its that's great gray. Product name should start that. But what would your breath smell like question, hope and hopefully not cosmic- does its causes you gotta watch out. What's the smoke towards just so the solar system, its formation was four and a half. Ten years ago from a huge giant Gaskell, I'll, be right in the middle of that gas cloud, where it's dancing hot as we get the sun and that's what forms first and then get the planets and other stuff forming around He was a day when, if you learn about the solar system, it would be like an enumeration of the planet's one after another. But excuse me, that's Racism is so much more than that from the moons around planets did to the dust in the plain of the God of the solar system due to asteroids, some of which hit the earth comets and very rich
dynamic, place and a case. You really want to kick out on the sun against the sun as an actual official classification code. Ok, it's a g to capital, lethargy. Right, arabic. Numerous to ok, roman Neural, five, so G roman numeral, five in three different. Languages and letters and alphabet encumbrances towards mean sons, membrane, seven. Yes, we want to speak out on the sun, that's what it with that's. What is now largely to five Cosette? Really not only Ok, so you too far, she tells you what the temperature is. Ok, anxious, a gazelle. You degree of energy stands for a moment. I almost forgot smiling. I wasn't gonna like stars in order of decreasing, but temperatures O b, F g Kay EM, the sun is one the color of the Sunday. You know it.
Great because it also give cool, but eventually white hot sun is often portrayed as yellow, but it's actually white. Just gotta. Look it's working! the broad daylight white right, what happens, what gets low on the horizon, then you can look at a burning out your eyes. Look. The sun is yellow Orange because the atmosphere has changed so those particles in our atmosphere that actually change the kind that actually what the particles was scatter, the blue light out of the rainbow leaving behind the Red and the orange. So, basically, if you were in space You would look at the side, be white, no matter one white, no matter where, no matter how you burn your eyes out memory, the end of the last experiment. You did so God is. Let's go to my let's go to my colleagues. Are they visit maybe in New York in my office, Steve Squires Principle investigator, the Mars Rovers Professor, astronomy, Cornell University, Heidi Hamel, who is who is total planet? Maybe this is she's all about last week, and so, let's find out what we all
to talk about it just Eve, I keep thinking view is like Mr Mars anytime. I look up in the sky and Martha there. I'm thinking of your two rovers there when you look up at Mars and the night sky is. Do you think that too, You don't want. Would you just wish you were there Mars looks difference to me than it used to it used to be. I can before we launched and looking at Mars in the night sky and just look impossibly far away. So now your backyard look at it now, and I think I know that your kid plan in your backyard land by issues out, I feel totally different, build it took to look at more now than it did all tat. Do you see it though deepen Seton sky? Did the pictures from the rovers? Is that what you see I know of exceptional think in terms of pictures I sort of feel like I know what would it what it would be like to be there? No, not just the pictures of the surface, but I know what the clouds in the sky like the right or the seasons. The rover
or his avatar is kind of feels like that yeah it does, and I ain't we ve experienced Mars through those rovers for so long. I can't I feel, like I know what the places like now you have it. Are you now so to do more on the brains with you, it's hard to think about the rest of the solar system, guiding? How do you get around the source of life besides just Mars, do not have that we don't have those images we land rovers on the surface. So I still think allotted pictures. Have your point of commercial fishing? Well, that's true. They got, but they ve got her dress, which of you. You don't changes with time. Diseases like picking your children right, that's the place. They ran out different times, different planets duty for things, and so, if you are looking at your Uranus at Equinox than it lasted, Hamish decisions must be raised within Europe.
