Neil Tyson celebrates the cosmic significance of the season, from the solstice to the Star of Bethlehem. Leighann Lord and Chuck Nice co host, with Seth MacFarlane and Brother Guy Consolmagno. Now with 12 minutes of Neil, Bill Nye and Steven Soter in the “Cosmic Crib!”
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial free. The universe, is filled with secrets in a mystery, so many questions to be answered. We find ourselves for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here. For the first time, what what are you? Are you Japanese, it's easier. Domain the brakes, daddy you going to do grandma Lastly, Brenda get lab like
Welcome back start talk ready on your hosts kneel to Grasp Thyssen, astrophysicist and director of New York City, Hayden Planetarium. I have to guess host with me to do I have comedian Leon Lord Land, thanks for coming back and Chuck night, hey man, chalk good to have you it's good to be had. This is A lot went on off the you have no idea how I got this job, so this is gonna, be like sort of near the grass stations House Party is it's a holiday party and which I'm just gonna sort of Bee Professor Thyssen and just talk about everything I know about the cosmic
even if it can so the holiday sees. This is going to be a week long, you'd, help with that satellites, hats and everyone's av, whereas a leverage- and I am I heard of him on her cap- so let me start out by saying: in the winter time we always associate certain consultations and stars of the winter sky and would, by the way stars are all year round, is just whether they're up before you go to sleep, and so when we talk about winter constellations, we're talking about constellations and start that are up after your dinner and before you go to sleep, sweet and, and so the the most famous of those is Ryan. But we can get back to arraign towards the end of the show could have a lot to tell you about the most recognisable constellation out there right. But what I want to lead with even before that is the solstice, this yeah and about the source it first, if latin rice, all meaning son, this meaning stationary member armed member
armistice. Gabardine have I remember armistice of yours a hundred years old armistice stationary arms. No one is fighting. Any right arm is to stay became veterans day solstice with where the sun still now, not in any biblical sent. We're just stops in the sky. Now what actually happens at the substance? I don't if you pay attention between summer and winter, but what what goes on every day that you get closer to the winter, the sun's arc in the sky gets law and lower, and that makes the days shorter and shorter gods effect a short stay the year. It is the sole source of almost every twenty first and that's typically, we call it the first day winter, which means every day of winter gets longer days longer in the winter, not short which takes us to arm my favorite day of the year, culminating after that at which would be quantity? Equinox.
The only one that is right and left him long stay d, known and unknown. We went wait where you have to come back for their equinox Vernal Equinox is March. That's not my than outside the what's the longest daily. That would be the that would be the same sauced resources that they had not the form of a long stay. Visa. Technically. Gentlemen is April fifteen, which is taxed down. Ok, that's what I really cantons only right, so the somersaults! So here's what's going on in the sources and on December twenty first ancient people's saw the sun get lower and lower in the sky every day and this wearied them, because, when you're agriculturally driven, if the sun goes away, you die right crops die right. You do this to your views, you're scared. So, a few days later, you figure out the sun is no longer dropping in the horizon on its arc across the sky. It stops and then reverses and its on its way
back, and it takes a few days to figure this out by about December. Twenty fifth right, that's an interesting date for this to happen exactly, and so what went on workers, Christianity when it wanted to take a foothold among pagans celebrant of the of the return of the sun right after the solstice. They said well, let's take this uncertain day, called the birth of Jesus right and put it on a day that were not already cares about. In that way, that would increase the likelihood of getting convert to the new religion of Christianity, and so they put the birth of Jesus. Right on a day when everyone was already celebrating December, twenty fifth, because nothing cells or religion, like a party has cracked- and I went on talking about you now- listen we ve got. I have a special linked to the Vatican. Do you know that now we didn't, I
