Gorillas, bonobos, monkeys, and more – Neil deGrasse Tyson, comic co-host Chuck Nice, and primatologist Natalia Reagan answer fan-submitted questions about primatology. Now extended with Cosmic Queries about cloning featuring Natalia, Chuck, and biological anthropologist Ryan Raaum.NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free here: https://www.startalkradio.net/all-access/extended-classic-cosmic-queries-primatology/Photo Credit: Natalia Reagan
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip? The commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial, free, welcome to start on your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide. Dartle begin right now start out on your host near the grass tasting your personal astrophysicist and today's cosmic queries, prime
in addition, and we ve got an anthropologist who specializes in primate behaviour right in studio with us, we're Natalia Reagan area Natalia, should you like your brand new one of our start on all stars and very exciting? Welcome to the club check nice, a good to have used my co host, of course, sardonic Ninths Don T shirt. Indeed, very nice Mary, and lately you you're, you're you're. Your hosts of playing with science has crept down a new spin off of start officer, tied aid. You know why we support this all too I'll. Tell you why? Because we did start talking all manner of topics and some of them would be sports and sports ones had their own. Following that's right and we said let this list to feed, it must feed those sports stars. Edam. That's right is to give all they want, and Gary O Reilly, who is a former footballers
yeah, yeah yeah. You got a brick footballer footballer. Has they sang, whereas my daughter causing feet ball people get. This will allow us in american sports, because people- and you know we we get into all manner of science as it relates to sports. It's really cool hand. I wanted to rename football has no, hardly any one puts their foot on. It is defined the area sedation. What would you call it normal armed gangs? Yes I'll catch, you run with run with its Arma, exactly thought this through. So there's a cosmic rays primate addition, so that I asked you you hung out with primates I have on human primates, we also human primates, human primates as well there. I tolerate that. I actually states better monkeys. I studied a critically endangered sub species, a spider monkey called these where Spider monkey in Panama. I did my main focus for conservation, so I actually was doing a census the same year that we had our senses and she doesn't tat. I was in Panama, counting spider, monkeys and find that these spider monkeys were cooperative and filling out their senses forms with, but we were not so they were very ornery. I had a chaste these guys down. They threw fruit at me. They better than other things they could for which everybody ass everybody ass today, their proof and I'm like. Why would they put in their hand and throat when all they have to do, is just gently position? Their bottom
right over your head and just that's what that's we called getting baptized whereat ties and premium payments are larger than its innocent women. Are you mean there they like appear? We have burnt that do that on your shoulder their you have monkeys, yeah yeah, I'm never going ass, you got your spiders and you have Halloran the fund funded. Funny thing is the diet you know whenever you eat affects what can whenever names out and need a lot of free siesta. We talked about how spider monkeys frugal wars, the that its are preferred. Food is fruit, Heller monkeys are full of oars, meaning that leaves and their poops tanks. I'm just telling you can smell of worthy fall of war, was, I mean they eat leaves fall of level were followed now and what, if they're from Brooklyn and they eat a lot o k? L Hipster war has an essay like descent hipster, nor on these leaves sharing our level bodies leaves recall critical area now, so we worked among them. Did you become one with them? I wish man they good all of spider among users. Funny thing is, I got I wish now. I know some great spider monkey researchers that would be politically should take that particular role by spider monkeys are called the chimpanzees of the new world, because their social behaviour is a lot like chimps. As far as they have been groups, an ace vision off into smaller groups and eyes version vision. Physics word collisions my duty to like them, and Susan was actually the fuse together and in a sleeping tree at the end of the night, and then they fish off to go and get a fine food elsewhere. I kind of like him still haven't they group and not go off in a smaller groups, and is it a true people don't want to believe this, but I think a true. I read it all
that's not that chimps and humans are more genetically. The chimps in humans are more genetically alike. either chimps are humans are genetically, he sent between ships in humans and as far as a geographical, I'm author Bracken time common ancestor between the common answers to we had with chimps and all the rest of the multilateral round? Does their mates retails doesn't
common ancestor between the common answers to we had with gems and all the rest of the monkey at him around. Does that my mates, retails doesn't monkeys and apparently some new world where no one knew of monkeys, and now those are the only ones by the way, all the great apes tempted the chimps like so arranged turns in all those does a great regulates. The great ape list who isn't apes is chimps, there's been no. Both of us is a ragged temperature. Does the sexy, ginger redheads in this out these day? Nowhere monetary learning? I want just little movie series of the re after exactly with which this phrase but Clint easily eastward war. That was which which way, but up but Lucy Language was suddenly beggar. So that's why we nor regular MAR we have one as President man, I wouldn't I I don't know, I think that's really giving orangutans about right. Now I mean he has the flanges cause. The male ranks. Have the flanges correct. I admit I only eyes it is early to wider cheek. Nowadays it actually are pads rate in areas like the big flanges flanges, hey Baby, MR faces the author face. You know what that comes from the Mama Urbanities goin such a good level in each of the three credit equally, or else you just like one giant weird flash or do we have the foolish outer down got so black shadows of the great apes, its humans, givens guerrillas, speeding, guerrillas, chimps, bonobos, right and then an end. The rings are the thieves
He's editors are and how about the lesser boomed, baboons or monkeys? Look at what I didn't tell, though, do while some I mean they have a little bit of a tale, not a minute you're stump tail macaques, which don't have tales, but they are Monthly Irma Counties where I certainly but are not part of the fear that South Africa here in beaten, surmount on the porch to great measured in the game park. I wouldn't turn around and come back Barbuda stole my bacon. What all my point for me not look, lady, waited for. You waited for me to not look as a monkey. Bessie, air, Smart, Erin, air, yeah, very crafty and eighty there's actually great footage. If you Google, it of us not to bring about taking down a flamingo, they actually will hunt and and kill it eat Fleming as in its legislation on days like shrimp because they eat them. They let us room from their set of color and there's the lesser apes. Oh by the way, I was throwing that's great apes and discriminate Mary Pierre. I now it's only remained in his eyes: Eads Gibbons, Gibbon, seven small gibbons and then also there see among which are part of that,