You're not gonna, give up on that, but I believe that you know I was on a mission to educate people about Uranus and then my own home town paper wrote a story about those yellow lights. You now that they were driver, do cost efficiency and the head the motor industry, light rise, red lights, it the nights, are that it would be darker blessed like pollution and and some people like it. They ran a headline about the Uranus colored lights. That's when I gave up the Abkhazia or is that traditional, but when Voyager flew by Uranus in nineteen eighty six, it was dead. There's like maybe ten clouds really stretched the contract of Europe's borders with no surface features. A basically yeah. I mean that's right with you and I want a spaceship outside. It went
by what Voyager Blue by didn't, say anything, and so everyone thought stolen book. Will that's not what it's like right now, it's in a completely different and the atmosphere. Turning on and there's bright clouds, there's dark spots in there's all kinds of activity on this planet and since my favorite right now because flies in the face of what we were taught in school about Europe S when you know your taught that I remember the book. It's yours, Uranus was an example of a boring as drawing on the one hand, which is just absolutely not true right now and the books are starting to finally catch up with reality. Not Mars, of course, is a dynamic place. Yeah, it's change, all the time he has got seasons very much like the earth- does very different times a year. It's it's not only very much like this, like almost exactly like the earth s right in the genetic, how many twenty five twenty five! We are: twenty three million and a half. So it's it's almost the same. The road checks longer recourse wrote once in how many twenty four hours and thirty nine minutes- and let me tell you if you operating rovers on Mars. That just please havoc with your light on condition that happens to me I'll. Keep that in mind
You know you were listeners when you're operating rovers, just just give did you know you would like, as a nice, jealously better next to thirty nine minutes each day, but it is a kind of we ads are weird words out of thank doesnt status, increasing its like a slogan we always lived on Mars time. For months we had Mars alarm clocks, Mars, stop watches. We had food service on Mars time made service in an apartment on Mars time. We have outcome. It's on the windows, so you couldn't have always data haven't. I thought it was like a casino you just do it, or did you really feel human and terrestrial we lies couldn't just to it are bodies could adjust to adjust fine as long as earth did not interfere in our lives. In other words, the blinds on the windows were added. That was and if you have delivered dated twenty four thirty nine, it's perfectly easy to lead unless you have to interact with We all human beings in the real world order. You base your house,
about your daughter, some sort of act. So what you're saying, as you were, basically in a Mars habitat here, we can't Kind of were, but then there would be events. You know somebody would decide there had to be a meeting at eight o clock in the morning Pacific time efforts in the middle of my night. I was to expect that the show that was when I got it I thought you were in charge and I can't interacting with the threats have press conferences. They were they re, emphasising that was it and on the other it coming see another. We want to have a press conference, a three I am just didn't, work grow, so the property personally like lecture road the idea, was to speak out on the planet.
That was like geek pollutes capital is the greatest. Everybody. Has a favorite planet, many people in the street. You know just what is my favorite plan for these eleven reasons. Yet what most people you, as what's your favorite planet gonna, be like the one I'm standing, not the one all this when used to have no service features and then cloud layer, there is a whole analysis of what they follow and why and Ryan, and it keeps him pumped every single day, yeah, I'm just glad to know that Mars has season- yes, yes, it poor ice cap, and this at this accounts for its allure in the history of science. Fiction. Writing why people have chosen Mars is a target for life more so than other planets. Oh darling. I can't wait until we take spring and not only that we want what we have on Mars is normally the rovers their orbiters as well. So can know where we might send the rovers next otherwise you're kind of, having blind and what's good about rovers. Is it's a mobile geologist when you will have to go there plus the rover doesn't have to combat
have to come back, such human being. They probably usually want to come back normally because the present Europe Rita you gotta, sent a misanthrope. I hate you guys get they get out. We are going to Martin, so one of the things we found recently Mars's methane from the sides of review he's in Mars? Really methane is the kind of gas that is produced within the Anna row. Big digestion of food? Ok, so actually Mars is big. Giant fight is what law. Nor did I say that I do yeah? That's right! That's why we have you on the shot, actually sounds more like uranos, or, should I say, you're, honest so you're around just got schooled on that one of the areas network Uranus. So after the break will talk about search for life and how the search for water is driving the search for life, because everywhere on earth You find liquid water. You find life every place, including places like the dead sea. The reason why they call the depths he didn't.
