« StarTalk Radio

Cosmic Queries – World Space Week

2019-10-04 | 🔗

To celebrate World Space Week, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Matt Kirshen and astrophysicist Charles Liu, PhD, answer fan-submitted questions on a variety of celestial topics including parallel universes, solar energy, speed of light travel, Mars, and more!

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Photo Credit: NASA/Tony Gray and Kevin O’Connell.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial free. From the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming all is based and start with science. Started and your host near the grass station, your personal astrophysicist- and this is a cosmic queries edition where we are celebrating space week, that would be the first week of October. That happens to count my birthday, I'm just saying: oh yeah we make
we'll, be got rid for this migration met. Welcome back! Thank you, Neil actual working, first, by the way, our space weak or your birthday common space because it was the universe. Dyson birthday, my birthday precedes the official celebration of space we nevertheless or may be. Maybe that was the designation may be. I wish we could go. A lot of fun. Question coming up. We shall I got back up here. They I'm his brow. Showed me I'll back up the one, the only the geek and Chief Charles Lou. I am so happy to be here, thank you friend and colleague you're, a professor, that city University in your in Staten Island correct- and so we just had a book about yes like he, what yeah? called thirty second universe, published by Ivy Press in the UK, because their thirty one other universe when the third a second one over their names, I asked the very same question: parsing is thirty hyphen. Second, every day
Every decision is made the universe splits until thirty one December. Nobody wanted right as well as is only to be thirty two decision. That's only what is it like five right right now. Yes, it is about cosmology and I have to terrific co authors, who are also strong enemy and physics, professors, and we target coffers- are Karen Masters, have referred. University have referred college and Seville salute at work, university recent, ok cool and we talk about cosmology, including the idea in Quantum mechanics, You create many worlds with a hypothesis will every split every decision you may create a new time we had to leave was originally formulated by the father of the least serve one of my favorite bands. Oh aye, but I believe it was. However it the physicist who came up without shoe does get credit for it
whose son created Bambi eels, no kidding and the other connection between science and music? You gotta admit you, of course, the hostess probably science, and I said it would never invite you back until it became definitely not there. I don't want episode that you were kind enough to come on. That was the definite about something else that we just forgot. You hosted me on your show, very, very kind to combine IVF soda since from our fan base, as we usually solicit cosmic worries- and this is just a guess- degenerate I've seen them general questions about space, you gonna hand pick em. I am your throat throw down again. Oh and Charles I'll sit here and my lunch. Ashraf access this library him on the work that gave us very soon, only overlapping, then diagrams and our expertise, but he takes it up. He takes
another dimension beyond that, I'm sweat now. So what girl had on our weakness? Iago, I'm gonna, start offer this. Why? Because this is ties into we were just talking about. Even this is from De Q Pham who says we're platform on twitter deceive at flattened out on Twitter. I think that's actually relevant to ask this question because Deak you Pham a flat north says: is there a parallel universe? Where I, as an asteroid, physicist on the floor, earth combat the disinformation agenda of the round of society are way to start ISAF then, while the shooting there is no. Next week, but I think we can take this in it. Direction, where we are Imagine that he actually is in a flat universe, a two dimensional universe, where somebody says no. Actually, the universe is three dimensional right now remained
the beautiful book flatland from ever inhabitants from from decades ago, where Sharia go here, it's been essential there's turn of the century berkshire layer of again, but the end of the previous century. Fair enough. How can we prove that the universe is two dimensional? If, indeed it is two dimensional where someone claiming that there is a third dimension right. I would approach this way will you time of the whole universe, Adieu disorder by earth like so I guess the universe is two dimensions. Earth has to be a flight, this correct I'll, get your right front for so in that sense, right than some some on scientific, individual comes along and says universes a three dimensional structure and the earth is actually three dimensional structure. How would you counter that right? and so that makes it a more interesting question and It would say one of the first things you would try to do is to see if you can prove that
two dimensional universe, cannot project into the third. In other words, cannot find a way to x, and the universe in an orthogonal direct, took an oath. Yeah purpose scares me. Yes, you can extend something perpendicular to both length and with now can you do that in any? but what you say is in our current universe, tat. We have a high with depths. Yes and you're saying that the version of that question to us We find another place Take out, align this at right angles to those three other right angles. We don't know how to do that right and so that, we value the that, as someone in a true two dimensional universe is trying to say but there is no third dimension. Other amounts. In thinking there. There are some theories of physics that involve high of spatial dimensions in our universe, o completely, but those conventions are not visible to us.
