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Cosmic Queries – X-ray Astrophysics

2019-04-05 | 🔗

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Explore more than the eye can see as Neil deGrasse Tyson, comic co-host Chuck Nice, and Kimberly Arcand, Visualization and Emerging Technology Lead for NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, answer fan-submitted questions to uncover the X-ray universe and beyond.

NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/all-access/cosmic-queries-x-ray-astrophysics/

Photo Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ. Potsdam/L. Oskinova, et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial, free from the American Museum of Natural history in New York, city and beaming all is based and start were. Science is under house arrest, Thyssen physicists and today its cosmic berries X, Ray Imaging Astrophysics addition it. I think we had one of those days what we did, because we have one of the world's experts in that very subject sitting with me right now, I get with me, came our. Can him well
Thank you. Your title correctly. It along with visual Patient and emerging technology lead for the Chandra X, Ray Observatory, s wonderful and injured, pull you out of the ether. You got some chops, I'm holding your book called magnitude scale of the universe. And I love this on the cover. It's got a mouse, a human brain, a bowling ball, hot air, balloon and earth. Like what scales are we opened the work at it, lay that stuff out and it talks about when things are big and small and how to think about them relative to one another. This stuff, we we confront every day in modern astrophysics, Howdy wrap your head around the scale of things and you need to visualize it tonight to do it best lorries with fumble ourselves, trying to explain it, and so you so beautiful, but thank you. Am I caused Chuck. Neil Hawaii, welcome back to start or absolutely supplies are right in your tweeting at church.
Most comic, yes and and you're Instagram Kimberly column can look Kimberly Column count w now, anyway, name does had to throw all you gotta. Do then all permit all the Yahoo email down or Cuban Oleg her. But since you were a visual person, Instagram Have you got ass? Amateur? Yes? Yes, I would look for their everything. You say you have some questions for Jack. Absolutely, nothing! This? Yes, you know we have, of course, solicitor questions from over the entire website. Because when goods are good ones here, but we always start with a patriotic patron, because Adrian patrons give us money and since we are cheap, whores slowly getting used to dad you don't like that. You know like anything to do with money, not just money. Idea. Unlike give us,
they will do whatever your first question refers question. What would be the most exciting find that you would have the x ray telescope what would be the bees, their resistance, so to speak. This is what he said. Okay, this is d this who, from from page from patron greater hooker deserts, Well, I mean, I think, there's a lot of. If you ask a question of a number of you, will there be a lot of different answers? I think like for me in general with astronomy, and they can be images or you can I do. How can I get? I get topic is too exciting for me, just with my by Reggie background. I have to say anything to do with finding life possibility for life on another planet. To me, when I first started working for Chandra Exit planets, like weren't, really thing like this is like late nineties and they Really, I think, maybe there
Aren't you discover either ladder at that line? Nineteen, eighty five raids, exactly so the whole arrangement, yes are all others, thousands of them. I think an arm chair has some really interesting capabilities to study, especially the, effects of the whole star and how that have habitability issues with its new, no children, planets though I think anything to do with exile planets. For me I'll be super exciting show. This is extra information brought to us by X, rays, yeah about these objects. We already know of how about objects that we would know nothing of what not for their x ray signal cell or I could at the top of that we are a well. I feel your x rays for actual plants or supplementing show either data the bigger the bigger. Yes, yes, you may wonder arms race or the only pieces of the puzzle. Well, so I'm too much like a multi, wavelengths,
me junkie. Here, let's get him to choose. What am I feel that we have never pick one and I can only result in other areas, but yet I feel like these days, it's all about how the different kinds of late hour each one tool in the toolbox understand me right and it's trillion how all of those pieces together so X, Ray astronomy, compliments really well with radio astronomy optical. I mean it's really is hard to practise what occurred for this was the healthiest way to think about that you're Cargan, a wheel, re puzzle, peace to a larger, organised understanding of the universe, a man and with the addition of thy gravitational waves science window, they have more as a multi messenger gets exciting. I mean, there's is there's a lot to go there, so I can't camp. They arrive there. Just have one you have it. I like