Microscopic has now what would through the backstroke him in it? There is there things alive in the dead, not fishes, but there's other stuff, that's alive for sure right and you are listening to start talk. Radio follow us at start, talk, radio, dot net, we are, and Facebook stir talk radio and we tweet yes, watcher start operating star, talk ready and I tweet the universe. You'll Thyssen in not check nice. Your at nice chuck I said you, a nice certainly was made that nobody has to say and nobody else procedure as you try to convey you are listening to start talk stay too for another. Second, here, comes before you. I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one
and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star, talk and support. Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen? The star talk ad Free You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking, I mean just SAM Welcome back to startle here is more at the end, the solar system. Today, a tour of the solar system, basically a blue, the world's exports to serve them appointed Steve Squires, who runs the Mars Rovers, which we ve all heard about at once heard about the roses
If you didn't know he was the man in charge, as does the whole team, of course, but he's he's he's up bananas banana and Heidi Hamel, whose an all round planet, geek dress. I mean that the working group, that. Like we're just made it up my life, we make it right on the spot and role, and so that social and its full of out of sort of alien worlds, there moons and planets, and comments and asteroids and in one place is different from the next one. Moon is different from the neck right. These are. These are exotic places, guess at any place you. One of these you might want to visit one day pandora I just those blue people actors, with a little pale at a level that have the other. So this nimble country. What exactly you worry about me to them? You know because this so much going on in the solar system. Not everything has a perfectly circular orbit around the sun, a circular as the only word, but you can have and not hit sought mouse. Ok,
you do not have a circular orbit. You can get hit. You gonna hit some somebody like it, you know from one understand, aren't there planets here in our solar system that have in a little or yes it no not anymore lit up you're gonna started on PLUTO. Take it. Let's go. Let's go back to the school, There's an Heidi Hamilton go tell us how what kind of a shooting gallery the solar system actually is. How do you go way back with the press? My first encounters with you, as I think, with many, were with the comet impact on Jupiter, like the face of the first, the first impact and Jupiter is more than one just have another one engine. In order to accomplish I'm sorry impact the size of the kind of disclosure, so Jupiter can asking for a great regarding take, went on
Jennifer. I see it as a great artist really through unlimited, protecting our since pretence of big brother protecting us, but you had my first interactions with the press on any large scale, we're back and ninety four when we were doing whether broadcasting Jupiter. What's up lie what what was going on every day on Jupiter absolute area, exciting software? So if that happens just in the last couple of decades, this must be going on all the time we're gonna think serving in some special time when you get there, I thought you might have been lucky the nice time and when it happened, just exactly fifteen years later been realised. Maybe we had some years ago now that you know what to look for now that you know what an impact on Jupiter looks like is the data mining you can do? Can you go back all pick data? My look. What happened after the ninety four impact, some folks wet, did, do they went back and looked we have the planetary patrol. Tell us! help, some of your wireless network of twenty four hours telescopes that would just studying, Jupiter radiant.
There's not unlike shoemaker, we deny the big one and ninety four was then you would see that breaches are good enough, that you might have some kind of training people get on to talk about the historical record, their reports of Cassini himself, not to see the spacecraft but mister Gimme, the guy, you need a God We're just people with names after spacecraft what a coincidence that gallic higher Catalonia, the Spencer Cassini, drew pictures other european Navigation system much right there or to our gps. You gotta get some more astronomers names in play. I hear he's up out of the question yeah, yeah yeah. I know what I did not dare people to people to go back and they haven't seen conclusive evidence in the past of any big events like this don t. Nowadays, these parameters have terrific telescopes. They had an amazing lady systems, murmured a clerk
in most professions. If you accuse them of being an amateur, it would be an insult, whereas in astronomy, amateurs, a badge of pride and courage and also day in detail now: there's a synergy between the professional astronomy community. That basically has the really huge tell us and the amateurish you have smaller telescopes but their terrific and they have tons of time because the amateur just goes out at night and spends all night looking, whereas every time zone every time zone all around the world where these big telescopes, like hobble or the cat ten metre, you might get half an hour a gear and that's all the time you have to look into projects so deeply rely on me. The amateur community to feed us information about things like impacts on Jupiter. It was an amateur responded that and alerted the professional community legislative position over the second life. That's what I'm shooting between two very different kinds of scientists. Now, one who you pity, who are still using telescopes she's gonna behind
you don't think you'll just there for you. Don't worry about the optics, you don't worry about bad weather, you all. We worry about both of those. My friend. First of all, we got optics all over these rover. Second, we are very, very sensitive to the weather on Mars. Okay, let s true that he can send spacecraft to his object and get them there within Europe. Reasonable funding site before funding dies. We eat eyes if we want to start talking about planets around other stars, react and send you, or even even some of the Euro, so that the planet and the resources to meet. You talk about inopportune to emission Neptune, the time I'm scales, proponent offer very long. So that's why the food omission, the new right outside those like a light payload with some really huge engines right to get at the adds value added. The other one was bet that was book minutes.