Ok and one of the well known formulations of this is something called a compact if metrology you're, ok with this through these economic regions cannot even York, well, I'm not ok with yet ok but you haven't been disapproval. Ok, here's the idea that the compact defied dimension, if our length- was actually he's zoom in further and further and further you find out that our length is actually has linked with an height. But it's so small compared to even atoms or subatomic particles, that that, with an height is not detectable in our universe is tantamount to just being a one, it's as if it were one dimensional, to all intents and purposes, is then where they used. The word come compact defied is yeah it's contained tightly within right, the other way you can imagine, for example, looking at the Alaska pipeline if you're standing, right next to the Alaska pipeline. It is obviously both with length and with additionally, it has
since a three dimensional out you step a little further away, just becomes like a long strip, so you think it has height and length, but you can see the depth anymore If you fly away say to Canada, you look at the Alaska pipeline from a distance. Only looks like a lie. By that same too, and we could compact defied dimensions into our linear dimensions as high the higher dimension. Yet, even though you can experience that right and somehow, if you think that those compact defied dimensions can effect our universe in ways we can measure, then you can say set up a universe with multiple dimension and what you say is were too big. We are. Luckily, there was clear the universe for which we are very, very tiny. We are still waiting to be You see, I thought the size compactor by dimension and where too small to see that earth is a sphere yes reagents we just walk in a straight line. Straight line to you, but if you back out there's you are working on the surface of a sphere.
Even so, that's how you would try to address two dimensions: mention more dimension type by love, the questions yeah I did My last question- and I love that answer incurred. So this is more of a practical question from Sea Mass star on Instagram. Will we focus more on habitable planet or all right? planets in the future that or o r e, all healthcare or rich point zero or more or our horror, because I would focus on rich planets if it's just or regular like like a do business with them but or rich planets, I think, are not as interesting as habitable planet and the reason is to go to another planet that is trillions of miles away to get a little bit of or and then bring it back to earth is really impractical. You can't
Hardly imagine a substance currently known to science, for which that would be profitable or economically feasible, but you have, of course, the signs in a world where you imagine something called. Oh, I don't know obtaining observed, which could not be obtained on earth and therefore you must go far away to get it. But that seems exe dreamily unlikely to me, so I would much rather find the blueskins creatures, then the unobtainable. So I think they will be. I agree with you scientifically, but as like a practical guy as a realistic. Ok, think the drive to obtain forces and possibly unobtainable will be greater than the drive to find other life. And them busy. We are in space, the less will be the need to bring the resources back to earth compared with bringing the resource
other onsite location that has vow you're thinking much further in the future than year. Yet that makes a lot of sense, because I can certainly see you don't do it, a rational rights might have they. Now. That's that's the thing that I wanted to point out that I still claim the first trillion air, the first we never will be. The personal exploits and ancillary horses of asteroid when there is there is a connected question have from sight guy Kai on Twitter. What are the most common, precious metals and useful elements found asteroids could we mine asteroids to build components for starships in space shipyards? I would say the rare earths are more important for us to bear in mind well, I think, all over I mean in a microchip. The rare earths by the weather areas are not particularly rare that just mostly in China, so access to them is not,
free and smooth, as we might want right, a future of our technology and, as Charles noted, the rare earth elements are, are fundamental to what is electronic components to make them work and do their thing so so yeah, I I I think, is the first trillion air and do all there on the asteroids re Arthur yeah the challenges to get them back to earth. Yet, yet their fine. But then you have to mind them and you gotta, bring back and mining is actually pretty com little danger in space do don't bring it back to earth. So what stop! Her whole journey builders That's what I'm going to be all right, then, how do you get the people from earth to the space is still Another space robotic. Do it prohibits builded space and then you go up when it's time. Why not? You sure, isn't out, for that? Your estimation was ready is, are you you are definite looking much further along the time horizon than I am
and I think that's a fair statement. I will agree with you if we're talking centuries Money drives things more than curiosity. Unfortunately, the ideal part is to combine the curiosity with. Money yeah. Then then it happens like that. Here is a twitter question from George Zena fund us this is more of an earth. This question: why has there been a greater number of advancements on solar energy, given that is literally constant free source of energy. Ok, Charles. I I have been on my soap box on this with my astronomy students. Ever since I started teaching. Ok solar energy is so plentiful. It's so free you make the calculation. In fact, I would also free mean. Ok, that's my point raised right, free as it means that It dont need to pay for the energy to arrive to my house free. Ok, that's the free. The rest of it is the thing that costs money.
