Now serving seconds! Neil deGrasse Tyson and Chuck Nice mix up a pot of Galactic Gumbo, now with an extra helping of more Cosmic Queries. Ingredients for this cosmic dish include the Big Bang, string theory, the expansion of the universe, antimatter, aliens, asteroids, and much more!NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free. Find out more here: https://www.startalkradio.net/all-access/extended-classic-cosmic-queries-galactic-gumbo/Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgements: Judy Schmidt (Geckzilla).
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star- talk on patriarch, to listen to every episode, commercial free welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide knocked off begin right now. This is start to run your host. The elder ice in your personal astrophysicist and today is yet another addition of cosmic queries, and I think this one is titled galactic gum Is that right, o co host?
nice? Yes, yes, it is growing larger, gumbo love that guarantee haunted same local and put it in a car young people who put on public law, dogmatic load, dogmatic report record or Metal Kyle pepper. Luckily, we could bring back put in a little bit of quasar. Squeeze are selected gamble, If you were white and wait three hundred pounds more and we're dead, you be dubious, Hobbes Smilin splitting em, it's a pauper downward living em, it's up or down arrow, take great to have you love? You love yon, cosmic worries course, let's do this galactic gumbo yeah. Of course you know we always
gleaner queries from all across the internet, no matter where we are found and in what incarnation. Always start with a patriarch patron because they, support us financially and very much like you elected officials. We too can be bought yet so just to be just to clarify. So so, We experiment on the show, yes in ways that would not otherwise be possible from just pure add revenue, because their things, would be risk either there. De as we have that sponsors they don't leave that other the work we do also do a few humanitarian things, and so so that that sort of front money that we get
the patriotic folk, atrium folks and end. We have a new new outlets, cod stock, I'll access for those. We also, you can find that I start up all access dot com, which is another revenue stream, and all these things help us grow. The star talk universe, trying to bring the universe down earth a girl, baby, guys or patriotic patron is allay Griffith. Says that we know where she from us from Oaken California, including also as Neil. This is Kendra fully that's where that's where Batman is from apparently Superman empty virtues, Batman, like Gotham City and with the other one less are across the bay from one another case was open and fair friend, so Wayne where it makes sense, because Wayne Industries, of course, like huge company, maybe a tech company, maybe a tech company. It was just before I tell you that's very close so kind. The collie as an open. California, Elaine.
Griffith is my nomes plume who's, the I dare one a view to seeing this out loud to the tune of sexy back, which is we're bringing quirky back without Adams. Don't know how to we got some hair drowns gonna make em smack we found are both are now who's the mare, through my now. Ok, civilian so those some hadron smack drawn smack, as was he said. So I guess what Elaine I did it for Nepal that went off. We got our boy in the studio for them and then here's what he wants to know from you. Never, why did on the matter and anti matter created by the Big Bang, cancel each other out, leaving nothing but energy that we took it for granted just living in this universe site, but it turns out that for every,
of matter in this universe. Ok, there are But when all the matter was created, it left over photons baggage. Let me say I differ with you at the beginning of the universe. There was his hot cauldron of matter, energy, moving back and forth between one another according to Eagles empty square for energy, for ass, the merest ok, I've had equation allows you under the conditions to freely transform one into the other nice. So just that the outer works. If you take energy, and converted into matter. You notice regular matter. You get equal amounts of matter and anti matter right. Unlike your data plan, with your phone carrier Minutes in your data plan did not transfer back and forth
Is it secure a reference to the universe, as I have ever heard? Can you hear me now universe? Can you hear me now? Alright, I'm going to stop, but so so so the way that equation works. You take a pulse of energy, converted into matter. You get anti matter an equal amounts, equal and identical opposite amounts. Then I don't intimate her hang out four brief moments of time and they recombine. Pure energy again. So this this back and forth Rico irish, equal amounts of matter and anti matter. So as the universe cools and the energy isn't high enough to me particles out of it. We should be left with an entire universe of just energy. No matter at all right. Ok, because once the energy of the light and the photons the pulses of energy drop, below
energy necessary to make the lightest particle. There's no more particles to make you just a low energy? Photon right? That's all you got it you not! Even you can never aspire to become anything other than a photon. Oh, I shall sum up, not for others and other for other forms of energy. You can, I never go become matter the caste system and what a shame I didn't you go emotional about them for the best, somebody put em, both body. So here is what happened in the very early universe. There was an asymmetry, in the matter and energy. For every one. Hundred thousand particles, ok of Anti matter, want a eurozone that ETA mean that for every one hundred million Kennedy ACE one hundred million particles of anti matter
one hundred million and one particles of matter were made. Oh, what a tree in the early universe was broken. That little bit is tat, tiny and you, you wouldn't even noticed I little extra one until like in a dance, dance off you dance partner, start peeling off right. You take off this, everybody thinks they got a pair right and you just keep doing this until you level undue didn't break to in the middle of the party. You know guy come river right with nobody to mate with that one is left, and our universe is made of matter not anti matter and not pure energy, because of that war on asymmetry and we know what happened, we haven't every did he have when it happened in the early universe. We
no, why oh rice, it's just that one of the mysteries of the University of the universe sound cheap about this, but I courted a video series with a great courses company got the inexplicable universal explicable universe. How I know that, while as I have who s in Irian Jaya- and I didn't even give you that currently not give it to you- bought the author s right, I did my gosh. Thank you. What you know, that's how I do my homework, trees, the bees red and watch the video might, let me just get kneel and you d want to sound like a complete area right, exactly as I do my over it man. I guess you know, because very above six were telling me that in the inexplicable universe, one of the topics is this great asymmetry between matter and you how, in the universe- and I so tell you how we come to learn that that's the case, but I don't tell you why that's the guy because its export,