are you sure of your cell phone here? Look at root? Maybe look at that girl, Ulysses solutions that are already our cultural case. It's a little case. I mean this is NBC six. Oh two, it's a beautiful seller evolution area. A baby stars being born seven or somewhere near three lines of babies and there you ve got this the purple as the X Ray Data from Chandra and then there's also some info data from Spencer and showed him how to break a babysitter s? Mother was the random. We found this on Amazon one day, which was, I think so called not like. I know that image do ground on it created that image around with a team to any one person, tourism from course? Right of yes? That's! U scientists are always Damn humble not only give you a ride with smack down, because you do can have more. We re ran out, and you guys gonna know me. Nature is always more clever than any
Do you have what they were like? That nature is always more clever than any of us, and sometimes it's more clever than all of us combined loud. So one thinks of just two to emphasise your x, Ray Data is part of other data. This combined to make him Multi waving astronomy again at its best have a great observatory classic with gender Hubble ends, but sir, on which I think is really beautiful, and it just helps till the sun x rays. I think I will try and resorts rose. Growing. Public is obviously visible light and ministers for answers. Infrared so have two very different branches of the spectrum- oh very much, but combined to make one image as it. So our eyes could see that broadly, So if you had a sensors in x rays, visible and infrared, will you ever put decided whenever you look up, and you see that you say that right. So if you were predator, you could in writing the that were ordered,
or Georgia, or Laforce restart your accurate right era net to knapsack, yeah. You know already had the opportunity not to be blind and he turned it down. An episode of starch directly alone, and I think it's because you I saw your image One thing is: we are practically blind when you consider how narrow is the slice of the electromagnetic spectrum around the shows us, we are practically boy wow. We can see so little doesn't like a tiny sliver. You know you, you know, you open a book and has the rainbow in other colors of the rainbow runners, yellow, Reggie, Biv right Green Blue really know violate them, can forget into gas right and so fills the page. And then but you look at the entire. Range right and oversight. That now goes from I urge you to low energy. You go from gamma rays. I x rays ultraviolet tonight, my with INDIGO blue, green red and green orange.
Orange, yellow red, then you come out of the red. You get infrared everywhere, and then you get microwave here anyway. Well, when you pull that on one page, visible light is this: my little liver sliver, like you, have like a piano in front of you, it be like human vision is middle c and maybe a couple keys. Around that's a barrel, arrested, ignore quite an octave aroused. Are there any listening to Beethoven's I symphony, which is hammered out three occasions during this terrible? So we buy so he did there. I hate my eyes now: you're, not gonna hate my eyes. So let me ask you this than are there any animals that sea area outside of the spectrum? Oh yeah and dear Conseil, open ultraviolet, a little altered in search for told all about your wife I have already had a little bit and you know that they, like ultra violet, ok This is how we know we are smarter than insects. Ok, thing! I evidence
smarter than insects, alright, ok, cool nominal, tapping one. Isn't it tell us we had we, we invented bugs errors which are intense and ultra violet. I can't stop zest exactly and that's how we know we are smarter than they are an bug bulbs which not see much anymore. I have amber right, they don't repel, bugs buckstone, see it so their entire sensitivity to light is shifted towards the blue and into the ultra violet and dangles off the other end. Some red and orange- so it's not that they avoid the red ball above your pick a table. They don't see long. I can't see it at all and, if you put it bugs after the end of a long right, although the bugs ever so, I just want you to appreciate that.
You're, smarter. Fifty bucks, alien evasion comes in its bugs. We should just berliners. App is right if they are bags yeah, but an alien Beijing. If they were smart enough to get here and we're too stupid to leave here, something tells me the concert: where will you know it's my mama Godfrey cards or if we got a good food right, we argue that right now comes out to tell you not to go exact razor, because there must be the best concert, average Begone, altered, sixties and nobody's come on Wednesday. We will be putting in the hands of a smarter species. Forger nets.
We party in the hands of a smarter species for sure I next question here. We got plenty bought on Instagram wants to know this, since you guys we're talking about the different types of light in the spectrum. What is the difference between Chandra X, Ray Observatory and James Web telescope? Is it just the spectrum of light or what? What else do they do? That is just the start out with the orbit. So what emerges chandrika and such andreasen a highly political orbit? It goes about a third of the way to the man. About the size of a school bus. It weighs maybe forty eight hundred kilograms and, like that, our earth, a yes. It is very important in his own words. What sort of an interesting thing about Chandra is, it was, I'm pretty sure, still was the heaviest thing that the space shuttle ever launched.