people in the Vatican, sweet you're, gonna hotlines, I gotta hotlines, one matter the pope, but somebody who was audience with the Pope, whereas this is good colleague of mine, Brother Guy Council. Among you, he's an astrophysicist and I think I think, he's a Jesuit, when they got him there I was gonna, say I'm gonna bring em on in the Vatican, in the Vatican, in the Vatican with calling the Vatican right now Guy are you on the line? I am indeed listened to you with your in the bank is like midnight there right now correct. That's correct disabled persons, but will thanks. We call it in and adjusted to field our questions. Just a few questions I don't know If I'm the only one that has them, but do they? Let you believe in Santa Claus, at the back, Anybody who know the history of religion knows about Saint Nicholas, and how could you not believe in Saint Nicholas, which is of course, what Santa Claus really is. Maybe all the story they ve heard about Saint Nicholas out exactly what you what the truth is, but then that could always about thirty
what about the other growth is, and another thing the this all. This talk about what the star, Bethlehem might have been astronaut clean and you can look at the records and you find out your couple conjunctions of planets and we'll talk about those later in the programme. But while I have you on the wine, I just wanna know do you and like fellow astrophysicist, at their at the Vatican, emissary argue over stuff like this over the Christmas holidays. Well, actually, we do because every year some crazy report calls us up and wants to know what the official Vatican word is. There? Isn't an official vatican word? We don't know anymore than anybody else to you, but you have asked I'm due to speculate about it. Would you have access to programmes to tell you what the planet stars and moons would earn right, and so what would you say was the best guess? Where, were you just say was divine and Gunnar was the next question you now For all we know what could be the vine miracle, throwing all could be a pious story. My favorite is
theory that Michael Mama came up with a few years ago saying that it was actually the Hellenic will rise of a conjunction of planet? Ok, unreliable is where a group of planets are together in the sky and they rise just before the appearance of the sun in the mornings. In that way, the plane, why no one except think astrologers knew what was going on a big Billy ones who paid attention to that sort of thing. That way I see, and so, but I'm wondering conjunctions where you have Jupiter in the sky or Saturn with it or Venus leaving the Crescent Moon can join them. Those are not actually rare people like to think they are, but they're not now so so, if you want to try to pin a not rare, but none the less beautiful event on something that you want to be signify, that a change in all of religion in the world. You think did come up with a better cosmic phenomenon that just a conjunction right end up that's what Mamma is done, he's come up with a whole bunch of these guys. All alike will rise at the same time about four or five different things and all
in the same constellation that signified the country of Judea, which country which concentration within the areas areas icy. So they got it all figured out I won't let you ve got it all, figured out how to convince anybody else. Kind of what it is to publish your research, you believe it and no one else does well guy thinks we call it in its bring great to have you. It's been a while, since I've seen you back here in New York, but make sure to to give me a holler next time, your state side and I was checking on your wiki page and you have a book on what it is to be. A scientist adequate right, which they called well, we ve got a couple of one of the most recent one came out for the year of Astronomy was called the Heavens proclaim, and it's a history of all the different astronomy that the Vatican supported over the year. I gotta get the international year of astronomy with two thousand and nine that was the fortyth anniversary of Galileo. Turning his telescope to the night sky,
draw. You heard your number. Galileo is a good thing and in a good catholic his can these he's not often credited with being a religious guy, but of course he was, he just have some disagreements with the Pope you wouldn't have been the first Catholic plus. I actually think he was you know you're, smart or stupid to disagree with the people who were who have power over you. I don't know that's what that something that historians, always grapple with get again. You would be the first one, that's so guy thanks recalling a guy. So my you and your your brother in the Jesuit order correct that satellite and a gesture to the one who persecuted gala. Not so basically he's doing tenants face the velvet actually pays. A bunch of us just do good site roguery, so there's hope the world loosely thankful, common and on Start talk radio and have a great risk that all you get will do. Thank you, but I can't was cool, but we gotta cool people. Do I gotta give it to you if you want to