in that case the title supply couple exactly ever as opposed to the next sequel, which will be the totally explainable universe. Yes, that's what ever that's wrong. Videos are exactly that: every single Billy, that's worth wiki pages or for we call that know that eggs. Those areas that are moving joking That was an awesome a lane. What a way to get caught the show, because that's really good stuff, let some let's go to Gregory from bar wait a minute. That's drop since, after your best robbed, some western S, drop the West Tetanus ecstasy. I never heard of it I think it's worth stocks with I've been to their town. Really I've been there s drop drop in the south,
Victor located. Listen! This a destination is, I suppose, for somebody up, you're, not gonna hate on vast wrapped up in order to get it right with a meal. Its central Texas knows that might be central area Emile its grid from Backdrop Texas, I've been thinking about this for a while, and it's actually a part of a book that I'm writing. Okay, so you know when a glass breaks, because its sound hit a specific frequency because of that it's your last time, commercial old. Are you do old enough to remember that? I dont know who the who the product was, but I just remember they would put a speed you're next to a glass, and we like we're gonna see of benefits through can break this glass and only reason. I remember because elephants Euro was a friend of my Grandmother'S- owe her. I should we like, and then a glass will start to vibrate and shattered. So what happens? Is you can break glass with frequency of sound. That goes through. It
You can just smashed the glass layer that would not be the only way to break a glass. The way the question was poseurs. This is how you break glass right. You can just step on it and I get AIDS is break, it answer would happen in any jewish wedding. They were exactly just step on it and muzzle, and now now you life is really so, but he says this: what, if the strings and string theory making up the universal vibrating at a specific frequency, and that frequency is what determines the laws of physics in the universe? Maybe each universe making up the multiverse has its own unique frequency, and that could be the key to travelling to another universe. He has made many assumptions in this. It's good. I love like it. It's good cool! Now. Let me first preference by saying I dont claim string theory, as my centre centre, expertise. Ok
oh, so I'll go as far as I can in responding to that question, raised of all the vibrations of the strings string theory, they are what is the manifestation of the universe. We know Britain. One way you get an electron vibrator another way you get a particular species of cork can't. It wait another way you get. So all these vibrations come together in this symphony. We call our universe. What I do not know is whether the vibrations of the strings are also implicated in the laws of physics themselves. Ok, I just don't know right. We had to bring somebody and for that slut. They are, I think, it's a brilliant premise: I presented writing a book. I submitted science fiction book. They would have to be area you say, no disorders, no disrespect agreed by large aircraft and I think, a great and fertile idea. What you might do is,
We need to you're going to some vibration, room right, let's say okay and it would have control over the vibrations of your strings. In such a way that you would create a difference many vibrations that are vibrations of another universe, ice and because in the multi first of the universe, have slightly different laws of physics. We expect that to happen quantum physics, a clues us into how and why that should be the case right. So if you needed away tat sort of get somewhere, maybe give yourself a new vibration goodbye it was about to say right, yeah. That's great, hey, Gregg, great grow, you mixing to saunter now you're mixing goodbye braces, throwing stones
No, no. That was working on its voice, albeit with a huge chunk of the marking, call that's what I'm saying: you're the Boss Bracy Good Barbara! Isn't it isn't a call good vibration? Yes, you're right, it is totally forgot about that. Some giant a year where those other songs call good vibrations, I think the be peace. Boys was good vibrations as well. Get vibrate SAM, I'm pretty on more than one song in the universe, and they go look good vibration. So so, because, if you just do your transporter room would be a place where they they differently vibrated. The strings in different ways in different way, while so taken and run with it. Go ahead matters to the premier of the movie, get good luck with the book and dry. We want to be at the premier, the movie supercool, let's move on to DAWN the Dave DAWN of day from Instagram just gives
that he doesn't give us words from or anything like that from Instagram from Instagram Murray If you can post should ever photo right was their photos has today? Is them there's, I'm sure there was, but we probably just hit the taps. Tax. Ok dawn of the Dave says, if site and I'm gonna change this too? If you I'm gonna personalized, this had access to one hundred percent of the world's computing power. What would you like to focus on so every every possible a bit okay. So let's go going to be pointed at this one thing. So, let's like it to be, let's, let's go back to our communities, who said upon understanding How leavers work, give me a place to stand, and I can watch from there
no archimedes, others framers, I dont know he's global places there. I could watch tv I like to watch the fact that we replace the stand, and I can move the world who I like that at that point. It is most famous quote. I didn't know that Gimme a place to stand UK I could the world right, and so So ok and in the era of classical physics, it was imagined that if you knew Erik the cause of his nineteenth century classical music, if you knew the position and momentum of every particle in the universe. In this moment you will future history of the universe that follows LAO Ok. Now I gotta tell you lost me on that, because, ok, just by knowing every position of every particle,
in the universe all because then you would know the movement of every particle from that point by point and from that point, so you will be able to ok, never get excited, because you could see the lifestyle just off. Ok, here's what happens with doctors had a mental orgasm. Just like I did write and was great, it was like opera client. Is that my hands? It's like you gotta go ahead, so so because, if you know that moment, then you know that next moment eight and then the all party, interact with one another exactly in the next moment. So then there's nothing unknown flight future the universe. So so every single moment from that point- for what is no only known, as you know, exactly correct in principle, this is what was proposed and this is not, different from let's say you have a
Table and the balls are all in motion in a given instant right and then you can say I will now predict for the future. What balls will go in my pocket and what not right- and that did it, because at that point, if all the balls are in motion, it's a matter of simple geometry: correct physics, the idea of its us above all, right in and so the interest, sing about that. Is you each ball? another born in that case not gravitationally, but I hit you, you could hit two other board so that will you go in right, and so that's it. The idea right so and then you would You take into account transfer of energy momentum and all these things, but you know them all, so it doesn't make different exactly exactly so. What what do is try to compute this you load up.