The fact that it was so massive meant that- and I didn't actually learn a sentiment. Here's later on, the fact that it was so massive meant that it was a more risky ride for the astronauts than it would have met with a lighter payload were on their board. Scenarios, for example, were more challenging, but it another time so. Yes, oh channel, as large and charge is deliberately perfect law either I'm to get it up into space I'd suggest that orbit, and so James Web is a million miles on the other side of the move. Right, sir, They want to get away from earth interference as a change. Web is infrared based, telescope and again different parts of the spectrum, we're tune differently, and so they have their targets of interest, the objects of affection in the universe or differ but then you bring him altogether and you get about the sun algae, mentioning orbits. This is question coming from a chap ice on Facebook,
some persevere in the office with them just comment about obsession to little more abashing web good, so those changes in the big elliptical war besides orbiting earth, web is in Alexandria and Point it is a point, we're all forces that would otherwise move. It are stable and she put it out there and it takes very little station keeping to just keep it there, and this is a faint. These famous luxuriant points aware we imagined you build stuff like reaches well, your hardware them does not even right believe. It's just hang around I'll. Just hang is the garbage patch. Wasn't it I need a box or a square donations. My right tens right. That's it doesn't folder anybody surface, they were met, to be a little more useful than they ve turned out to be a turns out. We can make things that are warbling, it's not that hard, because what you break something up into orbit in orbits with you yeah. I guess I was knocked, but
I do love the lagrangian employed, like as as as a place like development total. I look around me up. I, so let me ask you this broker. As these, as these orbits happen, are, they are. They stood staring when a fixed point already observing different quadrants as they move around. So tender goes a third way to learn at its farthest points, and he knows about sixteen thousand communist earth at its closest point. So it's nice elliptical orbit and it's got they did that for like optimal, observe capabilities that it has the most time to essentially be looking out at the universe garter, but in over away from earth faraway view earth exactly but yeah. I think what's really interesting about. While for one thing I think it must have gone like two point: seven billion miles I mean kilometers by now over twenty years, which is anything fantastic. Anything valley, tenders never had a day off
and like twenty years, doesn't even how they can put him right now and how perfect I had to work when it was launched so areas, but I'm not sure what James Web is doing, but which was not up here what right at the beginning of this war broadcast. Yes, what so these these things have drowned I was that enable you to know where you are and where your pointing, and so you give consent, coordinates up there and if you pick out your object of interest and gather data, so there are some. I I think I understand the point that quest there are some telescopes. It only observe one. My tried I assigned in the hammer that, for they get that's it at her deeper data. Kepler did that I have learned was one patches guide. Looking there was a lot of stars, but still one patch lookin for echo planet and because it had to go. Back looking for variation rice is an historic, so, and set a date? Is not good. I've gotta go back and back and back
here is where all the daily telegraph. So let me take this moment this, let's go over just who these people are. Ok, so change web was the it was head of NASA during the nineteen sixty school now and but for the he was too, I think was the first person who we named the telescope after that was not us interest, so I love some political stuff go on in the back room. Does a cold or I'm gonna. Let me live for lunch to re. Ok, normally you name you name it after person, after launch hacker, just a case of branded profound their bad luck. They do to you brought your name blows up ray without a tender as acts ass for a long time. I was out at all by turning quite roll off the tongue. Nationals is experienced, astrophysical review area, but then it was renamed Chandra after Superman, Yon Tundras, a car who is very famous indian american, noble area whose
Many things like white to arson, something very as we also did so. I'd probably have a rehash of Andrew. Let me see here homer there. Super among young children sector yet ready to transfer. So one of the more brilliant among us who ok I'm through. I can't even with your work until I'm with you what why like series. Were you that issue I got because another ass, this is of crap cries out right. That's what you're reading we realise Yakima this year is that nobody can. We them now secular work carefully, but ok, people at home and he just open I'm just wait. A little images is open up. Ok, here, there's. Nobody has now lay radio you you read stories from here. It is ready of training exactly as principles of in what is that at that I was going to be like that. We learn, learn. Doodles that ambition, away. So just just goes on four page after page