I think about this: the amount of energy that the done sends onto the surface of the earth is what we call it a unit of insulation right insulation with Oh, I suppose insulation ass, a reward in relation to our scientists use it. That's why we don't know really, in his soul? Lay guess is just amounts of sunlight, yeah that'll. What is latin for son granite here, the amount of sunlight that hits the earth it? Well. Any planet but This case, the insulation onto earth is at a rate of one thousand, four hundred watts per square metre. Ok, what does that mean are typical? Ellie de light bulb is now fourteen watts, as most yeah right. So but just on the table in front of us just on any operative yeah coffee table on any surface you are, getting enough light energy if it were properly converted to
able to eliminate a hundred light bulbs worth of light Johnson yours continuously? wherever a hundred like a hundred million houses, don't have a hydraulic right. So you literally light every house in the world on this free energy. If we just figured out a way to exploit it- and I believe Sadly, that the main reason we have not done so is because people find it more profitable to exploit energy sources that are much older in their origins, our ability to say oil to set aside, say say or other resources can I don't want to. I dont want to this order sources of energy because as much trouble they have caused us in an environmental levels. They have also
advance of civilization, David advanced us so much in so many ways in the past couple centuries old, coil now goal, oil oil call natural gas. These fossil fuels have really spurred are human ability to be where we are today, but it is time to switch off. And as with anything in society, switching over from something old to something new takes time. There is resistance. The reserve, should move away at this point, there is no more reason for us not to switch, except for and to preserve the prosperity and the interests of those who have become wealthy, Frank, the old psychologist, seen technologies like I? Don't I don't how far along it is, but I know they ve child things like road surfaces that have solar cells built into them. That's right. You could put solar cells on
buildings. You could not just on the roofs, but there are windows now where people can put a film on them and if you want shade in your room, you just turn the film and then all that sunlight, instead of going into your room, gets absorbed by this film, which can then be converted into electricity. As long as we are willing to take a short term hit on profits, you will have a long term benefit by using more solar? Maybe it won't happen until we figure out how to make it instantly profitable, who would have thought they're after millennia of writing horses within a dozen fifteen years we switched over to car resume at some point. Somebody said this cars more. Amateur than my horse than feeling my horse and the care and feeding of a huge animal and so
one point that happen because nobody had to have special programmes to get you to buy a car, a right, everybody bar cars. Is there a tipping point, namely that I dont tipping? I don't see an obvious one. Neither do I, unfortunately, how does it work, but also the He saw the boy you just format. Mining for rare met, more than ever in the universe, the resources needed I need to make solar cells. Do we have enough of those yes every day. The vast majority are. What we need is just really good silicon outside about this, and we can basically take sand from pretty it anywhere and turn them into solar, silken, dockside yeah, zero too. It is not hard. It's just at the moment. It costs money and people would rather not spend that money I mean self, am guilty of Saint gee. I should really put solar power.
I was on my roof homey in your work, and why should you because it is much less expensive for me as a consumer to heat my home with natural gas right now to light my home with a wet with coal? Pursue doctors to be rich and I'll. Do it, so they have bragging, writes that there They're more grew right and you are right, but that helps to change their infrastructure when they haven't The good news is that prices for solar electricity generating things are going down rapidly. I will add before we take our quick break, that solar power is also hydroelectric. Because how do you know the warder gives up to the lake before it comes? You sat on a off the old age was a cloud. The cloud was overland: it rains let's take technically solar power, and so is wind energy source from the sun. The unequal heating of the earth's surface creates air currents.