very little bit differently. The throat sack near extremely loud, so Heller Monkeys, which I was kind of, showing you that call before we started filming. Well, don't you share with you. Have now? Did you bloated so I set out to do it. I studied spider monkeys, but there also Heller Monkeys where I worked and how or our so they how? With the angle here, it's not so much about how it sounds more, like somebody clearing the throne the morning but very loud or how to call or how we call holler monkey. Sometimes they call back literature. Sometimes they don't, and I will go
Sally Eddie, Murphy Laugh and where it is so so does this make them morning her something? What would you have you checked a book on the sound now what you doing to them? Translation guy. The Google translates not that great right. No, it's it's that's how they wake up in the morning and others call up. One group now, like hey guys, we're here also to wake up, saying it's not just what they do in the mornings morning. Shell. So if you travel to Central America or South America, any area with Southern Mexico where they have Heller monkeys, oughta people hear them in the morning, like five a m, the link with startling. What is that, even if the Jaguar they think, they're like an attack? My number, you can certainly spring break slowly, aright good, MRS Little monkey making its loud and they have these great throats acts and there the fall of worse. So what they do is they let people or let people it lay? Let the other holler monkeys, no hey guys we're over here. Just just so. You know the kind of communicate that way social, I've ribbed quickly from wrong. We speak. We have the power to
create language because the genetic defect in whatever it is that which makes apes make sound? That's what Nevertheless, I do not know that I'm not out God. Why? What I am talking about me, I don't know, Cosette actually: genetic mutations or a single mutation, uncivil mutation, that NATO process separates us and allows us to speak right as its awesome that Israel allows us to communicate more complex ideas how to put it in a box and it'll have to know everything in order to move civilization forward. Absolutely stand on the shoulders of those who came before you that, while there has been looking at speech, if, if neanderthals actually were able to talk in a narrow at there's a great special where they actually I'm, they think that they might have been able to you, but it because of the way there, the vocal cords or the the duchess said morphology of their their throats was
They basically had this fairly page and very easily and very much MIKE Tyson. I don't want to get punch, so you see said it not me! That's why they, notably that happily didn't intimidate everybody, does its great I'm so glad we got together like this autumn girl of yours. I principles. It was with a little less as I personally Andrew at all that the answer to our questions on on this topic on protein on prime metalogy. We re from Facebook and other sources. Absolute bring IRAN. Ok, so here we go. Look for everyone does have an old colonel jack about you know.
Other than humans. Being apes ourselves right, you know more than the average bear. That's that's now! No more many bears that know a lot about primates, so maybe you think that was a good deal more than the average primate somebody. I checked. Let's start off with Jared Kellogg coming to us from Facebook insurances. This are primates still evolving by their findings that show human enter vintage, whether habitat change, food change, etc has changed how they interact with each other and with us nice. I will first of all everything still evolving: nothing. Nothing has stopped we're still evolving humans are and as far as monkeys and apes- yes, I mean in fact we talk about a rebuttal to await, or or or should I put it in- writing may now right now, so my rebuttal too that so so I read that there's all evolution is always aforesaid work, but that doesn't mean
species aiding and here's here's my point: you can. You can split a species strand both branches from one another. Now they can move independently. You come back in a million years, their different light. I get that boy, right now all humans all over the world Can make babies and therefore all making babies for then we are stranding anyone branch of ourselves and if we are making babies at all times Doesn't that ossify who and what we are
in the tree of life, because we have a coelacanth that hasn't changed for how long million failure millions of years and which arose out of figures changes they thought was, is extending by the way they do all fish. I wanted the museum of Natural history or, at any rate, a cabinet signal its. We see that, like the cartilaginous bony right remains. After somebody, I don't the eighty eight the flesh. My point is that you think of species asian when you, but when you isolate, branches, is how you get an exotic animals on in Australia. I guess we're in Australia, so we're not stranding ourselves. Unless we put a colony on Mars. Why would we think that one day, we're gonna be something different? Something we're gonna be something different interests and evolution does not necessarily mean are becoming a new species is just the way we are exchanging genes is causing you know, perhaps different medium. It's it's it's the GINO type
metamorphosis Sars is is is expressed in the phenotype. Sometimes differently in an end, as we are populations in them, as were becoming very globalized, world and and populations are mixing with other population that didn't in the past. You know we're going to see in our different expressions whether its ino in the way we look or the way we are going to have to do exactly what I know so becoming new species, and I'm not saying that chimps will become a new species as there was correct to them shot Josiana we're mess we're in you know, is Andy unawares. Spreading gap have nature, do they have to adapt yeah? Of course, of course I mean that's gonna, be the idea that sort of
doctor or die die out. You know it's ends and that's why we talked about briefly. I think last time was MAX, for instance, by storm, so that society there's a species of monkey called macaques which are really interesting because as far as a primate goes there them there. The second most widely distributed by me in the world's second to us humans and what we are able to do is eat anything there like humans, yearlings we're like human little to burn the brig, dividing lines being able to an end and facts. There was a really great study coming on and why you of Grad student Alec, Alex to Caisson, happens in her last name rank but and James I am, and another researcher basically sought found that what you eat is actually what is affecting brain size. It's not necessarily a primates, social skills, and so diet has a lot to do with not only those metaphor losing one, of course, when we started using fire and
and in roasting meat and then getting bigger sources of protein that caused our brain agenda larger. They not just me because if you think about it, brain sick, alot of calories to fund,