that's your days of those pages or just nothing but actual equations. I have seen trying to heal your labours that are easy to understand and suchlike, if you're right, but why did you get a telescope? so you were several books. That really were the definitive word on those subjects. Still using graduates will get, it wasn't. Naming aren't s time. We actually had a contest for the naming and it was a teacher and a high school student that pick the name gender after winning enter over. They knew how we really did some excellent research undeniably invasion. We can't take a break. Ok, we're more questions. Come up on the x ray universe with came
if you like, but I'm the regulation you tried to French. It is good that I try to french or com conjured nice, we'll be back in a few moments ago, secret for you I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell. There's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad, free You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying:
The future is space and the secrets of our planet reveal starter. We're back startle the x ray vision, I've got the leading visualization person for the Chandra X Ray telescope came. Our kind can welcome to start talk your first timer. Thank you get your back and John
I always there there. For me, I m sorry for you money around. I love you too. Ok, that's what you have. Let's go to these people made this name go added animal Anna Maria Animal Roddy go with that on. Instagram wants to know how many more stars can we do tat with a Chandra X, Ray Observatory? Then we can see. With our naked eye and can we detect Exo Planet Transits country shape their course yeah. Look up at the night sky, the human I can see about the total sky was below and above you about six thousand stars, a cup, a few nebulae. You know with the naked eye. So how boldly different, if you can just turn on X, Ray vision in which in a Chandra sense, what do you begin to the notice? What we have
I think it's more than just the star, so I guess it's quality over quantity ray. It's not just the numerical number that way. We're looking at, but more of wild like tat time what they are. I am so, for example, you looked at a patch of the sky of Ryanair Bula, for example, and he looked at that and close like dollar nursery, to the sun in the consolation among the stars, without wishing to arrive here, you can look at that. An optical lay in you'll deafening see a lot of stars, but as it is, you look at an x ray light. You're going to see the same, tiny small patchy might see like animals, seventeen hundred extra resources, but those aren't gonna, just be plain old stars I mean you know about that starts- are displaying an all, but
You might see binary age, you might see black holes, he might see other types of of these less shall object. So I guess for me, is just yet not the quantity so much as the quality of what you're studying almond you're, asking to see diffuse emission cuts like some of that hot bath and that those stars might be sitting in so hot pot gases wrung radio x rays. Are you not consider what you like about regular could see what you were doing. Telescope granular right roads were who knew world opens up make another example. It would be something like Cassiopeia, the Supernova Remnant Avenue lawyer. You knew all about Irish. You will listen That is why I welcome a thirty minute eyes like it was. You know it's not like it's something that is very esoteric. I was thirty on open over exploded. I forgot the year that that haven't, but there's a remnant of this exploded star, and we cannot do it was there, but now
children give us a whole other view of it hall other world. It's really amazing till cats I mean you can look at it with optical light from like the Hubble space telescope in using this beautiful filamentary structure and a very visual person. Obviously I'm like lacking my images, but you see this nice delicate parliamentary material around the ten thousand degree Mark right catholic cycle. Hollow shell. For yes, I can look at cafe with the tax observatory and it looks completely different. It's like literally death come alive. It's a solid, looking sort of death come a vain yes well done, but had seen it does lead to future generations. Diana made a death, it is commonly, is moving it all gone billing Berryville, attic unreal IQ got up for its amazing. Is you can trace link where the iron is dispersed and where the argon in a silicon isn't? It just makes this incredibly gorgeous nebula, to look at new stores, roaring from the ashes
has burned. At least not in my hearing, which are very, very good, is cachet. I was forget, you set the brightest source of X rays and the sky was. There are not out of the sky like Swine Scorpio Gas workers at one but cafes really bright and its great IRA sooner. You haven't, you have Ado with what what what I'd go. You know I was cool, recast, ok, you had to go to school guy about an end. What is corporal and was Scorpio? The council has sent me: ok, I'm old enough. Ok, I'm old and all your I worked at the centre of rest for physics, which is a big x, Ray place Cambridge Massachusetts as an undergraduate nice and for my summer project I worked on one of the earliest x ray telescopes that relaunched, so those boolooroo which was an x ray telescope. And the receptionist structure.