thanks to his book and morn, a biography of of Guy consumer YO, you can join star talk, radios, Facebook page will give information about him and on a website we have links to to him a lot of money word had lie a killer. At which it is like to her like a rise like that rise was like sounds like. Let's call it out. If you are a lie, there could be another user. The logical politician that was a political moment executives, Hawaii Ici, would be the sun Helios and if something rose just before the sun, it was a sign that that they were something magical about to happen and later on will talk about serious, rising before sorceress rising before the sun. Doesn't him like a dog? That's how you think. I'm gonna stay alive when he said that the the Vatican, we don't know more anymore than anyone else
as willing that will allow you save in that wine. So a couple other things there, people, if the if you want to believe that there was some kind of star that three wise men saw any date with. We people religious people have turned to astrophysical, yes from the beginning right to ask us: is there anything that we know of that occurred back then? And so we go through the list you say about when was born. Today was not yours arrow, you know, right out of Jesus knew TAT. He wasn't born in the years aero vortices civically three four five b c is is bandied about for when he would have been when one would have involved so we'd. So we call the records of the sky, which we can do, because we have laws of physics that tell us how gravity operates on the movement of bodies in the sky for thousands of years in the future and thousands of years into the past. So it's actually quite an empowerment of the ability to count
scientists are the only breed in the world that can predict with accuracy. What happened is gonna happen in future years. Scientists are women is what you think. I've thought subject tells us that women scientists, when Miss clio- you call me now- I said with accurate yeah caviar alliance- is there said, wait a minute, thousand scientists can look backwards. We do I we do and see events. They have transpired in the Heavens, either any events coinciding with the time that we're talking about that may point to a very bright star being in the sky above baffling. Ok, here's what with the risk. Bright star in the sky would be above everybody in the world if it was to turn with its an einstein. Every eye, everybody's gonna catch current have to be just above Bethlehem. Ok, so what my soda best guess! Thank you for making me feel
that is. Why were you going to do anything? You need someone about so one of my best. If, as I come through the list of candidates, the Chinese kept excellent records of what was going on in the night sky back then the astrologers who were sort of the court appointed advisers to the those who are in charge. They were tasked with trying to understand what forces of the universe might operate on culture, and so they can't really accurate records there. So chinese astrologers,
But the commented on a new star that appeared in the consolation Capricorn in five b c, not enlarge ride around over talk as a right around when we're talking about five b c. So that's around the right ear and it turns out that new stars got the name, Nova Nova Latin for new account Hearns out later on. We would learn basically in the twentieth century. We would learn that starts at appear out of nowhere. I will actually artists. We call them nervous as because they knew to you, but they ve been there forever and they are dying so there spoke, the exploding they got into interstellar interplanetary the two interstellar space, unaware lengthened. Why we're seeing me as the data for those in the death of a study death of a star, and so they caught our new star Nova in Capricorn, and we can see the remnants of this we telescopes today, and so I thought I'd that's looks to meet their others where Jupiter and Saturn got together in the sky gray and as as brother guy.
Brother got rather gotta run broke up by the conference of presidents as he is. He correctly reminded US constellations conjunctions in the sky or not rare, like their common enough. You Polly Wooden, pin the birth of your religion on right, so they're, so there you have it. When we come back we expect to have a conversation with doing still. We still feel such ordinary hey, I've got no secret for you. When I consider singing all of the ads on this show there just one way to get out of hearing there go to
patriotic outcomes. Last started tall and supporters at the five dollar level or higher to listen to start talk ad free. You can download all current episodes into your favorite parkers player and never hear another commercial and started talk ever again. You will definitely not. After hear me sing if you support us at patriarch doc, arms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. Starter we're back start or ready on your host. Astrophysicist me overdraft ice, and am I to give us the special