And so it's not just about eating protein, but also even eating. I carbohydrates like to be able to cook tubers and routes, and things like that to the actual ability to each eating things that are highly held recently been in front of you. An end to thrive anywhere like humans are amazing. I mean we can live in the Arctic in them survive on. I do and making more specialised your diet the morning or are in danger more susceptible. You are actually when it comes to interaction like with your environment, if safer, instant spider monkeys the ones that I study with deforestation, there's a lot of food available. So it's problematic, but he's got a whole foods. They can generate exactly at the farm blood. That's the thing is the farmers working hours that that happens, primates will actually forage on other people's on and on people's property and eat their food farms and ends, and farmers will get mad and will attack and kill them, because I see them as a threat to their livelihood worth their livelihood. Really weaker minute took over their turns, were odors cold very right now and it's you see with their own towns. In fact, dino farmers of colouring intends in the past because of of just them foraging for crops, because our Hungary, I mean you, would do it too. We gotta run. It turns like highly intelligent preachers. Oh yeah, I mean they're great, their great apes, so like us, and there there there really good at imitation so they'll see somebody like using a hammer nailing look over later on in theirs their Agnes sort of
you don't really necessarily hammering all living amateurs? Is I thought they were like you know, dial up like that, would do an impressive. Like your matters, much very little about tat. I would pay good money to see that so I went out and when I was a kid, I'm old enough to have seen planet of the apes in first first run. Theatres, ok, older! I do not see plenty apes again. Like forty years later. Right Oh my gosh, that's a deeper movie, dad, oh my gosh and in it with the best ending in the world in it the different. Lines primates have. roles in the society. Yes, so the rang a tangs. If I remember correctly, they were the diplomats to demand a big thinkers, big figures and the guerrillas. Worthy authorities are ok, I guess who with scientists? Were
the chimpanzees ones closest to the human you I didn't they, which is all eight when I saw the movie the planet, the apes, and so they actually did some some some specific and sums some divided in and split and is having an even in the most recent one. I remember watching and became
recent our planet here, the apes movies, yes, and they had the same sort of you note to the different groups of great apes, but I almost wish they could take it a step further and I know I'm just being a little to be appointed in and the particular way this happy well. That step would be because they have different social groups like raggedy Andy, don't usually live in social groups. They live. You know it's a single mom with her infants than a single die. They both are kind of like solitary but of course that doesn't make for very good movie if they're like where they rang attends what carver screenwriters we could possibly bilbil and what you have a variation of something you do something with your alone around a turn you talk to me, I must really body else. You must be called a Mig interrogatory God. It's him again care as another blue trouble or take a break. Will come back and will get a bunch more questions room on primates as the topic with our special dearest, Natalia Rig, anthropologist and primate expert, when we return
hello secret for you, When I consider singing all of the ads on this shell Just one way to get out a hearing there go to patriarch arms last started, talk and surf Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never I hear another commercial on star talk ever again, you will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at patriarch dot coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking. I mean just SAM We're back, I start talk Neil taste in here.
Sometimes with the grass and the grass greener digress is greener. Neil onto grass, nice always get areas, always Natalia Regan, critically, Regan Reagan, Natalia Reagan, countenance any answer to it. So you your answer politician, you ve worked in the field specializing in spider monkeys, but we soon we have some awesome modern knowledge of other members of the primate. Can I made world. He asked me universe, the primate averse, so what you have just as much a glorious? It's a closet! Query so when you know we have your questions here, less, let's get right into it. John Clemens wants to know. This is asking you specifically to tell you: do you have a favorite primate, oh gosh, I feel like I would be a total jerk if I didn't say, spider monkeys just because you studied, though, that really are obviously a couple questions on labour. Is that as a lame duck here we gotta we care that we can't let you off the hook. Just download you wrote papers are well actually spider. Monkeys are pretty. I think, fantasy, that here it is what distinguishes them too,
makes them high on your list from all the other appropriate. Well, ok, so I love the fact that the egg- and we talked about the frigate worthing- that they will be spent on easy, primarily fruit. The ones that I studied in Panama will so tenacious as far as the deforestation problem in Panama, it's bad and I saw spider monkeys groups living in what should be a corridor between two huge fragments living in just the corridor, so they were able to scrap the gathered a living, and by living I mean food and and still had infants. You know on their back and on their frightened unite that I want, and I to those are the different stages of infancy, and so they were still able to seek to make it in this really degree reorganise their civilization to still survive. Recited ward unions are doing yes, and they also so we're gonna cool working on nuclear weapons. Slider monkey with the codes- I would over good God Buzz and they haven't. They have the prehensile tales. Are they had to do? It can like
we have certainly that can grip painted actually prehensile and only new world monkeys by the way have that not all of them only a few do, but also I this is an interesting fact. Spider manufacturers are there. I think you'll, like it female spider monkeys, have the hypertrophy clytius older me right. One of those words you're the one. I will note the word it s always certainly don't. I certainly know where hypertrophy please. What is this other word you? So they get a map. We need a map. Well, so what is so? These are started: working, she's, a spider monkeys and female email, Spiderman ass. They have. It basically looks like almost an index finger for hanging down dangler pseudo penis and it looks like it. What would be the first May. I ever saw a female spider monkey. I thought all those are some male spider monkeys, in which I was told. No, no, no, not these were so wiper trophic means to bigger yeah. Well, it's extending from the body estimate. That said what is the purpose of of a cleaner so that angling Clarice, you know that's the thing is its there's, not theirs. There's different ideas of white that could be, but there's no actual exe.