The drive, so the sun manifest in more than just whether you need a solar power. I get technically break and when we come back more of our cosmic queries swinging free space inside down to earth. Listening to start, I have got no secret for you. I'm gonna considers singing all of the ads on this shell. There's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support where does at the five dollar level or higher, to listen the star talk ad free you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never
we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. Space. We tradition, drowsy friend. Colleagues, thank you is he's expertise here and I'm just going to comment on and by something, MRS something hardly ever does ever does Armenia, but generally, I must say no, a new welcome back. Thank he's all right.
Because take us there you got question are right. I did all from our fan, base and love this fan base. This one is for Us Marcie and their funny, and there is smart and Marley, really good questions this once from Kyle Yoke and who has helpfully given a pronunciation guide, because it gives you a short nice could shortly and pronounce causes from Tennessee and asks. How would we identified thing is truly being of another universe rather than just a newly disk part of our own. Oh. Why- and I think that the answer to that and its and ten, I usually algerian, orient the barrier dated no there from our universe. Two eyes we got one. I would have to think too chemistry an object is made of something that is an element of something we have never seen before, something that wouldn't fit on our periodic table.
For any reason, that would have to come from a place where the laws of physics are different and thus a different, I agree entirely- are periodic table of illnesses we're incremental at the top end in our in our labs, but there are no no more slots rat all ok and they come up with something that is a basic element here. Then it to be an element configure in some way that our elements are not configuring it say a year. This is this: is it a weird re enter it similar in a sense that an expanded version of how we know that there is material in our solar system that came from outside or sources before the sun was born, There are grains of that contain carbon nano diamonds basically, but it is not to be before us on was born, but have to be.
Just be visiting yeah. It could just be visit like floating into our solar system, but we know of its from outside our solar system. If we compare their ice, a topic ratios or their structures, and we see that there is nothing that matches that age or that ministers issue that is actually of our sources. So we have ways to do that. So, but that's what fine, but then you see how did it I would point out, through the space time continuum connected foreign universes, with two different laws of physics. That's what you that's! What the real issue will be yo I was gonna do different question, but since you told about portals through this maize mongering you and I'm going you with their now- I weren't real everywhere. There first go with Tony in the eight four five on twitter who asked, even if we somehow discovered the Tec to travel at or faster than light with passengers of the vehicles survive. Well,
how the flash does it right away of atmospheric separated in front of him there you're the flash can go up to the speed of light superhero fake science all that right. But if he's gonna someone a piggy back yeah that Person is toast. Real. That's what's note herself when offered a piggy back right by doing nothing just doing like a donkey right round the living room in a process that was well yes. So the the issue here is that if we take something up to the speed of light and it can survive going the speed of light, then it has to be able to protect whatever's inside it to be able also to match speed of light. So member that, as you get closer and closer to the speed of light, and when you reach the speed of light, you cannot have mass anymore. You are energy by definition. So the way to get up to the limit is to have a really good, strong shielding of what
was there but then getting past it will yield my work on interstellar particles stuck at a good slam into yes, that's it here, I hope we hit your speed like that, would hurt a lot like this. If you go out there before the Euro Ouch Algeria. With on screen is why asked what it is literally? Yes, Sir force you would have to find a way for this vehicle itself to survive and by extension, whatever is inside, the vehicle would survive as well. Anything piggy back, though, probably, would be burnt. I wanna make something clear that speed does not kill its acceleration that kills right. Ok, so you can be crews and, at ninety nine point, nine percent, the speed of light. No one will know, no one will care, but if you abruptly come to zero, we abruptly speed up to that then you're, a pile of goo at the back of the space
You could be magics into the middle of something that was already moving at the speed of light at an ninety nine percent of the speed of light the problem. Is we their slowly? You can do that affect their spaceships. We can say we I mean people Engineers have conceded spacious that accelerate at one g. One earth gravity diminishes It was like you just sit here like we have this conversation, but we're going faster, faster, faster and how you, member, how quickly get to the speed of light nervously like six months on it's not that bad not only their year within a year, but then doesnt vignette to slow down and also I'm just going to turn a ship around and slow down in that direction. So you still, but it doesn't. Your master then increase as your mass increases relative to other things around ok, so we like relegating the spaceship. This was something about speed right right. You and I would maintain our relative masses, but you and I would not retain our relative masses compared to those or com.