they hold down. I've got landlord commedia genuinely. I am excellent, excellent and chuck nice say you with me and yes, I am the comedian shut, nice harangues might have seen them on and b C the today Show and MSNBC he there was bring amount to talk about. What's going down, this is true, like I, wouldn't that's what kills but I'll up out of here. This is. This is sort of me hanging out just reflecting on the science of the season and one other point I want to finish out with both after the first segment there. If you take Haley's comic, which comes round about every seventy six years and extrapolated back and factor in Jupiter messy its orbit and things you find out. The hellish comment was around in twelve BC, the Chinese made a note of a new common in the sky at that time is what they call it Haley's comment of course right, but I'm sure was I computers is coherent
ceasing yeah, see Squared set so so with without that would be too early for what other gases are for the year that Jesus was born, so they wouldn't Why was there on the talk about that? I didn't, I didn't didn't die, so we get so I want to make the second about Santa Claus sent a little more about sex. Right on, and I you know I don't know you know but nor red Track Santa. Did you notice of a horse You know why, because they haven't on the move, yeah, ok, we're working we will get to nor out in a minute, but I guess we have on the phone can actually I'm sure who I have on the phone certain material anymore. I don't know the guy I've a little girl. Now it made, by which I mean. Why are you doing? Man thinks we're carbon into start? Talk, radio, dive, editor! Oh my god! You note I want for Christmas. I want stories
plans for his time machine it. Really. Yes, you can You can see for yourself. You could probably do that yourself. I don't over. His was pretty cool. I do you know it was workin. It was like in my favorite part of that was you didn't have a timer, you didn't have a date stamp on where they lent ended up and bright complained. Bryant. That dog said what you don't have it tie a timer on on your time, machine intuited, o O. Your time, as you have heard about that. Indeed, is a classic long away bet a diversion let's see what one would hope that the debt that your time she would not have about the big funny like plastic, like vacuum vacuum, cleaner, look into said that our lives there,
well no, but I've had a time machine that no one's ever built before it's gotta be made out of stuff. You had your garage, I think a little bit of an ever even of an eighteen cobbled together looked at me, so that's so set out. So many of the family guy episodes theirs. I detect a deep representation of science literacy, and and notes and out of some part of you, we would- What in your life lead you to be dead? To have that? sort of shared mission statement with making people laugh. Well, you know I mean it's it's it's something that that is United has always been an important demand, something that certainly my my my parents, when I was growing up, stressed the importance of rational thought and questioning everything asking why things work the way they do. Instead of just accepting things at face value, you don't like it
yourselves. I was a baby, the bigger great great admirer above of Carl Sagan, and devoured is his writing over the course of my child. Not even up to this day and you know it's it's something we're losing touch with very much and in this country even in the context of a comedy, shall, if you can wave the flag of sites so little bed and remind people that, if its arguably the most important discipline on the planet then than Now- and I think that can only be a good thing. Isn't workers are at the security in our future and our economic health at all rather more. Nor have arguments everything. That's everything and we're done life, the universe in everything So you know your Christmas special. I think everybody everybody sees your Christmas special and but I have a gripe about your Christmas,
just do it goes to the North pole dad too to have an encounter with Santa the normal has like mountains and trees there, but we know there's just polar bear on that want to exploit all that's left. I thought you knew that. I know it forever and I think a lot of you just in general. Don't know that the North pole has no land, it's just that it's just the Arctic Ocean rank and frozen, but a body that there's elves and an end. Meaning reindeer house cool with that. We look forward to many many more years. The family guy and stew ages. Tell it like it is that, while we are occasionally sucking is that yes, I do something real Chuck yet staff that this is something I just always wanted to say to you forever, and that is what we mean
listen turned out to be a homosexual ago that no seriously man, I'm asking you- will be marvellous, dissipated, Henderson into reviewing their this ambiguity. All right, then, I must not understand. The word will serve thankful colony and taken time out of your day and away to be part of our soda holiday show here male several catch more view. Another time out get thanks I'll get Seth Macfarlane, pretty Lamb call he's he's. My man he's very cool, so let me tell you about Santa Claus and nor Red You know you know what nor red was invented for ok, now that I do it was, then it was the north american AIR defence at a time. When we believed that any invasion, any attacks to us would happen through aeroplanes flying through the air, and we felt our coasts were cut.