The position and momentum of every particle in the universe into this supercomputer and then be able to predict all future movement of everything in the universe. Here's the problem that we learn to the nineteen twenty so tat, this little thing called Quantum right where the universe in the quantum is not deterministic right, it is probable, mystic right selling, doesn't respond? The way it would in the physical living in the end, what determinism universe, so it puts a random element to prevent that you from knowing with certainty what tomorrow, we'll be just for knowing about today right here even though the known is known, the unknown is always unknown, no decline in the quarter, move very nice, and so, but nonetheless, I would go through that exercise and resurrect this old notion that
so that would be the universe without Quantum Physics sweet. So so, if I were to programme a universe in my computer right, I thought I would programme and our lies out the quantum free. Verse, for which I All the future history. We got take a break us this is starting cosmic, where in lad. Did but right now I will see you in a moment, comes before you I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one. And where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and sub. Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen? The star talk ad free, you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never
we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me sing if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying: We back star talk cosmic queries, additional near the grass placing your personal astrophysicist Chuck NICE Neil used a tweeting chuck nice comic at nice comic. Thank you, sir. That is correct and I like it anytime, something happens in the world. I go to your twitter stream and you're on top of it in some way or another, somewhat yeah like two party politics or so Missus Sutton Stupid, like getting a little low dig in there. Now take it in like to dig in there just civil bit may. If they follow you just follow. You do now follow many people to know. I know I know it. I'd find out
I always know when you talk about me ever on Twitter, because my twitter goes crazy, crimson, like what the hell what's going on out there. You, like you, you mention, you said something like Chuck Learning Astrophysics every day. I might just turn the reigns over to a non dislike. Now, don't like cosmic queries less jumped back into where we got up like a lot. The latter gunboats Redruth her dark matter in a dreadful low donor. Don't matter wonder, but I believe that, in order to do that is by Mr Wolf face book work and as she is, a writing on her facebook account from Chino Valley, Arizona, right, Melissa says this
Arizona, it has to the most famous holes in the in the world. Ok, with is the low turnout at the Grand Canyon. Ok that's the whole in and around look at that, more of a ditch than as a whole, but ok, ok, fine, fine and, and it's got the meteor crater low also known as Berringer creator, and as that the crater mass extinction level event. Creator is that is that that one or is that's what you would say if you are aware that hit heads Mccrae her much like whatever you do, an air you you'd gone, it's a mile were almost a mile wide and it can sink
story, building from its bottom to the top, is the best preserved crater in the world. So now here's what I want to ask you and we have any less know we're gonna get to your question was, as I heard you from our own. I gotta put it put our own now to come on a mandatory brought up this crater its mile, wide, which I mean that's Julia, my widely among our impact in just four incredible. We know, however, Now I gotta ask you: this is just a weekly was not the one that took out the dinosaurs right, I'm just like this anymore, potatoes right! This is right down compared to that was the size of Manhattan or some Kronos Eyes, a Mount Everest side of Mount Everest. That's what it s, mind, boggling, but let it so damn crater this! This meteor here ground right. Ok, now. Here's where I want to know what, if it hit the ocean
instead of the ground, that same impact, ok, sir, it turns out if an asteroid is big enough right. It don't matter ground dishes dead matter, so MAX offered in the following way. Suppose ashtray is ten miles across ok, ok! Well, let is somewhere that is larger than the depths of the oceans, true so it'll just villages Bradley one up. Drop in a brick into a puddle into upon exactly they drop in a brick and applaud exactly make it difficult to make you gonna hit the ground and you re actually create great tsunamis. Yes, there will be biggest problem. Is an army will actually be refreshing to be after that? Follow is gods of climate change and all that would unfollow. Ok, unfold, ok, cool, but yet, but it is true
on the ground. It would make it if a small enough one that one was the size of this sphere, the row centre for earth and space. Ok, you can measure that up in an figure that out next, I need computer, any computer Mt Everest like oh yeah, oh yeah, there's a shooting area there, so so so there one. If it had the ocean but believe would not have reached the bottom of the ocean egg ocean really deep, rightly, were the titanic sank as likes miles deep but all the energy. We think it deposited into the oceans that you get a tsunami that would come in very far in inland gotcha Aren't so Melissa Router taken up the coastal caveman swept the track the shipping lanes dear trod, I do believe we're going to lose your breach. These from property trot thought my friend. Do you have any property isn't beats front? This was