did theory about why there is that much of the glittering one of them is that it makes it easy to identify females from far distance. Is it really does mean helps us researchers I know from if I have been occupiers, I see
the dangler somewhat. Does the male penis due to the male penis, actually intimidates actually not to some thought you shabby itself. I actually have seen some populations in the field and by the way, spider monkeys have very long population prepared to adopt, or yes, us, three hours, yes, document a monkey porn. Okay, now they have very long complex. They actually had a right of entry in the payment, illogical, encyclopedia, that's coming out on intromission pattern and popular torture, which is basically monkeys. Expositions road lay person, but I had to talk about how long spider monkeys will engage in its usually on the upwards of like twenty minutes, really how they can be very long time. I have to look at that that right there is a higher hyena pseudo penis. That's a female ends, a female, how you re the clearest and actually hyenas give birth through their clearest, and for those of you who do not have the benefit of store talk all access to come right. Now we are looking at a picture that is up on a scream is a female hyena who is just dating right now, she's pregnant she has a brute tropic. Clarissa literacy clears doubles the birth. Can I mean that when men say like all, I could never have a child, because I can t imagine you are giving better urethra meet the Hyena equipment that can't feel great. Maybe I yeah you're right. You know- maybe maybe I maybe like world Natures word for them to say. Ok, I gotta find us which has given some arguments to give you some arguments. Rigour we're looking Ivorian. Let's, let's go to.
Jus CO fund, none in Van and ok from Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. What's your guess, other primates in the trappist one system? That's too you need- and I think he just once these are trying to find a way to ask you about trappers one. That's the soda Trappist one is a star system. It has seven recently discovered earth like planets. three of which are orbiting in the Goldilocks zone, can where there's not too hot, not to call you can sustain liquid water. That's about all! We know right now. These planets do cross the front the surface of that course between us and our sidelined to the host star. He hears a cottage industry ready to blossom we're, The study, the ingredients of the atmosphere of these planets
by analyzing the light of the whole star as it passes through that atmosphere, and so the negotiators have oxygen is methane- is running the southern step. So so We don't know we can look at the surface yet, but we are in search of biomarkers against what we would do to answer that question. Take it seriously, as we would ask you in that area, is there any effect that primates have on their atmosphere so that when we study the chemical composition of the atmosphere, we can say it's got. I made that would be the question louts because if it as methane, for example, maybe there's a farming industry because methane as a by product of farm score. Mexicans aims is a primary ingredient of flash, or does it have termites there there's, you know, maybe it's not uniquely implicating them, but they
be suggestive of it. So from what you know, do primates have any special impact on their amateur now environment? Well, what they do at me. It's not so much, I think the atmosphere as far as they are bide so, for instance, be talked about that are monkeys, eating fruit or other monkeys. Eating fruit that is away mania, are actually distributors of those seeds says the same ways: pollinate yeah hours. They carry the bears, the sea, the fruit and actually do eat a whole fruit, including the seeds. You can't, I just see right so that comes out and they put out, and then that shows that the plants diabolical plan to spread their seats. Our missing. There was one theory that I read years ago about how we can imagine the plants. Scientists say ok
we'll get a princess. Now, how do we get lives? Put it through the entire digestive system of a bear? What we have to make the casing strong enough, so did resist the digestive things right, then, the puppet overhear puppet over there and we can spread, isn't like now. I acts I would, as I hosted a big fat show years ago, called Bigfoot bounty and we found the and we had the contestants going out looking for biomaterials. That could be Bigfoot Spook basically, and there was one turn that I found. I ll never forget this turd ascends I'd never followed here in my life sentence. It was never before spoken zones cedars once heard. I never thought I'd find our talk, history right. There is a beautiful turd, it was purple and I will I just looked at and then it was clearly a bare turd, but it was all but just blackberries. It was just like it. It was just all seed. It almost look like it was like a candy confection thing, but it was a turn. Thy did not off their, we don't, please, whatever you do, don't ruin candy, for I have very few things left in my life, I'm sorry about that. But as far as I see distribution- and you know, obviously what we'd have to do is we need more than the atmosphere. We need. Some other geographic data, but also their environmental dna is very interesting like they leave behind like our. If something they France and bites are stings them. Aren't mama bite stings, but more bites like blood sucking insect. We can dissect their blood meal and find if there are primates, virtual area dress
workers or the Humber. This is actually renewed. Only we can do the logical servies now like that. How can I kidding so they? So this is their dna remnants from various things that happen once its blood. That's in like saying of mosquito bite right right now, so your dna signature is outside of herself in somewhat environment. In those very cool, I don't? U Gottschalk. Here we go. Let's talk about Antonio rural rigour as who wants to know this. Are there primate hybrids? Yes, who question in the vague at Ashcombe, manor, primate, hybrid Lisbon, bribery and been hybrid eyes, Hybrid Eisenhower, boons, actually back to baboons, they do hybrid eyes and they are they are able to produce offspring so with with other baboons. So it's out, I'm not known, and now we talk about like a certain difference, the owl God a minute or know that that would be selling Abu Minotaur, like some kind of car mirror. I went to a cobbler like a baboons troop accounts. For you know it's running the the centaur. Yes, birds have horse half mayhap. Ok, then!