Pacific and Atlantic, where we were worried that Russia would come to us over the poles right if they come over the poles they have to fly over Canada. So we said, let's van together with Canada, created defence system that protect us from anyone coming over the pole. Then we learned that eight with intercontinental listing missiles. These are missiles that don't fly through the air. They leave the atmosphere. I line the vacuum space where I then re enter so they said hey. We need a more grand name for it. So now is the north American Aerospace, Arafat, Sarris based Aerospace, Defence is not to be confused with Aerosmith before Erle Arrow Face and so funny here that it was initially to track what was coming back over the poles and so one thing do in December. Is they track Santa Claus? But but what we can we stepped back minute is: is that while we left out Mexico
on our own. We don't care. Tat are coming in that way. There's somebody like a bomb Bartleby law before it reaches Mexico, and so so what we I have here is Santa who takes off on New Year's eve, and nor add we go to their website nor at Santa I did tracks Santa through the air. Now we should be glad that at times rather than just taken it out, if you got down and think it oh baby, tat, would make a bad headline the next way, that's pretty cool nor red shoot down Santa by accident nice. So what you have here is a but there's some issues here, though, because there are certain you have to think about what Santa to accomplish in order to make this happen, however, he has a big job. He's got a big job, because you think how many Christians around the world there might be. Billion billion and half of them, how many christian households might be anywhere between three and four
million. We ve also got to count diagnostics, who are hedging their bets, all the way to really make the Santa with. Ok, then not to mention the Christmas Jews. The Christmas Jews are of Christmas. Do I have to buy their jewish? Is that what we are trying to be enjoying this kind of kind of being too? Do you jus issues, so those who have Christmas trees would suppose ok would be the target of scientists vision. Fraud, and so this is a lot of people to visit. He has to travel very fast, very fast. We look in about two thousand miles per second, which is about one percent, the speed of light while yeah. So s quaint you talkin about some some awesome reindeer here, and so maybe Santa fines of a portal through the space time continuum and would have to or magic they did in the movie watch the movie where they go through the door monsters,
The work in the aisles room right was actually add up a portal through the space time continuum reflecting the fact we too, So maybe this is what these gotta do. I don't know, but if you calculate all of this, is it's a huge task for Santa to to do and nor attracts the progress of Santa wait a minute? How can a track something going it too? as a mild per second are not authorized just understand your text I was having well that's all. You need a quick history that the starting in nineteen fifty five red aware of regional in Colorado with, nor is it in short and mountain I am sure I am now that's where that hole in the mountain where they get the big door. Yeah. Ok, that's what studied and this we started. It is, but I want it what what's so in there with Nora what they did was a local seers in Colorado posted a phone number to call Santa
and I accidently gave the wrongful number and it was nor or adds Foma nor to have somebody got five actually dental air quotes, and so, from that point on, they decided well. Why not actually turn us into something real? We have all these tracking mechanisms, these tracking capacities. Let's do it for Santa do it for the country. For the work and, oddly enough, you can buy all that tracking equipment at Sears in road experts Duncan you gotta love. Nor am I have an annual conference that I attend of aerospace professionals and it is in the shadow of Cheyenne. Mountain headquarters of Nora, really and also a pretty powerful laser the whose power I dont admit to ok, and when I point out the stars to the assembled revellers, I was Worry that nor add is gonna like tomahawk me. Is your laser The incoming ends re patent at the front of nor rather get that huge door that we ve seen several movie right,
one of them was war games with Matthew, broader. I remember it out an early one. Let's play down multilevel nuclear, why you could happen a great deal. I'm frightened me there's another one in ITALY. Are you a joke with me recently about the computer voice? That's about to tell you the world's gonna end, but the voice never acts frightened or anything. That is the view that this concerns you. What are you doing launch Coloni life, and so the computer is a little to say about the law was an eye for an eye is right there, so so with nor read so what that's? What they do their responsible for the defence of North America and deepen the mountain that protects themselves from nuclear holocaust where the rest of us die in the
tat whatever is left settles how you get that and its weight will also started studying, started SD one day when I went through the door a little. They lived in the mountain, that's right and actually had a cameo instigated land, no way cameo with bill. My two of us get, I believe so well and in my acting talents, but I got you a fabulous in a big, I would say you were the only person there who actually knew what the hell you talk of mine, I wonder, is let me die right, but I was on on started Atlantis with Bill now who's, a friend and colleague, and so when we come back from our brick, would we have another breaker when we come back, I may tell you about what parts of the night sky are always there in the holiday season and have you learned much more about it than just to call it a constellation? Ok act will be targeting or Ryan