Fifty thousand years ago we were, we was totally in caves by my goodness. Sellers rob women by the hair and let's get the hell out of laws to be strong problem. Here we go again, look gets her question. It gets Melissa. Why didn T Mcgowan wayward so after I have to boast of something I got. What do I proudest moments? Writing was I I wanted to come. With a female caveman name because all the names we have our male rightly draws a drug thought authorities are there's a guy named. Can you think of a female amen? Norma, Wilma, Wilma, decided. It is very, very let's cheating, so so here's what happened. The reason why did it
for one of my books, a q and a book Merlin towards the universe somebody asked. We always invented at it. We have idea when very but we don't know who right so I won. To invent a convict. It would have had between the people who might have invented it. So I want to be all pc about it, so I said it was invented by man and a woman at the same time, but the K people said he to the name tat each of them What am I going to name them? I don't know so. Then I remembered the word truckload I'd right and I see and I'd forgotten what it meant. So what the dictionary lookup Trotwood ideas, came to our right. Oh ok, that's why we're popped into my head deep down. I had some memory, but there's the Dodd. That's Perhaps the syllables of the word in a dictionary k, truck o diet, loud guide, you
it was our like of its female till. I said it was a trod couple, Albania. The cable, uncouple truck and low dates and Lodi invented the wheel right was, you know low day was tellin. Try. He was everything wrong. You know it a low, dicey track. Who noticed how to make real progress late in token English right, because there's no, how whenever it does whenever we don't know what people didn't it's gotta be broken: English, broken English just broke in Zaire and then yet Prague. Just like woman off my back so wow. That's pretty cool Lodi I know that I am very proud of that. My my contribution to literature. Low died in the cave. The cave dwelling couple like it that that's pretty cool,
Melissa here we go Melissa, wants to know this coming to us from Chino Value, Arizona, hey meal and we're going to lose his quarterly. Finally, hey nail a curious about your thoughts on somewhat combining. Creationism with the Big bang although I am agnostic, I was right. Is catholic and I always one why no one seems to consider that a possible higher power is behind the big bang and consequently, dark matter so do you have any thoughts on that I made from a scientific standpoint. You cannot speak to this because you speaking about you know the fact of a create or some higher power creating this weekend wow, so good, but let me be clear: ok, this if there's a higher power there
did anything in the universe. There's no reason why that should be beyond the ability of science to determine that all. Ok, I just so If you do science properly you're, not precluding any one explanation relative to another. If you're on the frontier discovery right, so I'm not going to say is no higher power there, and let me Something else give our power is there and it manifest. The then might miss. Since all find it may be the first the report. It get guy I'll, be right there at the front of the press conference, so just make clear the the and what's There's a depressing. It is more going on that she may even no okay, ok after Einstein advance the general theory of relativity and nineteen. Sixteen it Oh my gosh, the the universe is gravity and it shapes the universe in this way and then in
ten. Twenty nine hobbled discovered tat. The universe is expanding. You take relativity, and the data the universe, is expanding and a clever physicists. Named George limit the matter you can use a belgian physicist looked at any said, wait a minute. If we expect doing, and I have this new tool theoretical tool to understand the whole universe. Let's go back in time and ask what would the universe have been? Yes, they compare today. We ve been smaller right, let's go even smaller and smaller you can always ass. We go way back Get down to it, since their pluck, singular point, beginning of things right. This person is a belgian priest. Ah nor day priest, he must have drank some good beer or belgian beer, I dont know that this beer in the church are things all wine. Ok, it's the it's. The body out of Jesus, not the body and beer of Jesus strictly regulated at was the body
here. Jesus is that of an hanging out, you'd Padre, so so people media. We said. Oh, my gosh, you have found proof of a biblical crew. Mission? Really they said this to him and he a bill, priest, came back in their face and said, No because the Bible says the universe was created in six days, Bible says earth was cut it had before the sun does going on. In genesis that is scientifically untenable right, but now you want to just a little bit. There's a guy created it and say all therefore proves the Bible when nothing else that follows it right as any anchored in observational science right he was he was. He was smart enough to know at this point, if you're smart enough, he was sense, Well enough to know that this should now be invoked as evident.