In short, this is weird it's it's half man have ball, but the it's it's it's a human blood
this is taken she's. We're all human up to the waste she's gonna human, but is so weird anxious debts to think this through, I know very top heavy tale. I would have been difficult to walk around as a minute, ok so now, but which are by blending genes, of course. So are the other great apes closer to one another, genetically tat they can cause breed. Think that's going to know and that's the thing is about moons are able there's multiple species abandoned that are able to do that, but we shall call more baboons recent, while the abbot their different species of baboons, there's Cnet olive baboons, there's hamadryads, there's gelato baboons, which will put a tacit, but that's not the interesting I now I get it as far as likes. A chip in a gorilla we want is a chimney on a ship or chip Marilla S even better now that that having via I'm sure they could make a lot of things can meet with each other, but I don't think they had actually pretty viable offspring now and we haven't seen about chemin, affordable sure, that's the thing! Yet chips in moments of motives or been up ennobles probably could I do they haven't seen any? I think hybrid hybrids coming graphically? Where do we find the well that's? The thing is, I do have some overlap. Bonobos are only endear seed and academic Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly sire. I chimps are multiple places throughout Africa DE our sea there in a republic of Congo and its various places throughout in western here she is a very famous worn to show you know. Is it really domain? Do a roman county actually syllables for Americans recall Deirdre soon? How is it produces urgently? Ok, swell we should use. It will give up my memoirs, their wine makers of us. That's also, probably whether making level the time outside my females. They want their wine and they want their sweet love, but as far as the mad mixing with chimps I'd die, don't know of any studies have come out by it. There was a species of while there is a deficit chimp, a group of chips in an area of deer, see that they'd they were so large that they thought they could be a hybrid of guerrillas enchants. It turns out there just chimps, but I'd at the time of your term chat and a good friend of mine, actually settings of Jim memberships here, just like you sitting there there, across the chimps, literally juice or for China, are that sir? Are you gonna do it? You are aware that we were more one worth Margaret
it's so that's too much there. That's how I was funny looking over his shoulder. She s you're not supposed to do that has as humans are we progressing now? Let's forget that when I was were well. Ok, ok, ass humans. Are we Chris Chris Snyder as humans? Are we progressing forward or are we idling with all the technology that is so easily available? In other words, the question are we going to evolve because biotechnology, like will that turn us into different humans and thereby differ further separating us from our primates? What we can do, as indeed we can turn our souls into super humans and then turn chimps into humans
we can do all human work, we can go to the Bahamas, love it. I don't think, there's an ethical question. There are probably not a good idea now. I'm just objects at that level. Our moronto, although you I don't know, I mean that shit chimps are really grass about enough. I want them like taken up my trash. The will is there any attempt to move in that spirit that question time to modify their dna, to make them more capable of surviving their environment in one way or another is not that I know what I mean like modifying their dna. Now I mean even like the new Jean editing we haven't in humans. I regret spur and there's a new one that I read about recently. That's even you can actually inject a living person with added genes that are set specific effects. It worked on rats,
that's run into a lot of ethical questions, but as far as trying to change living primates to better adapt. Now it's just mostly trying to change human behavior, so they couldn't live longer. If you know of we push, you know inference like entering attends with deforestation, we're trying to get people not to use palm oil because that's it a problem there. So things like that. We're trying to amend our behaviour rather than expecting them to just sort of like change or die. It become a new Spina Watchword Palm Oil will palm oil plantations are basically a because of deforestation and for whatever was there before it s exactly so tightened. The palm oil itself is not a bad thing. It's just the waves behind Adele. We cut down a budgetary so that we can actually raise palm oil lobbies are cocoanut Romagna Maria known. I will go way back cocoanut. We also to break view been listening to bring sold. You may remember in watching this episode of start off cause require ease primate addition, apologists italian region, where we come back.
We're back on startup cosmic queries. Primate edition, humans are primates. Prison case you didn't know animals, yes, and even if you didn't know we're animals, your mama, watching your like some kind of an urgent matter? Well, yes, I know what they say with the parents and what the teacher say too it's, u dont! Yet no they're gonna be professional comedians. Something to class in it. You just when he the committee, and here I wish I could go back to everything that happened. Kid you not meal. I actually dream of being but to get into a time machine. Let's check this out with the first thing. If I read the time a shade will get their square it at least then will solve world moral problem and believe me, it would go just like this. What are you some kind of comedian just wait,
I asked why the tyre Reagan so you're here to help us answer. Questions on plants came through our social media network, so give me more here: we go Don rim from Facebook says this. Judging from the study of cocoa. That really do you believe that primates and other animals are capable of higher learning good question, it is a good question, so not just go a cook others. Multiple examples of non human primates have conquered, was grower and also some chimpanzee ones, trout in Russia there's been a lot of, namely that when I shall watch all year round to watch or they can see, I so that the other as far as cognitive abilities, there's a lot that non human primates can do in there's been studies not just
having to do sign language and things of that sort? By actually being able to understand and remember patterns, they found that Chintz were actually better doing some of those pattern of memory tests than actual humans were so there are a lot of abilities that I think non human primates have in terms of cognition, but we also have to remember that measuring cognition and animals is not just about being able to, you know, do algebra or calculus. It's about you go into the social intelligence and being able to unit in ways that works for them, because it's out about adapting and through surviving in our world. It's about adapting and surviving and their world. Maybe if they had a need for algebra, they would actually like to understand a development understanding about what they don't have a need for. It would be scary, had I don't know, do umbrella math, my math tests that I am still there s eighties than may sit, so do no Carl Sagan Famous quote. I think it was in reference to dolphins, but they could easily be applied to chimps. It was
We have found some dolphins that have met needs to make Jeff. Measures that make it clear that they understand what we're talking about, but we have yet to come, than any human that can speak dolphin Well I mean we are so species is undertaken in so many ways towards good try to talk to cats, man, but I dont know if they get me like. I try to understand what all eager to their just ignore you. That's a cat. Rosy exclusivity comical brother. Ok, you're, gonna lefferts before even say, okay, so, but this guy comes home and ass a cat sitting on the edge of the couch right. Then obviously, just came home, from his debt and the captain is if cats could talk, ok, so we come to the high Katy. Would he? How are you and the Catholics, and just
doping, doesn't say very cask and talk. Now, that's a perfect, a predator surfing the breast comic. If he could talk, that's persia, it looks up and look away, but they have to agree about gimme some cars requiring here we evolution is added, sell your level. This is from Michel Tapioca DNA. Rights are shape, adding it here and there. Can change you. Ok, thanks. So much Marcel that was the end of may seem like there. You go. That's what is that really? What evolution is, though, that the question is that of de Witt? Evolution is change on a cellular level. Yet let me it's it's. It's the passing down of different genetic material, and it does. It starts at his cellular levels. Do you studied also EDA doesn't necessarily manifests itself immediately. The genes are passed down. It might. Actually, we see.