You know, next to the shouldn't, be nice to be one hundred and eight pounds, not arguing for mass. How much faster to run in zircons. Looked beach ready, you got some is coming up. While we talk about us or an atmosphere and such like times in that on Instagram asked if malls would be terror formed. Thus, given an earth like atmosphere, how would it be possible to keep the apple? far from being blown away by solar, wins. Considering most nor have the magnetic, but has actually feel that we must re little good quarters in London. I think the first question, which is even more important, is Mars, doesn't have the gravity to hold on to our atmosphere. We if we tried to put as much atmosphere on earth it would the tops of it. We continuously be going away before we could develop enough pressure on the surface to get to say earth's atmosphere, pressure
the answers. It just has to be constantly being generated. Ok, Charles clearly evidence of it once having had running water on its surface. Yes, so they had to be enough air pressure to prevent the water from just a vat rating and that had been sustained for some fair amount of time could sum Rivers are meandering, yes and that's a slow. Yet as you don't just tat for free we're talking about millions of years when the, though maybe even up to a billion years when Mars, like any other planet in our solar system, was forming, the cor was slowly aggregating its metals from the surface. Shreds of differentiation process where just the same way that pulp in orange juice sinks to the bottom so too is the metal flicked is called on to the bottom. But eventually my pop floats was with you
The time ok give their floaty pop. I want drink your earlier Don't you get used to orange right, actually separate. That's right! The separation of the orange juice is. Is it analogy the separation of like a metal core and a rocky mantle, and then a rocky crust on the outside. My with Iraq's is heavy but they're like compared to men. Yeah, so they float right when the metal sinks heat is dissipated, outward gently but with vigour into the surroundings, the crust and eventually atmosphere in that process. You can get a lotta out, gassing from underneath the surface out on to the surface, which means that you can for many millions of years while it's happening while its heritage sustain the atmosphere that will create meandering rivers that you'd arrived. So
I believe that doesn't it doesn't have a million years to me under river, but it may take that much time to say evolve a protein virus vs furniture. So the answer is the same answer that no, we cannot prevented from going away either because of magnetic fields not being there, nor by not enough gravity. Instead, we just have to keep generating more and more atmosphere, at the surface, so that we can maintain equilibrium, even as the outer layers ago, just to be clear that made any field she'll just from particles from us. That would otherwise basically pick off the extreme right. How would it be other problems as well being on Mars than without that show you you have served winds in ruins when you have a way to go too far in not just really feel also Also, the ozone big
that you, ve from the Sun ultraviolet break apart the water molecules and make it easier to oh and the age is hydrogen the lightest and it was very fast in any formal environment. You lose that and so leave strand in the oxygen behind. So you systematically molecule by molecule, taken your water, that's right and ass. They had nothing to do the magnetic field there. There's all kinds of problems is when you don't have a protection against ionizing radiation of any kind, whether they be light like gamma rays and x rays, whether they be charged. Particles washes capricious Gore say, if you Furthermore, as you can put up a shake up about, the order is too big: How would I know how to migration Draghi lines on it? I would love to have. One has no magnet enables ground with, like an umbrella. Take your old man, like minors, helmet that
The engineers will find a solution to know what our answer I was afraid. I should think there that I think the the terror forming reality is that you are going to have to live in domes in a place like Mars. You'd get you can't just leave it opened. There would be funny if they had it Megan on the home closer refrigerated escapes me. It is like the motto of recent get your tongue stuck on our roads, and that would be funny which I think is signed. You know. If that happens, the best thing to do is just keep pulling just keep. Leads, I'm your money and eventually flattened and roll up roll up little roll up. Yes, that's how it works. We heard it happen to scientists. While we got scientists here as well. One hive gazette on patron asks: I've heard there benefits to putting a space telescope on the far side of the moon. I think, because earths radio emissions won't cause interference there do you think they will eventually be a telescope station there. What exactly would be the benefits?