For God, creating genesis. As described in in in the jewish Bible than in the old testament assessment. So nothing else works there right, ok, nothing, nothing! Right! Ok, earth is in the middle of things. Everything revolves around the earth earth is flat, the the so this goes on and on and on so he knew The Bible about sites do not make that connection gadget. So now, so so, by the way a higher power could be God or It could be some intelligent, alien and its basement programming our universe for its own entertainment, that would be a higher power. If you think, That would be a higher power. Yes, guys really got map. That's the guy had a look. I do that. You pay him right, not apparent basement defends its the alien version, yellow temporary, face ale
Betty s is after what you just did, then I wonder if we are of simulation right programme by our power, maybe they bored every now and then and they throw something to just mess with throw in itself. In a mix of glittering made little collection a matrix right. You know they throw down disarray. Their politicians nor world WAR were explained so much good. What completely explain it? God he's going along just fine and tranquil, and I say that to that question. Is we don't know what happened before the Big Bang and we also don't know it dark matter is nor dark energy right. If you- and I have said this before- I get to listen to my words very carefully. If you want, if your understanding of God don't know what happened before the Big Bang and we also
No, it dark matter is nor dark energy right. If you- and I have said this before- I can listen to my words very carefully If you want, if you understanding of God right flow through places where science has yet to tread right, because these are frontiers right before the big bang. If that's your concept of God right then history. This exercise shows us that God then be an ever receding, pocket of scientific ignorance. Of course, the Democrat, It makes sense, because you're saying All these other things are provable. Unknowable as we know these other things at one time in the past they weren't areas can rest areas. So now that we know these are provable unknowable and why they happened there they add this phenomenon. Phenomena are actually explainable right,
then you're, plural phenomenon, reset your plural phenomenon, phenomena very good deed, like that of the like that, I actually corrected myself at a very good outside. Thank you checking out at the school so and then you say well, but what I dont know here. I just stay that this is God doing this. Then our knowledge are bubble, knowledge expands, it encompasses that event event is no longer now attributed to God? That of it? Also now provable unknowable and then that now cannot be taught philosophers call this, the God of the gaps. Cop philosopher told the God of the Gatt. Out of the Gatt strikes or in other words watch wherever you're understanding fail to you fill it with God and we got on care and by the way this is this. Is this is a long tradition to do so? We need- and it is a relatively new road tunnels, equation of gravity and described earth in the moon. The sun and the earth Jupiter and its moons, we would later learned it took so, but how
and described the whole solar system all happening all at once. I ever tugging on everybody in all directions and all different, and he tried to calculate this source. Was unstable, stable and planets would fly apart. Every time you came around the back stretch Mars, turn on you a little bit right come around the next time. Where's your talk any more before you know it. Dear dear out, you're out the door we outright and cakes you in the carpet. Belcour is called so so so he said well clearly. I know my equations work with a one on one situation with the whole system made God steps in every now and then just to fix it interacts. They incorrect thinks rightly says this site and in his these eighteen sent in the seventeenth century lingo he says just that, and so that's, basically, God of the gaps Ptolemy. Who put? Fourthly, geocentric universe? Okay, this, two thousand years ago has a low, but a god of the gaps in him. He looked up. People say
and understand the planet's going forward and it true grade on back, and he says you when I trace it. My pleasure windings to and fro the heavenly bodies, I no longer touch earth with my feet. Stand in the presence of Zeus himself and take my fill of ambrosia wow. Yeah and he did a poetical and that's a god of the gaps in the most anti Zeus's Zeus's. Is God Ruth? Hang him with them right! That's that's! I explained this. That's how I got a super cool see. My god of the gap is forty percent off and it's not labour day. Ok, honey, it's ok! We got it that's a good break will be back to startle cosmic. Where moment.