As the who write about your brother, but she was not. The reception is dude ten it first of all, this is communications officer. So so the first telescopes go up. They just kind of look for anything. They gave up x rays and then a created a catalogue and you'd be numbered the x ray sources within each constellation, so by order brightness and so in Scorpio the brightest one was at our next so scholars one is better. And it also sickness Ex one that it's a good black hole candidate, and so they looked so that when you see the x and the one we had our first x ray us Ray? I'm Cathay was named before we we had x rays and so now the detection of those. So you know
I'd better those early telescope. It was just a know that their even there at all ass, I was going to say I am so what now you're a hydra drowning by X, Ray astronomy is like I mean there are a lot of people on this planet whose whole lives have been the length of x, Ray astronomy like the field is so young. I think I mean really got going late, forties, early fifties and then, by the time, the sectors where exactly and by the time I was born, there is a good one. I detect her on sky lab and then by the time like fighting The kids are born leg. You know Chandra had launched an excellent Newton was launched and now they're working on new generations of x, Ray I'm telescopes advertising worthy tone, money that ninety nine men were covered. So two thousand I tweezers twenty- that resolution we will carry out of them are now before that you're. Looking images like a hundred times covered, general fainter, I'm a writer and having it certainly looking at the sun. I just get x rays from the sun. First cause it's a nice,
by targeted on right enough. You can look at the time of its sober and it was like bright Chandler off get a look at you re. No one should be looking at this fashioning Chandra, but yes, and then you would like, who ruined Einstein like all these. Other missions is suspended and amazingly compacts amount of extra astronomy. That's happened in just a handling, but it took a normal course of evolution. So you you first gotta know you want to learn that Any kind of source of Ex Remsen attacks that here there there the blunt instruments right then it I wonder what it is. You might do some calculations, but still you don't know, and the later generations, Now that I know the there- and I know what kind of signal is giving me, let me to devise a detector that can more, Cisely measure that right and There's something dimmer, and so, like you say it, you see the dimmer ones. You get more precision in your image.
These are making x, ray images and now tenders, images are so sharp and beautiful. I mean when you're looking at things like supernova remnants and it's so much detail at your seeing airline with the next generation of exit steps will be able to do a little one hundred times more sense than until the next generation say back and twenty nine Nor have we hide your. I hope they do was she was she. Nothing had not been yeah Farrabee per tree, the best thing, the best. If you, if you are obsolete a fire, by their very cool, or I should another question. Let us let's do this. This is Chris Cherry from Instagram says. What is the next light spread from will be observing in the universe
observing the universe in all of them. All the above I mean I guess it depends on what they mean by the question. If they mean what's next to be launching and hopefully the James, what will be the next to be launched another? the infrared grew on an and beyond that, its whatever is in the budget and what Our agencies are a great Andrew. Whatever is an approach which I know that it also has great answer. It's true. That was an expert on what was it about? we want all the life. You know her cool, but here's an interesting challenge: okay, so let's so radio waves have very long wavelength right and one bits of evidence of that is Those who remembered televisions that head rabbit ears their detecting radio waves as television singing and the length of the rabbit here is commensurate with the length. The radio waves that it's trying to capture so let's say: ok, so.
Suppose you wanted to take a radio waves. That's a meter long for ten metres, long or kilometer. How are you going to detect that you need a detector that is at least that size raging get a whole wavelength and there were these half away like you need some fraction of that wavelength hitting and being able to focusing suppose, there's something out there. That makes a radio wave that is, the diameter of earth orbit around the sun, whose detecting so they could be phenomena in the universe that is washing across the entire solar system, and we don't have detectors that can pick it up now. I too, like radio waves
A second failure besides X rays, I think, would be radio most peer review idea. They really are very complimentary, is surely an opposite grandpa's report Blair Opposites attracts I mean it really was the highly used in our culture. Railways for communication and very very cool or I could there be its oaks or Julie. H comes was at time travelling on twitter like that she says: could there be technology like street view on Google maps that visits various points, just points in the universe, interesting question raw, and so we have Google Mars. I think it's called saying and looked at Google, my sarcoma means Martha whatever that it's almost like, like street view of some of the data on Mars, not really amazing, I'm getting more freedom,
and sure, which I think is the point. She's kind of getting at their data of our universe is really hard. One sure find be on nearby objects in the solar system and you're going farther out past the stars. It's really hard to get some sort of usable dimensional data on that. So then turn into like a 3d model that you can tour in treat view about three things. You don't do three day modeling for children. We do you do at its heart. I heard my we do tat. Actually I deduce owns a three model. Here is the easy, but you want to show Intel. I did bring something occurring, various audio which does not have the audio, but that we can describe it says so is a kind of globular looking structure and it has many different notes that are
out from it and it was like a tumor written from somebody bodily, but there is a reason for that: every little track. It looks like fossil, like not calcified, coral, good good, wireless biological, though it's because we are widely used, the white looks biological. It's because we actually is a brain, imaging software adapted from some local area. Brain scientists involved scenario to make is that we use their software. So that's why it looks more brainy issuer biological issues than he would probably expect other wanted, because before we set down, I put this up and I said this like a firing, neuron, red and re written rings. There's a lot you ask ass! Well I mean, if you look at visuals from the micro versus Macro newspeak, my language because of my biology background, but you can see some similarities in the way that you process those data re ambit. What you're
thing, is a three model of Cassiopeia, a our good friend that we are talking about earlier. The supernova remnants, so cool yeah, ten, eleven thousand light years away and you are able to hold a virgin your hand essentially because of the doppler effect. Should Youtube Treaty prefer yeah? This is ready. Ok, so we worked, so the dockworkers gives you depth information right, exactly I'm so Tracy doing she was a scientist who first worked on this use at MIT at the time, and she was essentially figure what information was moving away in what was moving towards, which uses around between words and material women actions the separate, but we ve picked her up with the folks who were working on on the medical, imaging software translation, which was called astronomical medicine that's quite a little as far as our group here that privatisation, doesn't it s, I love it so scales and she, though, obviously when you're holding something that small? This is like four inches across for those listening meter.