generations from now that had been in your family. for four generations, but it's also not gold, driven where we put if, if I'm bored with six fingers, that sixth finger is not just a cell, that's a whole thing body, then, and now I get the sixth finger Jean than we had mutations in the area and if I'd start making babies with others, six fingered made a bold partners. We go, we can started a new based, twelve, the arithmetic, it's right there, the most awesome piano players in the world. My gosh Stana may see to speedily girl fastest faster. I play the search our better than anybody represent fingered man. Aren't we go? Why do apes retain or perpetuate the kindred is no signs of actual hate or feud against each other, and us. Humans appear to have lost this identity, but is there true out
I say that I see ape the apes and energy yeah yeah chimps will kill one another, so user April muggings would have raised Gimme your Grenada banana recovery of an air travel is what the Bulgarian just a restaurant. Should you want? Your money is no good here. Your food, a funny thing for them currency, is food like I actually I've done a video on this about how you know. Chimps woogie, give gifts of fruit in hopes of getting a little extra side looking just because that's what that is looking well, it's kind of like buying your sweetheart, a necklace or something like that. It's it's an exchange, its inaction
each but anyways back to the question addressed cheaper than diamonds. I was going to say is that Ngos these guys only these guys got in many ways of all hey baby, his arms with his arms, and you know what he's a few grieves me just to make it even sweeter only life for that simple GOSH by yeah. As far as altruism and kindness, there is that in the animal world we see that in multiple species, not just in primates, human and on human, but there aggression, chimpanzees, are known for a lot of you in group fighting while having to offer me out again more too. They do get more, but the thing is we, but we don't want to get lost in the blue, my god, you dont our blow in this part of the forest. Where wrote their hope to throw out of fear that website story regards credible.
provided such issues. Roy crazy here boy, a hundred trees is present, but they do so. They ain't mildly. I know they're, so they have collisions where they actually does. Her gold, their territory, and if they see a chip from as near by group that they that shouldn't be there, they will attack and they will kill, and sometimes they will do things like AIDS that Regular
I'm going to talk about some of these rituals three primate mating actual way to break. I mean every primary resource, mating rituals, meeting a rich, I don't of theirs. They summit a ritual, but there's just the way they do we go about. It rang intends one of the things that people don't know is its males are solitary females, forage, usually alone with whatever infant they have, and it can be a get a little rough. If a females on interested in a male males will do well force population, and so that yeah, which is everything that happens Bruno it ape terrible just radio that would be their combined. Is that with it? Oh god it is its poorest populations happen. This has happened and it yeah. So so we need to remain firm in the mail Let me the male is stronger than the females. Yes, and so sexual dimorphism sexual dimorphism means that there is a size difference between males and females on average
you explain. Some of the stranger mating dominance rituals that various primates do. I'm thinking about silver backs as well as Brad burning about these somebody's rituals. Three primate. Maybe I will put a brake on enhancing primary resource mating rituals. Meeting a rich I dont have theirs. They submit a ritual, but there's just the way they do we go about. It rang intends one of the things that people don't now is, Its males are solitary females, forage, usually alone with whatever infant they have an. We get a little rough. A females on interested in a male males will do well force compilation and so that year, which is everything that happens Bruno Apron, terrible agenda rate, as that would be their combined. Is that with it? Oh god it is. Its population happened. This has happened and it yeah so so
to remain firm in the male, is stronger than the female chess and so their sexual dimorphism sexual dimorphism means that there is a size difference between males and females on average between either whether these catches you exactly like you know, back widows mean that aviation, a meal black Widow- probably not because are so small that eighty mainly because we really sad there's media so lame, oh, my god, so any other leg owners will primary rituals train. Actual rich woman, like you, know, funny rituals. Now what about the cake is? Is this the baboon whose but gets into flame okay and read so the island back to a friend of mine, baboon, but no baboons and my friend is actually right now honour on her way to Zambia to do research, making Peters orphan? She actually will be interested in New York University, but she
looking at sexual swellings, baboons and she's at my friend time to settle, also of and why you dig developed a laser system, so they can actually measure the size of her swollen, whose remit guy too to measure the size of the swollen Volvo ended to single signal to the opposite, sex that they are ready to get down. That is assessed.