We're back. I'd, start off cosmic queries addition specially topic the lad did let me sum gumbo. Twenty ingredients in number also gets done ray. I gotta tell Ya Yvonne Gun yea I do not say her name in vain, Yvonne Gagne, Yea woman, who grew up in a friend's quarters. So I mean when you talk about gumbo, you never had gumbo until you have had of arms gone yeas gamble. Oh my goodness, give me the address I'll, be there. Let me tell you man next time you in Philly, I might have to make yourself: ok, don't work! What we should do is tell her about the galactic gumbo show right and then
however rename somebody ingredients to because we can green internally and special, especial special drive to go there and eat it, and we are glad to go. She ate it goes there. It is limited to add, never acted, gumbo never had anything like it. Never ok! So I dated Yvonne's daughter for some time now. The story comes out. Ok, so I'm sure she is very happy that I have moved all with my life, but I would this money from their data. This I've never had done like that in almost married, her daughter just so I could that gum, but yes, so what She stopped visiting you in prison who happen so let the gumbo, let's get into this Kelly, deem from Facebook and Kelly says this spaces expanding since the big big bang
You see a galaxy five billion light years away with that Galaxy not have been closer five billion years ago and thus taken less light time to reach us in the first place, signed the Kelly paradox: her ample handled a Kelly Patrick. I like this, I've always loved. The word paradox. The good work is it's. It's. At rhythm and soul It almost sounds like what it is coins which cool about it paradox I would be onawandah poetic that went when implementing paradox, hurry what we have to say that just drift off to into ignorance exactly Herod IRA? So so let me recast her question to meaning
actually the same thing but give it all the more signs anchored to it. Okay, We see that Galaxy five in light years away where It was. When the sizes of the universe was such that they would take it's like five billion years to reach us gotcha. Ok, now that right now, as it still expanded, as has been extended. It has been expanding since the five billion years ago. There is the rub: there's the rub. That's the row over the so worth about! Fourteen billion years. Also, fourteen minus five carry the two now you know how to carry the terrain and any earthmen secretary. So so it means the universe has been expanding for nine billion years. So it emitted a light right to reach us right, so It is much farther away from us now into this instant that it was
at the time it centres that line correct, sir, when we speak of so I and my colleagues will but sloppy, we're precise, but sloppy you how big is the universe, has a thirteen billion light years across right? Ok! Well, right at this moment is much larger than that is four or five times larger than that, because it grown, says again, ok because we're measuring the light that we see at that time that time, and so so you have to put it in a model figure out how much farther would have gone, and that gives you the number When I say he was thirteen billion years, these are observable quantities, come out of a model that you'd project into the present. The things that are far away, but the way like thinking about it is five billion my ears at very far away? That's going to do sixty five million. That's like really close, very costly, filleted compared it
sixty five million light years away, so that galaxy. If they looked at us, what do they see So a sixty five million way were four point: five billion six just I'm trying to what was going on on earth this here this in this in, in art, with what's the name of it, aids, but their scientists gettin wiped out. Yes, let me just that. It's gotta be science. You forget the name of the actual age, but what they're saying is getting whiter than White Atticus Atticus. Look there tell us go and they go all right. Look what just happened. Work which has happened so they seem the asteroid hit earth can render seventy percent of the world's species extinct. It's just a bring their now right. Meanwhile, we are sixty five million years in the future of that information, exactly larger universe and
in there and in the future so that its fun way think about it. We had super duper, telescopes, see the past of other places, the super cool Oh, hey! Look at that Kelly deem great question Nelly the paradox repaired to the paradox Clearly we are there's a wine called paradox. I did not know that except they spelled differently well p. I r o F, Where do you see chaos? Air ducks paradoxical that started like two dogs on the labels, very good packs, Herod actions which is really cool the California one. So who would go, there's not a sponsor of the show exactly what would become of words will come for you pair debts, This term hide from Facebook,
Tom says, I've always wondered how the universe expanded faster than the speed of light faster than the speed of light during the big bang. When the universe is full of matter and matter can't move faster than this. Of light, please saying this to me as if I was for these four, I put that last but not least where it if it was, please explain it to me as if I was for, because I am for right. If you ask that question, age for that I mentioned before it's a college, you, I will not begin you a baby talk answer, as rightly four years old, ass tat, but he says please explain to me as if I was four- and this is somewhat related to Kelly's last question just a little bit. We talk about the expansion, the universe, and how do you go in the early universe? You, the expansion rate? more rapid than it is today. The expansion rate.
Moment is slowing down, but he's got to speed up again later because of the influence of dark energy. Dark energy. But that's a separate phenomenon going on so in the early universe. You are absolutely right. We expanded faster than light, but that does not violate them you can't move faster than light rule and other sounds paradoxically Herod, So here's what's goin on. The speed of light limit comes about from Iceland special theory of relativity, which describes the movement of objects through the fabric of space and time. Exactly whereas general relativity describes the stretching of your fabric of space and time, not specifically things moving through it right. So the early universe. It is the fabric of the universe that stretching itself itself and it's not something travelling through that. So it's the rubber sheet model, correct,
but you have a just ass. She and all the galaxies are embedded in area and its sheet is exaggerated is moving, but you are not moving information through space right faster than speed of light, but if you're expanding the fabric you can expand and on emitted speed relative to the speed of why I so it really is like like a rubber band, if you, if you and I were pulling the rubber band right now, we could pull slowly we could pull as fast as we want really fast does make a difference right, but if we have something sitting when that rubber been a rubber band is stuck on. However, if the ant moving in the rubber band its limited exactly it's right jack, we have a well all waiting around. Ok, lightning. Rather, where I answer questions as a sickly with soundbites day, you always fail, but I'll, let's try cares. We start your money. We can fit into the last three minutes of the show. I write a ready. Go Matthew calls from but once it others, big bang causes outward expansion. Do we know with which direction the origin or centre is? Yes, we do is in every direction
next I was not so it expands in every direction and we are part of that expansion. So you cannot look back to any correction in space and say that's where the big bang happen any more than you. B, on the surface of an expanding balloon and poor it's a long servers and say there is the center of the expansion of the synergy, mention is backwards, time at a point where the whole balloon was in that one spot the same place at the same time, Thomas J, nurse from Twitter says: why do so? Many people imagine alien life as little green men. What or, who created this strange image of aliens because they will be met with feet and torso and arms and head because you have to pay an actor to wear that constitute before cd audit of reanimate thing was either stop motion capture or had an actor in it.