Rebel photographing follows arch. They do, but in all in real life, it's like the surface areas, baby forty million billion times the surface area of our sun and planets, and he can talk included like it doesn't matter Europe work today yeah uh, Burma how she replied, I gotta get Jacques only you have to bear the hands it with a with a dwarf planet. I was about to say with a hamburger where exactly but Helen but again I do we have time for we want. Let me hear what let me hear. The question are able to give the question this Tom Rick's from Facebook is. This, do you think virtual reality will ever allow the human brain to completely comprehend the immense distances between stars and galaxies, or is this something that will never fully grasp? We will answer that after this break. Now.
I didn t quality, startle, uncrossing Cosmic X, Ray Astrophysics, The future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal start on startup cosmic various x, ray astronauts.
Extradition was celebrating the twentyth anniversary of the launch of the challenge of X, Ray talk up when the great observatories up there with Hubble and James Web in the rest of them, each of them targeting there their window to the universe, nice. I can Came are, can yet and chuck yes, so we left off re left people dangling yes, where I can virtual reality help us comprehend that the scale of sizes and distances as they must make us a more broad, visualization question party. Your job came in people to see things. We don't other. I see two grass scale and texture and phenomenon that is
otherwise accessible to us. Look in ever Instagram account, so so, with what role do use seated you play in getting us closer to the universe? That's a good question. I am, I think, loathly my job is to just sort of oversea all the various visual platforms that we can take standard data too? I mean we much as photograph, not just images. I mean general one of the great things when you have a telescope. That's been up there for so long as you just have a fantastic archive of data to work with and as technology has developed and other sectors, you have all of these new platforms to try out with so we are talking about three printing early Any idea of what you do with three models should go stay current with all their. You do exploitive servers soon, yeah when I start working for Chandra Casimir was one of the first objects we ever looked right and it was beautiful and us in a flat two dimensional image, I was amazed, never would have imagined fast for twenty years and I'm holding a version of it
hands were walking inside it in virtual reality, like those technologies were not a reality at the time, so things like virtual reality or augmented reality mixed reality, I'm dead. On vacation using sound they're. All of these ways, days of artificial, yes, Sir, at another, serves yes to the interpretation of the data. For example, will overborne people exactly doktor onto Diaz actually has done a lot of work round that my kind of perfect world would be a vote reality application where you have the visual of course, but then you have the layer of sound, that's also spatially attached, so you nowhere, things are and then also like a habitat glare, so you can use vibration of character so like when your father has happened, It's called have dictating openly. That is that we use- I don't know, but yes, essentially, by being able to feel those vibrations azure moving through the remnant right so they're all these applications, none of which
were around swiftly through the remedy. For you, we have a three day model and you become a journey. You journey thrilling model. Exactly worrying it. Now the scale is someone on the front lose too. There was a heart out, o f R, murmured living work, the heart and would walk through the height, so think of that accept virtual re, but then having queues of sound and touch, and it's a wholly different under standing and experience of that information. Not going back to the question of scale food, I mean as soon as you get out of earth size, scale and even smaller than that. It's really hard for human. Understanding and relations of what we know so whether that will actually how people understand and incomprehension. These vast scales I dont know doesn't it might help, but here's the thing: it's it's just not everything that we see. We we imagine on the scale
we see Europe because health scares you always were led and so scale in which our senses were forged rags. So the problem is that, even if you were a to demonstrate it. Your brain would be resistant to actually then re visualizing it that way, because you are so used to looking at you know the world through the eyes that you have, which is like an eel, does thing where he shows with I've first on my side, because he did it for me, I was late get out of here, and he saw me just where the moon and the sun and the earth are right. It was late value through internal attaches hotter, and we just did it would look like a basketball and knows how we did it in a regular room and, unlike you, gotta, be kidding me like economy and so even even being able to see it in the Ets and then, as planned
and those who saw its minority are doing exactly what I'm lackeys. Reason, though, I dont think that human brain could ever comprehend those baskervilles with this is too much cool, good stuff. I got another. The quick wonders: why were they area you might ask Dolly stars, and these photos any say will stars ever. Could what will they do rarely, but they do and they can and it's interesting when that happens. But up to appreciate how rare that is. If there were four bumble bees in the United States flying randomly is a higher chance. The two of them will accidently bump into one one. Another than for two stars to collide in the galaxy Rape, lousy guidelines that were bubble just for bad bumblebees, sugar, their size and the distance between them? That's what you're getting eyes of a star well to the distances between let's go in and by the way. If there's only for bumblebees world debt,