Ryan, the hunter you know Better Ryan. I know about his belt. I saw a man in black. The universe is in alliance with the galaxy. Oh, that's right. Sorry, the Galaxy delegating Orion or Honour Ryan's bout created a pseudonym arraignment. I think. There's isa I met someone named Orion, did yes in a restaurant, he was a server which was your guy. Added to that is too now of a magnanimous name to hello, the imo Ryan Obvious, but just now let me say that and serve you get anything that might have a caesar hobby, bring your fees or what now. As I mean I've learned later, as neighbours arena show means business cards like committees or Ryan. Is the guy's a he said his mother? He said it was of the age where he might have been named moon unit or something like a guy named Orion's, not only to take awry on any day right on it. So here listening to start talk rate
and this is our annual Christmas Party hoedown, and I got with me the coming. Leon law and comedian, nice Chuck, that's your ass, my new name yet you're nice, Chuck nice that you're Twitter handle funny do Well, we'll see what the the break and we'll talk all about the night sky. You're, a space cadet rocket scientist I want to hear from you start We are back from break. I am merely grass face in your hopes. Astrophysicist four star talk
Leon Lore. Might yes, co! Host along with nice Chuck nights, that's correct, sat unwelcome guys here. If you miss the previous statement, we weren't we had a chat with Seth Macfarlane Creator of family guy. The head tv show on Fox so makes my did he's he's like he's a great guy, good heart and the guys just an area, syphilis mine. It's this: is the holiday show yes and I'm just sort of waxing on about all the cosmic significance of the season? If I may you please dim, may it yourself so, for example, constellations people think of winter constellations or summer constellations you can catch practically any constellation at some time in the night any day of the year. So what we mean when we say it's a winter constellation is at its up high in the sky, between dinner and when you go to sleep in the winter. Ok, ok, typically, but you can find a way to consolation in the summer. It's just up like four in the morning when you're not awake, so that's all
when you're a comedian service lightly Divans he has made you work the night. Yes, yes for everyone, and it may mean that deadline cannot write well, and I wait a minute. I'm a comedian mom, please. So one of one of everyone's favour constellation, brick practice, the most recognisable dude in the winter sky is Ryan or right the Junta hunter and check. You said you know Ryan's bell, but then you made a movie reference. Yes, men and black Ok, that's the only way neurons about and here's why the only way, I know Ryan's Bell as men in black, because when I look up in the sky accuracy any of those pictures that say that this is the constellation. How who came up with these? Like that's a hunter, that's a call that a pair of scales there's a lady in a dress where the hell is that come from this. I thank you. Thank you. I thought I was only one. I could not see it. Thank you
That's what you do not me. A Ryan actually does look like a woman wearing an airline skirt. Can you credit line that is not a sewing. All depends on what is a matter of perspective, the rush hour task here, all of us so arenas a hunter sometimes drawn facing forward, sometimes drawn facing away. Ok, so you get different views of his anatomy when this happens in overseeing, but one of them, for example, is arranged belt is the three bright stars. Formal wine is a distinct pattern in the sky, and the right has a sword hanging from the belt dangling between his legs. For me. If I were Hunter, that's not where I would carry my sword, and they want to make this point where licence that answer right now it depends on who you heard what I can say that I am just saying about what that is, and so the right is protecting himself from tourist. The ball, which is over to his
right and the Rhine. Astro physically, is a remarkable part of sky because as a lot of cool astrophysical stuff going on in it, for example, a Ryan's shoulder is called Rigel and others are I'd I'd get up. How can excuse me about the size of the six right were arranged a liar array, shoulders, bailed use bit. We have in a movie called bewailed use, really battle juice and its apron out a battle to use NATO and that its Arabic for armpit of the great one in case you were wondering which obviously does not sound. So great number is my name for my husband. We saw Don't use is one of the largest stars known so large that if you put it where the sun is right, now you'll be larger than the entire orbit of the earth. We would be the cinder orbiting deep within its surface. Wait there sweet tat is cool it and the huge star here so small, bigger than our entire orbit,
that's what I'm saying. If so, then you go to his knee right and one of the stars forces kneecap and that's a star Rigel, which is a balloon super giant star. Both of those stars will one day explode, become a supernova and be the brightest thing in the night sky and would even be visible in the day at nine May, and we will beyond earth, and we will look up in the sky and we will see the star in the in the midday. Yes, Secondly, we will not be just saying it lay straight ass, a little bit fond of you get your we straight and where a Ryan's sword is that's dangling between his legs is a region that is a nebula cloudy region where stars are being born into stellar nursery is called the Ryan Nebula