I think if we were not so limited in the early creativity, specially of the Bee movie right, I fired from the fifties. Maybe they would have been earlier in the more creative kind of kind of alien and that's what doubts that the gene I have seen the movie alien where that creature wasn't so I wish, nor as a little green man, was a little green man. Nor was the blob in the nineteen fifty eight Steve Mcqueen, classic the blog by the way very inventive, reinvented those invertebrate alien. Exactly what was it was a blog max go. I write. Pepsi rules wants to know this. How many licks does it can take to get to the centre of a Tutsi pop meal? While you know when I was a kid, I tried all these things, that
I do not know for it. How old is this person is not even an add any more heavily licks. Does it take to get so? I realized that the complete, depending on how wet your tongue. That's, because if your tumblr drive it would take essentially forever right. So there is no one answer to that question and I learned this as it as it is like a twelve year old kid I says: you're the research, not all questions have you big answers? Some have multiple answers and get over that fact Yes, I should be thousands it could be.
Three, like dogs, labourer, ok, ok, I gotta get to more and that this is technically. Who wants to know this? We call the area between planets. Is solar system space? So what should we call? The area between universes question tat question. So, if empty space, is where you find nothing. We would later learned that it's a seething cauldron of what we call virtual, because we learned some quantum physics, AIDS and other show, but that's for the moment call it empty right where you find nothing well, if thing is where you find the space between things, no thing right get out get on which it which you hang on hang on language. Where there is no thing there is a thing, ok, fine, but if there is not even nothing right, then
you are in a higher dimensional place an hour Capillary cannot really accommodate that beyond. Just saying it is the absence of nothing. We might then call it nothing nothing. So the answer tat is Detroit, You are listening to start talk, radio stated more of them. Background start or Jack Neil bring me the questions rise. This is office, our office hours so means it would come from anywhere anywhere anything anything less jump into anywhere. In any thing here is a wolf primal. Six from Instagram. Ok, have you noticed? People had been spoken, the names fanatically
you and I appreciate that Robin take out, take to help wherever I get it again. I am not proud right we'll promo six instagram say, is cloning exam particles and sells might be the only chance. We have a teleportation. So if we thought it was an ethical them, would we stop cloning and therefore never figure? I'll teleportation. There is an assumption there that cloning cells is is the way to teleport, interesting, okay. So a couple of things as far as we know every atom of a particular kind is identical to every other atom of a particular kind. He so you don't actually have to move your atoms to another location? Just get the recipe right right, alright, so grandma's cupcakes she's she doesn't make. Cakes for everyone in the universe to have her. She makes the recipe
right down the recipe. Now you re producer, cupcakes right, If I know exactly how all the items of your body are configured what those atoms are: imprints, well, I can reconstruct you what we don't understand yet. Well enough is the mind and what is it about your mind, that you would have to reconstruct too have the memories that you have the life that you have that could have your identity. Because by the way in society we do have clones, we already have clones we should have closed, will be ethical. We have clones already. The call twins and twins are we taking one twin away in harvesting their organs for the other twin know with what, with pretty sensible about thing, but I think I do with my twin, which you say and address, live, not notice, liver ain't, gonna, rigour, lever, delivered the liver and kidneys. So as to what, because
it's a clone of yours. It meets its drink into view, useless close, so so I survival know that the species cloning will ultimately become all the people. Fear it to be I just don't see that, based on the knowledge that we have already having closed today, there is a danger that if you stop cloning pre existing life. Then you will lose the biodiversity that assures the survival of the species lout, okay, so that a group episode of STAR Trek by the way where they to a planet and the whole planet is made of cloned. What happens, though, is through the replication they start to see. Degradation overlong at a time, and so this degradation that are perfect loans than that proposed anymore, like oh, my god, we're now having clones that are not what they should be. As a result. We have to reach
introduce good fashion, horizontal mom, to get some biodiversity and that becomes like the whole issue of horizontal mumbo at so the people at, but think that's an historic ha ha ha ha ha. I think I might agent earth term for procreation, horizontal mumbo dang tanker down, but the people are repulsed by the idea because the cloning is so pure and so high level interesting this that episode, it's a pretty cool thing itself from the original torture. We I believe this is a door. I think this is when the next generation, as extreme said next Jen Episode, yet so there's the ethics there's whether it will happen and Think. Ideally you just know exactly what the recipe is for an individual created. Other place. Here's the thing you gotta remember too,
is identical to one another, but have different consciousness right. So one twin is not thinking it is the other, even though the molecules are identical, so that their different fingerprints, because it happened later in the womb. So that's an interesting fact: twins identical, except for similar, bring imprint site. So that's what you're my dental twinge, of course, not yet not internal words worry so wrong. That word from Burma. Ok added that the two two ladys in the womb. Exactly sorrel twins were so we don't understand why I wake up, as and you wake up as you every day right. We just don't under am I right if we did maybe we'd be able to clone that, but then you'd have two of you and you'd have us simultaneous shared conscious that become interesting. That would do that
I don't think we need to meet with a simultaneous here consciousness at its ashore. That's very cold there Let's move on to to me one. It would be like in the lab to be doing the dishes and other be seeing the movie I've been missing. They emerged just overnight when they would all of you when you go to sleep, you also your stance. It experiences. It's a sinking program that secret synchronizes up the consciousnesses now that I could deal with that because it is then you could experience so much more incisive, there's a size friction movie where people share dreams. I forgot which one was, I forgot the name and not the. Inception now. That was what you went into the dream dead went into her indeed into somebody else's right, and that became the reality was one where might have an epoch. A tv series, but we'll get correcting the researchers directive dig it up. There you go. I hears lamas pc, I think,
it cannot possibly dick islamist, peaceful lamb is p soup. Lab he's from Instagram says this very, very succinct question where all the anti matter. What rats hey. I wish I knew next, let's have acted as a friend and colleague of mine, J Richard got the third. Who wrote a research paper in the nineteen seventies. Hypothesized we're all the anti matter went interesting, I did not read them Mr Paper oddly like, and what was his hypothesis suggested that at this point we had, this asymmetry between matter and antimatter in our early universe that there was a the phrasing some of what he says, the details.