That's also bears the name of the end of that as well as Patrick follows from milk creek. Well, Patrick! Yes, there should be a telescope there and there are many benefits. An entire conference on this result a few years ago, astronomy from the our side of the moon, and it was. There was a delight to see, because when nowhere near getting their area, but to see these the ideas or why it's useful? Yet we are a radio noisy place and radio telescopes need this. This radio silence it's it's. It's basically not buzzing noise in the traditional sense. It's it's! It's electromagnetic noise noise signals that you don't want to be there. Could you try to take something as dimmer they do not, then, and and when it all be plucked out by being on the other side of the generally, it doesn't have to penetrate through the moon.
So there are a great many of our round. There is some diffraction a little round on the edges yet, but if you're smack dab on the other side of the moon, earth is dead to you. You should be able to avoid so. For example, spacecraft now, which have landed on the far side of the moon, can communicate with earth because there is a satellite in orbit around thereby permanent stations like like towers. They can He civilization back any any colony would have to have some kind of way too. Offer the side of the moon to come straight back to us, either by permanent stations like like towers, they can talk to each other by the way. This, like those look behind losses that spies have, I got from the back and maybe they haven't arose. The o Spiderman still uses really.
Putting two dozen, you spidey sense, miraculous, occurring glasses, deceiving according to information from decades ago, which may have been outpaced by twenty first century technology, spider man's mask doesn't actual eyeholes and he actually sees through mirrors. That's oft side room. I didn't know better. I'd, also like to think that all spy still by their stuff. From the back of your mind is something that is how I resembling that's how I got my Charles ATLAS. You know a body in a seven day and it is remarkable and respect When I see the bones right: people's bones, which also enable you to see through the moon to us. If we want to have any problem, yeah yeah It's a great idea, especially for radio telescopes, but it isn't. Your Anne and radio telescopes especially, are big, and that's one of the reasons why you can just send them out into space far enough away from earth.
To not be affected by the radio August I was gonna be. My next question is why you can't just put it on moorland or and then drive it across to the far side of I'm really telescopes are big right, the british isles. Your big because radio waves are big and I get a lot of radio waves to focus. Damn you need a bigger dish, then you'd otherwise think you'd need so yeah and since the far side also gets sunlight, it's not the dark side of the moon was not like you're an eternal darkness. Which might be an astronomers dream state, but a day on the moon last month. There's no thrives, sunlight and rarely fifteen days of darkness routine. Radio astronomers can actually work in the daytime. Although little wonder that Louis things, however, which is really really cool, although the sun is a big source of radio noise, so their allotted tradeoffs back and forth
It's really cool this zone around the sun. You wanna keep clear of it. Cause it'll, be too noisy fleet so diverse than earth. Where would the best place to be a telescope on the moon, oh yeah, or any? What, if you could put a telescope anywhere? Any of us? Why would you I now come to my according to replace you lookin out with the telescope aright with us a family. That's very kind of you to know that also very helpful between galaxies. Yet where it's dark and there's nothing then just go to where you're looking right, that you sometimes want this out of the way I view the comfort of just sit back and take every point right now I would be. I would be more excited by getting a big telescope, then putting the telescope and in given location we can get a telescope as the size of the solar system or the size of the milky way. Galaxy now being put that anywhere that it doesn't get broken, and I'm told me there that's a good point. You can make much bigger structures in Spain.
Bigger than earth itself here, and then you get the bad if ass, telescope there ever was a that would be another used for once you get the technology to stop building stuff with robots, actually yams act. Well, the first thing we build with a rope space using asteroids a telescope, I would at this point up this point on an economic driver for the problem this discussion comes are most a on Instagram. Who says how would you market, as in quotes space exe? duration to someone with an extremely utilitarian view. I am definitely not who needs convincing, but that type of criticism is abundant nowadays, and it also lots of lovely offence in Dubai, Dubai very interesting cool. Well, the answer to that is we don't have time? Will you take a break em when we come back we're gonna, how to how to convert,
the non believers in space exploration when startup returned. This is start. Twice a year later- met caution there. And we are commemorating space weak and just to remind people in case you didn't know the first week of October happen to have been. The weak, that's Sputnik was launched October. Fourth, nineteen fifty seven by the Russians. Soviet union are soaring enemy, the gun
this communist and we lost our shit, over at the old. It would take us a year, but a year later, in the first week of October, we would found NASA Nasa would be. Become an agency, but sooner or later so those two events both happening out, as well as many other space, Issues that have occurred in October have made a perfectly good argument to call this space. We get I think it's great, so we are cosmic queries so can go and met. So this is the question from just before. The break is: how would you market space exploration to non believers, along with an extremely utilitarian view? what would you do well, you're educator, geysers space enthusiast. What would you'd right? Well, I have to use many different strategies with my students and I often teach introductory astronomy classes where most of the students are not going to become scientists rights. How do you convince them that it's a good idea to go out into space? I think this is a very good and you to use many different strategies, one strategy being in the EU.