Well on its way, we guy years, to go more so with its humans attack. The solar system in Vienna is about had learned some things, man world. This is what we have this. Point of the show that the thing I learned that most stuck out was that in astronomy, size matter, zest for everybody, telescope empty, so whatever sizes, to effect you gotta conventions, how big is you're right? It's true, but here is a problem at some point. You gotta carry the thing the observing site and above a certain size, you just can't. How do you get glad you do it yeah. I know what you mean this mobility. Adequate you're. Ok, let me see what we have is. So what we have going on in the solar system is the planets in order Doubts of light with pretty atmospheric conditions that photographed through a telescope. We can actually go there, look at surface feet,
and so there's a whole frontier of planetary science called comparative planet ology and will be There's a mountain on one planet. Look for a mountain on the other. There is craters valleys river beds, you compare one object to another and especially for the terrestrial Planets Mercury Venus Earth and Mars. Their small the rocky then so we can learn about one by studying and other core example. So we can ass will. While we ve been going to Mars for the past thirty years, guess where the Soviet Union back in the old days would guess where they went the months wet Venus. Really, yes, and they had a wholesome Van era van era, spacecraft, the narrow yes, but that's what they call that's right, veneering. So that's the Genotype Conniston like a medical condition its autumn. Scientists say well, what's funny that you should because in a manner that a bag is of a narrow ledge, let me tell you what happened is astronomers when we fear, You try to come up with words of four names for where you come from earth: Earthling! Ok, if your firm Jupiter, your jovian,
if I didn't know, you didn't, buy job, hopefully very ordered by Jove homes. Jupiter, of course, of course yet, and so oh and Venus would be venetian the noose if you're, for, if you're, from Venus? Your venetian lookin? So the reason We came up with the notion is because the proper generative form of Venus is venereal and medical doctors got that word before we did. I am so pissed off that is so cool. I am so angry about that. Did they took the word, right now. What are you guys, so they and- and why name it after Venus, whose it's the disease is common to love? And you general. I go with that. Except Venus, the goddess of love, including, oh, my god, I'm so happy to know that you know this little soon. I have that needs. Antibiotics is so romantic t. Am I right so it a clear up. Don't work,
Here's the problem on the research it Venus would all be clear language because, as nine hundred degrees, Fahrenheit Sweet there's a runaway greenhouse effect going on there, and that makes it very hard to investigate, because you're metals and melt it'll met lead. For example, you can have little lives. Solder. Anything only Superman's do that! That's! How is it right here is later ok, yeah! We can. It was with this one. You couldn't see through led we're getting married with his head vision, just how crazy that's crazy, you know we're gonna, do special show on the physics of superheroes. Should we invite should get you back for that Man, if you don't never speak to arrive at that curve. That's not feasible work that went out, and so these just patients PLUTO is on our targets: the Ex Planet, PLUTO It was called the New Horizons mission. It's broken its the fastest hook, a hard where we have ever sent anywhere on its way to PLUTO right now, get there and twenty fifteen and we're headed there!