Tick term. You can tell your friends and family, but yeah ships have the same sexual swellings banal. Those as well will get these sexual swellings. When that happens, not heat gets what they do. They don't have. Humans will ever be smarter sheep. There now wait. What we have, obviously we have concealed obligation, which is a whole mother, that's a whole another shot, which is very interesting and indifferent theories of why we have you can't unless you really know your partner or you can have it on them. You smell, like oh sums, up you're really is no man on his lot is secure. What anybody there is not a matter of whether their research says about our alive. Who is like honey? It's you know, I would say, let's make love, but I'm pretty sure you're. Obviously, no, we do not need to do the whole. We know the rhythm method and it s kind of static, but its arm intrigues. Primates counting us with this group that, Have we have concealed occupation and others don't write
insurance or not all eyes, because other primates do not have child custody cases what's interesting and not one of those, primate species that have the sexual swellings. They do live in large group. So if, for instance, somebody does give birth and you don't know who it was it Steve, Jim Bob who knows the village or basically they take over their own home with her colleague it's ok, they don't necessarily lead to renew eternal is no. You know said Jerry Springer like US moment. Nilghai was the answer, the door Harry. What's up a man whom he had picked up, wife and kids who are waiting around? He would go more being met once you know. There's can monkeys be lunatics, yes,
much more these could act, a little crazy, oh yeah, and go off the ranch gas thinking be ears. Are there are those outliers at the ito and there's even freeloading monkeys, monkeys, I'd, take too much don't give back the other monkeys. What kind of spurn and silent national do petrels Zuzu loss wants to know this? How can all homo sapiens be merely genetically identical to each other when not all homo sapiens? Interbreeding with meandered tall will. To put it clearly says: I'm as I remember it, there's Europe especially but their branches of species that are more neanderthal than others gases up. If you only have after, if you're only of african descent and have no enone and only enters I'll bet they're all they also have a new there's Denisov ends, which are a group that lived in Asia that that basically are found in population in Asia and Melanesia, and then there's also a new unknown.
A dna that they don't know later, how false evidence for that also admixed with humans, but they are found in like Australia and what does it mean for us to be close to one another? But some have before and others don't on what basically means wears a founder population in Africa, there's more genetic diversity, diversity between those with living within or that are from Africa than those that have spread How so ok? So we are different on the level that these France's manifest you can still interbrew. Of course, hey. I wrote a small. There was a very small sample of of humans and mixed with neanderthals. It was not a lot. It was not like it was happening or ever as Todd. My my Huldah Neanderthal show this weekend he brought up. Fact it they think it was the only several thou maybe several hundreds not like thousands of thousands of instances of admixture blue. It's not kind of DNA that the got into our system so some people, you get to say, stop being Sabena Neanderthal,
biggest actually summit at in a bright and third, but then neanderthals when all that bad we have written the amateur Sympathiser I mean they weren't, like love me, so much wound Mary want my we gotta bring it to a halt here. The Thai Reagan. Thank you for being on start talk. Chalk, always to have. You was going to be you and when you not with me, you're with your ear year with Gary O Reilly, it's not really like, that you're you're playing with science with IRAN's right to call me. Some time ago you were listening to our talk rating stay to more have next, I welcome back to starts up all stars. I'm your hosts Natalia Reagan in here.
bring thing an extension and enjoyed me now is co host check nice. My hilarious comedian says yes, I'm actually still Patrick melted again right. when those aims are whereas it I dont, know what it is, but something a little different. Well, what it is. My credit rating went down The EU, as it is talk about what makes us human and we ve been talking there were words in Zagreb out something different. Now we're just like cloning, cloning primates, because the people with the whole cloning going on in the news, theirs talk about human cloning, but let's talk about actual primate cloning. Are we of biological anthropologist, Doktor Ryan Wrong from leaving college here two way and on the subject, and most recently there has been some cloning done in China of MAX for your problem, yes, indeed so published just this year, looking at crab the tax
Why there eating those crabs? Who knows why we need more of them? Who knows, but they successfully cloned to live viable plaid grabbing the cats? It's not efficient now they had forty embryos, twenty pregnancies to live births. Oh my goodness alarm, but me it's a step and only that towards human glowing. I gotta take up in those era. Those are pretty much house casino odds, eight yeah. I know I don't like those odds. Yes, there's only two survived all this whole process. Mind you that much better Dolly was to seventy five to one. Oh wow here. You are like forty two to now when he that was nineteen, eighty seven and it's called progress unless they find it funny that of of all things at Scotland clone they cloned. What the one thing that they have an excess of cheap
and I never understood that a number and everybody understands Ali was she was judicial Ali was now look. Can we all does have a moment of silence for four dolly anyway Moving on the cloning of peace, it meets its controversial, because obviously Unum were much more is needed to them. Close to home ray, I raise look, look funky Lula. So wait. Let me ask you, as a raw material, just Natalia how close our max to homo sapiens, how in an hour clauses, genetic relatives or chimpanzees and bonobos? We share about ninety eight percent. Ninety point: seven percent of dna I dont know, is what it is macaques or know the exact percentage amount by stupid. There's like the other day, we diverged far back yard as we with their common ancestor. We have with chimpanzees about six. Seven million years ago my taxing twenty four twenty five guys like gags new world monkeys about twenty Jaso Report, thirty or so
yeah so yeah? So not we're not super super close, but at the same time they are primates in that is a little gets close to home, closer and closer to home, but what we learn, everything Ryan from when we clone a primate. Do we learn anything about cloning? Us is that the purpose of cloning, the primate to get closer to cloning- us, I think them with some of the main purposes there are no more, are a big boy. Medical research, animal awe and that if you can produce some genetic changes in a mechanic them predisposes it too hard to believe diabetes or something. Then you could perpetuate that right that you can. During that group worrying I'm gonna clone you, so you that you get heart disease right away. Then I'm going to cure you of your heart disease in this
very cruel, but we do have yet at all the time I mean that's like super common with my right there. Let's try these lines of mice. Are there not cloned but they're, so they just in breed them incredibly until their genetically homogenous right and then like make a change, and they just ya get cancer. We give them cancer As you know, the idea is that somehow just there's a lot of things and we ve cured answer in mice like a hundred times, but mice are really from humans, so you try and take the thing that you cured cancer nice. You take it to humans, it doesn't work right. I mean there's even arguments and in terms of animals, a fair and ends medical research. That, because chimpanzees or distant enough, where some of the same things don't fact us the same way when they get certain else, illnesses that we don't mean there is, you know, says which is the transmission of Rio. these from one species to another, but sometimes it doesn't always work that way and mechanics or even further removed from human. So it is. It seems like a lot of work,