Rotarian side, is to convince people that profit can be made right. The same way that people came to North America from Europe, the yeah back and the sixteen hundreds was pressed firstly, people convincing others that if you send me to America, I can make money for you and send back stuff for you, whether its gold, whether its beaver pelts, whether its agriculture for good things like that name places after you, for example. Yes, so do I if the, albeit with the word new New Haven, New York, new everything, is New England, new languages, the whole place, so that profit is a utilitarian thing. You can do when another thing is too appeal to their sense of grandeur, grandiose city Anna tv girl, depending ego, yeah and say, if you go out there,
who could be the person that everyone will remember for all of human history times, people ask me that an and younger kids, for example, who asked me some scientific question which, Don't know the answer to I went, and there are many of those right I will say, something loans. Eyes of you know what nobody knows you, maybe so You will be the person that discovers that and then We will all remember you and your scientific discovery better answer here's what you do go that person who's the non. Ok go to that person and in the dark of night sneak into their place all yeah, that's real social ills that regions with a search warrant; ok I'll get when you remove everything in their home. There were inspired develop because of space technology. So first you take the way the smartphone, then it. We all integrated circuits in all it taken away
their goober account take away their health lazy surgery the hand. All of this denies that rights of saint the detailed and then they wake up and that's why I end they take it. Take away whether what the Weather Channel ITALY, for we were on the weather, forecasting take away at all just leave them their bare asked. So then they learn quickly. What role spaces played in the ass you really can say that space technology, basic science, those kinds of things that do not change the price of bread today can and have. Change the course of civilization tomorrow
and we want to be higher up there with the words today. Ok just wake him out of your mouth- are different in Almaty. Shouting, no one to stop the beautiful quote. It won't change the price of bread today, but it could change the course of civilization. Tomorrow s happy My next question: I'm gonna combine these two questions because they are loud, love, judges you're losing them. They isolated well I'll accredit, both these people with its continuation. What we're talking about but Jar Deca asks in the future. Will it be government The private sector or a combination of both it will continue humanity's journey through space, and then pull ponder on twitter asks, as Neil Thyssen at Niels Hasten stated in his bed. Military and science flourish together
there are chances the be next scientific breakthrough happened, but is classified by the government thoughts. Well, that's already it's very true that probably not authorized to do. I'm sorry you're right, you're, right. Sorry, ok, look at this. Now, I could never have now had never happened, Five hundred of them did Neil has written very eloquently about this particular topic in some gonna defer to you in your conversation about the military aspect to thinking, but, but I will say from my purely civilian point of view, to me the reason the military in the government and industry all worked weather to move us forward in technology. Development and innovation is simply because
need a lot of resources in any society to do those kinds of things. Innovation is almost never just one guy in his basement right. That's just not how we're gonna move swiftly movie made after you, One person burning letters right. That's what use is it if its ten people taking five years in a lab, funded by five different sources? Nobody makes a moving, I think that's right now and then a reality is as again as Neil has written is That many many many hands are necessary and much much much money is needed to make those. Really fundamental! Explorations waving. You do. You know Christian Huggins, yes, easy, a Dutch Polly math, really at the end of this he's already didn't worthy rings of Saturn, identify for understanding understanding that they are rings ya. He did a wave fury of light yes, and he actually has a spacecraft Higgins probe named after
when it landed on Saturday tighten detached from yeah from beautiful from I should only show those amazing pictures that showed that on tighten their our mountains and rivers and lakes like we see on earth, but their made a very different substances, the maid of method. So Higgins and one of his books hypothesize it lit god- put evil people on earth so that good people, would have to innovate war against them, inventing new tools and technology- and this is the source of civilization, have bad people on earth, and this was part of God's plan. He writes that lie almost lay off. This is how this is how connected and convinced he is what an innovation in war go hand in hand if you're, if you're just using budgetary resources and
turning them to purely discovery purposes situations than that that's a different dynamic that when you're describing in terms of like the fuel desire to wage war. That's an excellent point. Oh, I enter the answer. I think you'd, like Charles he'll, be combination. Government do something first, because it is not a profit motive. Yet until The trade winds or mapped and hospitals in the friendly's are established. Then private. As can come, and I say it is often that the first Europeans to the new world were not the Dutch EAST India trading coming. There was good who took that first investment for hedge emanistic regions, really economic reasons and then well long term economic reasons, then then, once you know and his map this, how much it costs this and I want to talk. Is what you can bring back now. I can make This model? I can sell tickets, and now we can. We have the Dutch EAST India Trading Company right here right.