so that's one hell of a road trip with its one hell of a road trip and its on hugely powerful rocket, because the principle of ESA Gator of that mission wants to make sure you get to PLUTO before he dies say that where is the number one rule my mother in law's house trying investigation and so there are met. We have spacecraft go into comments to Astro. And so we are all over the solar system. Now it's a bit of fun time to be alive, because this system is no longer the distant place well and when we come back after the break, as I promised before, we're gonna talk about life, the search for life in the universe, What are the conditions that planet or an object have to have in order for there to have light? As we know it rank was made. It is to be some stuff. Like what you don't know. You are listening star. Talk, radio stay to more, have next
welcome back here- is more of startled Now we're not gonna PLUTO. Look for life is twofold. It's too far is too dark. It's too. The thing that we can imagine that could serve life, but there are other places in the solar system that could serve this need, and we talk to to my favorite colleagues thief: Squires, an Heidi Hamel to salt. We had a geek fast in my office. Geek now give we would geek on. The solar system is guilty. I can hear it we're giggling now we're here to find out what they say about a search for life in the solar system, We love the planets, but the real goal is we want to finalize Mars, has been a seductive prospect for life since the beginning, since low replicate, Percival Lowell thought he saw marginal, Miss but he had a right. I was heart was in the right. Yes, you know he's
one who invented the canal story, go quickly tools at the canal story. Well, basically, what happened was that people looked through a tell US and they must be a hundred years ago in moments of brief, atmospheric clarity. They could see what look like a buying network of straight lines on the planet surface and they were so straightened so regular that the people looking at these concluded that Not only were they evidence of life, they were evidence of intelligence life. Now they were correct, but the life was at the wrong end of the telescope what they were saying was an optical illusion didn't know enough about allusions to yeah,
and in fact there is nothing of the sort on the surface of Mars, but, as we ve learned in recent decades, Mars is very interesting and otherwise. Nonetheless, nonetheless, we puzzleth evidence of running water, so the two or place of that I know it is Europa Donna, Jupiters moons. What am I favour places just think about to dream about zone of ice fish on the robot windy and, of course, Mars, possibly under under surface aquifers and tiny house, you ever kept warm sun. Not that's! Really kind of gravitational title pumping went the other movements around Jupiter. The bandit
the analogy I use a credit card in the back and forth tonight. Let's war, I try not to do that with older heading musical higher labour, clap your then paperclip back and forth a whole bunch of utility vehicles gets wore. The same thing is happening with this moon Europa, and I owe their kind of getting flexed in bed flexed in bed and he's the man. Did you know I don't forget about Enceladus. We talk about waterworks. Enceladus we now know is just new models. Moon of such a little tiny want to also time with you is highly. You did the same, flexing to heated up its lasting out of its southern pole, geysers maze of revision of ice volcanoes or were whether it liquid water coming to you can think of is lacking as it's just the magma is,
our instead of being more rock you if pressure that Japan experience water, I didn't even if he flew spacecraft through it and collected it in the way of a lot of room temperature, you control and course, every place on earth. We have liquid water. We have life's a very loose detention. That's where the term to launch a ban on Mars or or Europa as the place. If there's like other than earth in the solar system tat, we would find it today today see that's the question time about life today or life ever existed, because it's like pedestrian, today I would say Europe if I knew how to do not more. If I find your horse do, if I knew how to do submarines on Europe, I wouldn't be sworn round rovers, our Mars. Oh, what? If you dont down into my since we can't you it got waters, you get I don't know how to know how to drill down hundreds meters on mars- and you know it goes up asked how to drilling If there really Jani they're, both huge technological challenges put it, there truly is well I just how thick of the ice on you.