Little Cruz forty years ago, but at some point All the anti matter funneled this universe created. Another universe within anti matter matter imbalance that the inverse of our matter anti matter. Imbalance is beautiful. Really due to varying elegant elegant, is we think so What can things where they're, not their true elegant? and and the universe just does a great comment I take but was it Aldous Huxley or when it before first, it was great tragedy of science, a beautiful theory, slain by an ugly fact pollute love, so it say: can concept that thirds that there's still balance in the met averse right because this imbalance is kind of distant, its disturbing yet
in the greater scheme of things so, but there's no evidence for this other universe. Okay, I write J Lauren. Seventy four from Instagram says: there's, I believe in an earlier episode, Neil said that the shape of the universe is a saddle shape. Is that right? If not, please what shape is it I can't imagine it not being a spear, yeah so where flat if I said saddle their differ, shapes it can be be consistent with Einstein's equations, one of them is sort of spherical, neither is sort of flat and one is saddle shapes some one is passed We curved one zero curvature. One is negative curvature and So when you add up the dark energy and the dark matter.
And the matter and the energy at all up, universes flat loud, So there you have it yeah yeah. So it's interesting. So if one of them had had a greater value than the other then we would have one of these other shapes and what's the difference in a early universe parallel lines always meet. In a flat universe, which, as we learned about flatness in geometry, class, parallel lines, you know they, will they meet at infinity? I swiped the phrase but basically never mean Avonlea and in a negatively curve universe. Paralyse diverge right, three completely legitimate, the army, trees and Euclid was a flat universe and the others that are not Euclid. You know we call them now
A new clearly and I hate caused something reference to what has not yet that's a little disappointed that arise in item. I wanted Freddy's universes, who ready came up with it where a lot, but I don't like on retouched and Rita the that meant. You didn't do anything to it. I exaggerate has ever words you haven't where it's just its nonfiction, I want to invent a new I'm called faction we'll do that were set out. We faction I write nonfiction right. I don't want my stuff referencing. What isn't somebody what somebody else did right now. I am doing now play tat. Sweet. Ok, I think we have ever had my boy. Ok one more in here. This is b, S p at Instagram says this: could the gas giants still be forming planets or a planet
an information at the moment they may, I think, you're right as otherwise it doesn't make any sense cause. Jupiter is a gas giant, does a gas jail and it's not a star, so it right. So I guess it me a planet information, so Jupiter radiates more energy than it receives from the sun. Oh, so you are cholera star under those It gives us more energy than ever sees every year so but Jim Only we define stars is having a source of thermonuclear fusion in their court check. You can emit energy if your slowly collapsing that you get hotter. If you do that, if you just slowly collapsing and or if heavier things are dropping to the centre is lighter thing. Rise to the surface. These phenomena. It turns out we'll heap. Will you will heat from this turned out, but gas clouds that make gashes planets. You know. Out of the starting box, whether they're gonna be stars. This is not,
something that happen? I was up ray wanna be a boy one. I we might strings attached, the mass. Is I'm Take you there or it is not gotcha. There is never land, which is the what we call Brown worse transitional we say transitional, but we don't mean it in the way. You might think have massive a slight jupiter. You have. Low Mass stars thing in the middle that we call browned worse right there, not transitional and that are not evolving from one to another. Just occupy this middle zone, that's tween! What a planet is and what a star is in their fate. Stars farce, were super there. For achieving planets failed stars. What have you wanna call, but we have a term for the call browned worse on dwarfs sweet right. You got it Jack
in so doing is always applies. Always there listen. Nor was there from also have to be well. You know you're gigs. I just do them honest. We are you're being squeezed that you now to me. I got my lost that he's a man, but every time they come com them like you'd, know who my woman a woman started. This has really start talking. You ve been listening or watching cosmic queries. Hours addition, and, as always I did I keep wish you could listen to startalk Commercial Free joint start compatriots for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot coms last star talk radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-20.