Good point. We are going to lightning round around reminder. Leading round is somebody Ok, all right! Let's see how good you can't you ve come a long way to I don't know. I don't matter Corey Moon on Twitter? No relation to our moon says: Has a nuclear bomb ever been tested in space? If so, what happens? not to my knowledge, but if it does and then the radiation just goes a long long way I passed Why one would use a nuclear weapon is for the blast wave that does most of the immediate damage about this, the three ways: atomic weapons work, one is the the blast of light, that will vaporize things on an on the spot. The next is the blast wave that any typical barn would have. The third is the radiation sickness that within kill living things in space? If there is no air, then the blast wave does not exist
and half away you have used, the bomb is nullified so Do you get the radiation together radiation and you get the light energy right on time, which is also electro magnetic ready? I dont know if we ve ever exploded a bomb space. I write Thomas forecasts on Twitter says STAR Trek included many Amiens and creatures that naturally existed in space outside of planetary atmospheres. Is that possible anything is possible. Can it be done with dna structure that were used to probably not. I agree. And think about it. Imagine you viewed DR your energy and your from inside yourself from stores stories that you ve established, she'd go outside of your spaceship and you'll have to breathing air cause. You have some source of
of air? Whatever? Is your need for staying on inside you, but that only last a certain amount of time is any different from an egg laid by a chicken. Egg cannot survive in our Miss fear- and I stays in there so all the egg resources turn into a chicken that can, So in my egg is like a space suit, embryo and eggshell right. Are you with me? I wish you wouldn't let me just give one more ten. Second, quick answer to this question: right and Astro I'll just once challenged me to tell her why a star is not alive and if I was unable to do that, which I wasn't right, then, maybe all the stars out in the universe are a form of life, not the innate but just as alive. As you have to start to reproduce themselves. They are born, about their lives and I and they haven't metabolism- satisfies almost every definite.
Of life, a biologist withhold for us What do they have agency? We are, so this has now become a life. Next are crystallizing owns one more go. Our Christopher Johnson on Instagram asks there is soon to be an explosion of Cuba, around a foul know how easily, and only if, each and shaping out with space becoming more accessible commercially unto the poet jobs. This is not a lightning round answer, but the bottom line is that it's very good getting to have all these satellites up there, but also very dangerous both for science and for human beings. Over time we have to be very wise about how you send those things up. There has to be very carefully controlled, otherwise we're going to really regret. Having almost Don't even keep track of whether you can, but again it requires a lot of advance planning. You can't just say have accompany go. Send it up a thousand satellites. Whew, that's gonna causes all problems.
I would say the reason why we haven't been visited by aliens, because this year this crap wandering heard coming nearer to Asia my son by so at all, thanks for coming out. It was my pleasure. I hadn't rail link, you man, I really really like regular. We go a little, the flash of air spider man, always a little superhero action when I've gotta do some smuggler. That's Matt always great to have you so is the place to be here as well comparably science thanks for state, just came over on a red eye, so we're doing a show. Thank you. I'm cropped up my copyright museums, finest cuff, writing excellent. This has been star talk Some of you might have seen it most will have listened to this episode, of cosmic queries celebrating space, weak and your house near the grass Thyssen and we ve done the show from my office at the hidden planetarium at the American is either natural history.
As always, I beg you to keep looking up. I wish you could listen to start or commercial free Joint star talk on page we're on for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com. Last star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.