The project? We don't even know that there is an ocean. There was in Colombia, Peru, it's like all other ice. It looks like I know. A picture for union looks like what you gonna spend tens of billions of dollars. Doing a submarine mission to an ocean that you don't know for sure exists. Ok, we got work to do. It was not yet we can learn a lot about the environment. What has happened in my lifetime to keep you hear healthy, get one, seventy, how to tell you the data on extra year per year, where most people don't let you know about what might happen in your lifetime. Is we may find earth like planets around other stars in a distance from that star where water could also another with a good up in your lifetime, and that is bringing rock samples back from Mars. That could,
he definitive evidence one where the other fossil on whether or not there was life at the location from which the rocking and ideally you get to choose. Rocks. Yes, he only we have rocks from I'm fact. I'm sure you got him in your museum here, we ve got rocks from Mars on earth in the former meteorites, but these Iraq's that literally fell from the sky. We don't know where on Mars they came from. We didn't pick em, they just came here. They don't have the pedigree that you need to ours. Ours is a very, very complex placed geologically end. To be perfectly honest, most amours, pretty boring most Mars is just covered with lava very dry very does let's solid waterways, near Sullivan S honor and
any very ancient volcanic rocks and evidence for life. You're not gonna, find a place like that. To find it, you gotta go to the special places. We have the right, minerals, the bright sediments, the kindest not they can preserve evidence of ancient habitable watery conditions, as those are few and far between. Okay, we have Mars is a good example of where to look for evidence of pathways Europa as a place to look for possible Evan you, you could look for evidence of current life on Mars as well, but you probably have to drill deep and that Geeks s continued man that was serious, not shut. You realize that interview in my office took place a few weeks before the announcement that we found goldilocks planets orbiting, might actually Exo planets orbiting distant start, Yad, whether the close enough or far enough from the somewhere they can have water and at the right. This is not. My clothes is not to close, not to five appertained or Goldilocks right. They goldilocks exactly and so for them he'll happening your lifetime, then happened. Three weeks later, you know,
you ask you resent yet like they fork it up. We have a tweet that, as someone asked from a tweet, this is true for type. That's the twitter handle Is the thought of exploring in terror forming Mars even relevant if we can't even take care of our own planet? Yes, it is, let me- feel dislocated what goes a jar comparing we re going to need a place to go after. We must certainly irc, as will grow and this one royally body, so we need a place to ok, so you have the opposite sense of this question. This question is: we don't deserve another planet, can take over our own. You think it's because we can't take over that. We gotta have plan right. My reply is: if your tariff, if you the power to tariff form? Another planet, you have the power to fix your own planet, louse. Think about that loud. If you have that much control, GEO Engineering right! What's it what's a cup? What's a few degrees warming, just cracked, the Bob that loads of
because you'll know what to do. You know exactly what to do basically, you'll be able to create a geothermal thermostat Thermos digs right, yeah shot. I just I don't even know where the thermal thermals thermos that also build hanging out with you was run over me. I fell smartcard, second pillar, know what to say so we got it so so you got these places. I cannot Heidi raised an interesting point and that, if you looking around for other solar, distance start systems, we don't know yet how common our star system is. We ve got these eight planets get over We ve got it. We got sort of earth Mars sort of in the Goldilocks zone, but we have these places outside of the Goldilocks zone, kept warm in the case of Jupiter its Jupiter.
Gravity, stressing the moons by the way in the old days, people said, let's find a planet. Life, but you can have a moon if the mood is big enough. Why not I want to move right and if the host play keeps the moon, warm! You don't even have to be in the Goldilocks out of the host talk. So now, when you guys we're talking about this, wait a minute tidal heat, o tidal heat, yes, at when the gravity, moves the planet back and forth or stretches stretches attributes that he is stretching kind of gravity and it does to the to the award of the oceans of the earth that stretches them en route. Turns inside and out stretched ocean on your listening to start talk stay too for another thing.