and a lot of pain and suffering that are inflicting on individuals that I personally don't feel comfortable. Putting that this I mean the motivation for them. A lot of metallic stuff is biomedical again, as we yes, their distant, but nobody's particularly comfortable with doing the stuff to chimpanzees. right now, and I and mice are super distant raised The cats have monopoly that happy. Medium may now. Answer comes sucks to be of a cat right now. The interesting thing about the catches are the second most widely distributed primate in the world. So there and that's another thing and you think like we don't need any more mechanic there are everywhere. But that's the thing is that they are like humans and the fact that they are they are generally. They can kind of woman, thrive in any environment, they're, the ones that you see, member in the hot tubs which struck the Japanese, no skaggsy, you love those guys. Do you ve got the Temple Mount
gives you ve got. You know them you max. You got the barbary macaques on Gibraltar, so there's pickaxe all over the world. They can and there the kind of animal that will eat at their like humans, like tat got anything so they are similar DAS and now, in that regard, you know. They're not like a specialist where they only eat leaves or insects as far as like cloning in terms of human cloning like different mammals have slightly different sort of reproductive their eggs development. Four rates in their different sort of certain slightly different price she's there that affect the technical details of cloning, okay, so the other the way you would clone mouser. Sheep is technically alive, but different than the way you would play a primate and probably the process for the Mc Act would be closer to if you're, gonna, try and cloning human you'd probably actually be learning
thing from planning the mechanic, speaking of which I want. I want to jump into a little something more controversial, bringing back the inner tools, because we she do have shared we have under signatures within US guy from the under, if even mean there's many that have you know anywhere miniscule amount. I think about four percent so I and we have the ancient dna viable ancient name. That's why I ve been able to sequence the genome of Neanderthals, but just as there is talk about wanting to bring them back, but there's a lot of ethical, of course, dilemmas with bringing neanderthal back but they're not do we have a problem with chimpanzees. What do you want to break that meandered
all which, by the way we use the Ghana, please now how I mean there's funky her scientific evidence there. You know I answered Tom. We that their use, I'm saying- and I feel like I shouldn't you know I need to clone my husband. I need say like ices, what am I do? I'm just gonna make myself neanderthal interest, you know, look and I are gonna settle down we're going to have some nice hybrids this can be fantastic and you you can laugh. Why you? Why? But we're doing it can do there are some ethical dilemmas about just you know, because again it is, it is are we doing it is it's so we can have a freak shower. They, where are they going to live? Are they gonna be considered humans or they are going to give them rights because they are as well The under tools, humans, you're by the created by the it is one of which is what major criteria. The people use far too low
species cease Vizier considered hummingbirds. Definitely that's what I've line where you are you about it? Ok, I got to be in there and there we ve done star talk opposites about this about just you know what whether near tells where these sort of brutish o fish kind of you know just sort of Caveman that had no artistic value are didn't communicator, couldn't worse. Looking versions of Robert Pattinson, therefore ha ha ha with man. Bonds that aren't you ve seen the recreation. Vienna means array, that's and they also you know they didn't, have the mental eminence. They don't have a choice in this issue, to human, so it be a bunch of chinless deeds and ladys I can get used to
Listen. I know a couple people without its internal gives you deliberately in that's. Ok. What would we learn if we were able to bring back and the Anderton? What would be the big take away? of lots of arguments about sex, neanderthals. Do they have language right, northern capable of language, I'm not sure, which, by the way, I am not sure that the others moral complexities of London neanderthals would. But if you It actually do it. You could tell us all that people has UNICEF tissue doesn't preserve. We don't know exactly how advanced they were sophisticated. They are, they were, we might find out, they gonna, they might be. The next Mozart Does it say much but very cute lithuanian, but what I have chosen tell you that I don't really mean it. I know my wife although there is suggesting that it went the other way, Gatt really because if it was human males and the NFL females, their seal
There should be a reasonable chance of neanderthal mitochondrial, that's right humans, because there's that part of your genome, regarding your dna, that comes with amazement, lie it's right that somatic aren't, you don't have any or have. This is why I want to call on my husband's, possibly be doesn't necessarily have to be exclusively about, but your kind of suggests that at least it was even if not by us, the other way right. Ok, on the and the interesting thing is that we obviously the behaviors can be different because you know they're going to be living in the twenty first three in all the ebbing they could be playing on there. I found in adapting to our way of being, we did what we because soft tissue doesn't preserve. I know exactly how advanced they were sophisticated? They are they were, we might find out, they gonna, they might be the next Mozart or Frances for Copal. Are you know just doing their thing?
I mean you know, so I dont I'm not advocating for it, but it would be interesting, are right about this. Then Ryan. Is there enough, since we You have dna signatures within us that our neanderthal is there, after DNA within us to selectively breathed out so that we can just have a mandatory. Yes, I mean like so populations out. Africa have about two percent, but it's actually not distributed randomly across a right. There are parts your genome there's just no point at all in anybody out, because no, for whatever reason it seems like the gene, prince or what not the neanderthals had their just don't work very well. in human populations and their parts of the genome, where basically, the very everybody has are or many people have are, the neanderthal variant No, if you across the genome, it's ok,
not a little bit little bit the ten a bunch little bit low, but none gotcha. So it's not just even if not evenly across. So within modern humans. There's parts of the envelope have and the but there's big junks just don't exist and modern humans gotcha across her sing. Thank you so much for being here, Doktor Ryan ROM talking about cloning in the air Tarzan Extinct, things back Thank you. So much has been start talk all stars extension with Chuck NICE Berlin Address Milton with a lower. You said, if I do cube, that's the curious and keep looking up and don't blame yourself. Washington, loosened restored, talk, commercial through joint, STAR talk on patriarch for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear, learn more at patriarch dot com, slash star talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.