and the food has another Europe a power I thought about. It does not feel guilty the next week I write this affords a lightning were here. We go. Jonathan gallon wants to know this, hey it's Jonathan from Edmonton. How far away from what we did. This ready, but I'm gonna give it to you anyway. He's he's taking one step further than the last question is as follows: what will call it? How far away for what are we from a star trek like stellar cartographer room like they like they have on the whole agenda and the next and the next generation the holiday. I really like that question. It's a great glass and we are actually just tryin to experiment with hologram but screen based So not you know just sort of appearing, and I held my only one come over you're, my own part. I I mean. Oh my gosh. There was girl. Oh my eyes, I had it in there I mean- and I think with like missions like fire
Others have been building this sort of nice treaty map. I mean our world is three d, so being able to bring some of that treaty nature into a way that we can very well as understand it and then explore it. Think is really important that really do and ass often fun cool excellent athletic. Only enough. We have enough questions left for four lightning waning railways, just whether we can do so. We just Joe Joe, with an eyelid still with it. This is, the limited we slip into question here, oh here, so let's can we just go back to basics, You gotta make us simple, color image of something that has no color and you're using your x rays to do so. What are your steps? Well so far, ass. We get the data from whenever object, if we want to use Cathay, as our example governs, the favourite object to the very address. A favorite object is actually one of my favorites in my one minute, but we first the data in a new. It's when it first comes down
sexually transmitted in encoded in form of ones and zeros, then it goes through some software and then its translate into a table that shows the x and my position of observation on the time and energy of each of those packets of light that struck the detector. During observation about where we could measure, the light in the form of energy? We just don't the way we do it as we measured by color right, Sir others, a blue photon, and this is a red photon, and we just saved blue and red, but if we did a Chandra thing on this week, this is the higher energy photon is a lower energy photo. The blue have higher she then the red light so it's really the same thing, but they have a whole other detectors measure this in energy. So vocabulary and steps. Sir, are stored, are shaped for that right
for you to walk down. We on our left out and their more software in. We finally get the visual representation of object, and I like to use that word that term for a reason, because I think there is this idea that these images of the universe hard and cosmic selfies, you don't mean snap dine and are not. They really do take people like me or like, however, to do their creation step, because it is like that you can't see so then you create the visual representation, the object, and then you refine it. You have to get rid of artifacts or bad bits of data. You have to smooth it. You might have to crop in the field of view that you need an unusual. The last up his color ends. I like to innocent. NICE an image by energy level. Essentially so the lowest energy x rays will be assigned, read the medium green and the highest blue. Unless we are adding to optical image from Hubble or
Spencer, Infrared and which really means you can hear, take their color. Exactly you have to share. You have to share the considering is very, have orgy of our airing desiring any new pilot together and you get your collar image of stuff. You couldn't see even if its optical range, most of the stop as you can't seekers. Human eyes are so feeble. While that is in credible, that's incredible, so you're you're, actually Larry layering this stuff, one on top of another and then to form the images of faint abundant, your written, doing that for the countries of Europe there, their red sensitive cells, their green sensitive cells in their blue, dodgy baker and light comes in at triggers one cell or another, to pay how much energy it has. But we sent it to penny what color. It is right. I mean it's an energy thing: it's all about energy so you trigger a certain amount of the red, green and blue. If it's more, then blue or more blue, then read it shapes what colored it turns out. Be that your brain interprets so so
it's the same thing as your eyes: LAO computers, greener and whenever that we will look at our GB instructions in the computer code is alive. What how much have been out of here? You know that Dr Duval go away to observe. The point is: if the colors are, you can make arbitrarily any color which you have the orgy be just a mixture of those three and that's why I'm only worsen with light. Don't try that at home with paint right you based are paint you get money might write re Gregor. Sadly I didn't I just my boy figure that out who Isaac Newton? Oh I salute the peace. He knew that people can have maybe figure the white like can make a spectrum right, but he took a spectrum, put it back to a prism, It made white light right now, free people out, yeah how'd. You get rid our children blue violet and give whiten right yeah. Well. Thank you. Isaac Newton.