Welcome back to startle. Here is more Its episode is a recent data that was released that had a set of a thousand Sars, a thousand planets orbiting other stars, and so a triple the number of total. So we went from five hundred to now fifteen hundred stars, fifteen hundred planets fifty on a plane in orbit around Sars that are not the sun. And out of those there's about forty or fifty goldilocks planets that were found. So there's about forty or fifty other earths floating around in whose name was Dana like war, water, Jupiter size planet with moons that are the Goldilocks zone, so we were cast in a pretty wide net in the search for this. You realize this whole field, Search for life in the universe is called astral biology. That's a turn
If you want twenty years ago, the term never didn't know knew how to use nobody, even though it was not really part of the parliaments of scientific discourse in a field. Essentially, ended by NASA right so to fifteen, the girl that would have been just caught bs what you need data data overcapacity, to real rights, real to real discourse. Carl Sagan was, of course, a very early proponent of the search for life in the universe. And we can say we call the Father of Astro biology in that sense, although their other people were done sort of earth based bio experiments that preceded that we're gonna stay current on the frontier restaurant. Right. There's an online NASA magazine called Astral Bio pastoral by dot net that net the Astral biodiversity all of your Astro biology me. It's Astro bio dot net, the soda, one of the great frontiers here. If we have to ask how are you going to explore the nearby planets or the distant ones? Do you send a robot descended
human. You sent a robot to do what a human can do, or what like that. This is the major issue, a major question, and I brought that upwards disquiet there's an Heidi hammer and, let's see with what their take his on. One of them is a geologist, and one of them is a telescope astronomer. Let's see where they are. On this issue, given the choice because it costs more decent people than robot if you're the choices, ending thirty robots, tat, thirty different locations on Mars or you going yourself as a scientist not as adventure explorer Indiana Jones hat wearing expedition had I'm talking about when we talk about sending. Instead, about what about whether we should bring back now. Look I see where you got real lives, the trade off the answer. My personal answer is that I would send human, ok and I'll. Give you two reasons for that. One reason is that what humans can do is so much greater now. What.
What's are capable of now or for the foreseeable future ahead of it. Every time we see every time recent human they bring out a black box it that makes the measurement well. Why not make the robot pull out the blame on others? There is much more to it than allocate Neil. I have spent the last twenty years my life trying to design and operate robots that can replicate. What can we might be able to do on the martian surface? What our robbers do in a day you and I could do in about thirty seconds- that's one! The other thing is that humans have a capability to synthesize information, to digest it, to figure out the next thing. To do and to improvise robots can't improvise the weighting of votes not just they were not very admin. Moors law get us a you notice. One reason is that what humans can do is so much greater know what robots are capable of now or for the foreseeable future, and every time we see every time we sent a human they bring on a black box, makes the measurement mobile and make the robot pull out the boy on others. There is much more to it than allocate Neil. I have spent the last twenty years. My life, trying to
at robot simply lack someone once famously said: nobody's ever gonna give a robot attack and tape rate, and there is something to that its little squishy, its Lou intangible, but I will tell you that our rovers were built by people like me, who grew up in the Sixtys and Seventys watching mercury. Germany and APOLLO on tv and dreaming of sending spaceships tomorrow someday and now we do that. Ok, we were inspired by what we saw as kids and I think sending humans. Those that way the robustness swatting has real value. Would you want to go we consider somewhere? I bring you back much. You know, there's a lot of great stuff on the sellers. The sea and just taken off the low hanging fruit and I'd I'd love, where would you go? I remained in the next place that have to be lowered, reach for where would you go on so entreat by the outer solar system, because we know so little That is good scientific medusas flowing here. I just know absolutely nothing If you want you where you were most ignorant,
Most people only comfortable where they know the most money. I wanna hear uncover somebody's these things that we just don't now to give you a place. I would like to go to not to have to hear now. You're gonna do yeah because you're that planet system, not just the planned itself, but it's got an incredible ring system that chunky and it's not smooth beautiful, like Saturday's Cluppy, it's very, very dynamic, its changing the time. It's got a terrific moon called Triton, which was captured. It wasn't. Next, it was some object than just got. Boobs too close and Neptune slowly stole a grant from twinned PLUTO and it we know that at present there is a twin to put out. We know it has ice volcanoes. It's got geysers weeks, and so this moon is dynamic and changed. The whole plantier system has suffered for every
an army was learned so much so you have your attracted by the abject ignorance of what we know of the system that really alien, really. It is in its very different. I mean these ice giant, sir, are just so different from earth. Immigrants surfaces- you couldn't have done it, but you could land are one of its moons She says I'm fundamentally like a galactic person, not an not appoint a person. My destination within Sultan has nothing do how much we know. It just what looks the site where you can so go to tighten and just just watch tighten the system, mister Rivers and lakes of liquid method, and meanwhile, you orbiting sadder saying that if you want to go there, you really better health, you ve, got a nice guys for dinner. Start shocking. You know if we find one Europa, you note, we should call it, but the Europeans
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.