The one for him. I have my boy, I would not have had a livelihood grow and not lie with Edward. I would have been sustained growing up. My father was a Why dont renters do actually take light and they mix it to create color seem like hey, it's exactly writing AIDS exactly where their debts. From its exact same, principle that you just said and you go it is, I guess, that's excellent, where very cool look at their see how science is a party Like them, you know it here. I am eaten because, as Luke, but it is the height of a hundred yards of the show I got some new revelation up. What we're doing the agenda. We are too, this is what we have here. A sky letters aware from Instagram says this sausage. Such answer was
originally last night and I know how has the technology advanced since it was launched. Two we have better technology twenty years later, that is more sensitive, so low a king after differently. Ok, ok, you re yeah! Ok, at what point do you say we? such better technology, let's drop Chandra in the Pacific Ocean and the better technology, because you're spending money on something that was conceived in design not twenty years ago, but twenty five years ago, when it was still on the drawing board. If you have an embarrassment of riches in that situation, fantastic, It's not the reality in so we don't know how to Weber, telescope, raising re Perry Como twenty years ago. All that sixteen eighty nine expend the Mcintosh with sweet.
Not all take turn, there was no support for Georgia. Owns tender is still a cutting edge, is still an amazingly it. Just incredible piece of equipment sell em. They had to smooth tenders mirrors so much like all the technology. That was, necessary to create that has actually lead to all of these fantastic spin off technologies that we get to benefit from every day in medicine, in Emma Jane in voting for your tourists are good for any meaningful use like there was so much work. They had to go into figuring out so that we can write off that for a while, but a saying, don't put tendered an early grave, it's doing beautifully. That's very cool recoup through its own forgot. What can I do?
I end with a story, the toilet articles every time, but I can't get whether these stupid questions. You ok, go ahead. So there's there's a guy. His name is recorded Yoni, a generally considered by among us to be the father of X, Ray astronomy, and he knew that if you can have, if you want to see x rays how to do from above the atmospheric x rays, don't make it through the ocean. And other particles in our atmosphere. So you need something above the atmosphere if you can see the universe and x rays of you
there's something I can't be too heavy, because this expensive to launch everything's gonna, be like it's gotta be portable, so he was one of the founders of american Science and engineering, a company based in Cambridge Massachusetts that pioneered small portable x ray detector. When was this in the nineteen sixty? What was going on the nineteen sixty o the hijacking planes to Cuba, people taking guns on planes? Congress said we need a way to stop guns going on planes. We need x rays, airports damn. We have american science and engineering, providing the first x ray detectors at airports enabled as these portable devices because they're trying to put him on a satellite into orbit well and he would ultimately get the Nobel Prize as you have introduced earlier in the show- and
on the committee, the Presidential Committee, that awarded him the presidential metal of science and when you get there There are no signs and what goes to the White House. I get invited to the White House, and here comes recorded Yoni to the White House to get the presidential metal science and you go through the security the house before you get into the White House itself, and what does he want an american citizen into doing metal detector and is vital. And does he have a like metal, hip or a plate in the syndicate? That would be awesome. Under the ground. I just thought that was that was so the poor closure again to the fact that the president is being protected by technology, that he helped pioneer and he's getting the precious metals science for having pioneered just that exceed astronomy. Is it give? Thank you? giving by ETA and we'd. I'd, tell a story in and assess rate of war with my co author, obviously ice, and just it's that its astronomy, technical
Gee affecting security, one more way where our pension for trying to destroy one another has led to a modern, a marvel it have. You know we're going ahead of their church, so calm and thank you for coming. Get your mother far away. You're, not improvidence, Providence, Rhode, island; indeed, yes, yes and so great. To have you on the list, Chuck always good to have my pleasure, Neil, you ve been listening to possibly even watching, startup cosmic wearies X, Ray Astrophysics addition on your host, the other S, and as always, I bid you we should listen to start commercial, free joy
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.