Right beneath the story, because he will kill them the moment they are hell, that's so this is a Ryan in the sky fuel everywhere on earth over the holiday season. Sweden. Now the brightest star in the nice guys just off over the side of a Rhine, it's called serious right serious seriously. Now there many things named serious series, lay satellite radio. Yes, you would not answer, is no we're not, but that's along exactly deal the iconic they haven't calling well yeah this. The icon for serious is the little dog is a little dog, because serious is the eye of Kansas, Major, the big door. The dogs died. The drugstore suite is the dog star and in fact the dog days of artists are so called because serious rises
before the sun. During the month of August, they helical rising the headline that have callback law, its new stars, the dog days August, is and seriousness is popular? Many cultures is the brightest star. The night sky, so if a culture is going to have it they're gonna, do you know you ve got the culture can have any star in the sky. That's a likely one and the Egyptians worship the star, in fact back when it was her likely rose before the sun, them thousands of years ago signal the rise. The flooding of the Nile, so back their agricultural calendar begins with the hawaiian arising of serious that I gotta say that's fascinating, I'm sorry, but I find a fascinating air and its answers. It's not that what that is serious, serious. The dog
So these are that this is this. Does the things you ll see in the night time sky? Of course the moon goes through. The full moon in December crosses the sky higher than any other moon of the year. So it that's what proof that's? What creates this wonderful glow on the snow, laden landscapes, fewer crazy people and lunatics? They don't lunatics at all phases of the moon, so I have to learn a K. So let me think hard about this with Santer in all this, and I'm wondering if Santa's moving two thousand miles per second, to visit that today, more than two million twenty two million households to deliver gifts right. So twenty two million miles of the half a billion households that he's got a visit this
Is this? If I did it quickly back at the level of calculation aerodynamics right and tat, I ain't gonna make it you, may he can't make it every house or hear it goes for Santa to deliver gifts to all the world. Christians in one night requires hypersonic speeds, vapor, rising his reindeer and slow ah man, you kill Rudolph ripe of workers. Sorry, this is what physics tells us that we should. I think that's it for this segment of start up, but when combat. Special guests will neither science guy and co writer of Cosmos, Stephen so dropped by the cosmic creek.
Data is stored on so level. Does he have laws passed to agree to because we crave amusing industries in this maybe just sit back and to the fact that ever subject, I believe I hear thanks for coming to my office, disability and Steve Soldier friend and colleague, and corrupt cosmos with Andrea kneel and so that I'd swear turbo asteroids allowed me to master the big concern of mine at the planetary society. Why?
because if we got hit with one that would be deleted and be very the big enough one one little ones it exactly hooting stars every night, how many times a day A couple hundred tons of start does us come over two tons of meteors earth plows through every day, so most of it is burned up and he soon a pretty shooting star there. You have it, but the bigger ones can make its root right yeah. This is of deep concern. And when I was in astronomy class once Steve Soldier was one of our teaching assistance, Carl say talked extensively about your name, name drop and now come on Robert. Isn't it idea. He talked extensively about what at that time was called the tongue dusk event. Nowadays I like to refer to it Gus get air burst and then sure enough, a year and a half years in nineteen o eight, neither was
destroy the modern linear explosion over to invest the onawandah and so little and there wasn't a town was middle of nowhere wastes of Siberia. Ok, and sir, how big was that was their impact her, while it was cool into the Hiroshima bomb in terms of the energy and so so the size of a small house. Then again it seems and other only yesterday soggy Albania, but if it level to thousands of square miles of forest, ok our trees down every direction and then just to be clear, thousands of square miles of forest? He lets like what that's like fifty miles outside correct registered justified if it burning around pointed the way from the centre away from the centre, like some bad happened in one spot, but it was high in the atmosphere and blew up. So Airbus airports in her. It was near blackness group like a kilometer up. Ok, so so when or two about targets a kilometer
I like those, we are german, released a minute. We're looking for you embracing, I can't use financial value job him all over me you're just be an astronomer. I just want credit when I used when I say kilometer just say: Neil Egypt, the only possible well reinforce. I may use the advert. I was better next time. Ok go with that said. We interplanetary society in color racial. You ought to see how the planters I am collaboration with the basics, twelve foundation. They changed the knocker, settle sentinels the name of the spacecraft. Oh so we are going to celebrate asteroid day on the thirtieth of June next year next year, when we hope has why's that day plucked from the three hundred I was the day reckoned in the modern calendar when targets tongue, duskier air, burst curtain homage Russians not bring your tongue disco, air Burst occurred and
It is worthy thing to consider if that were to happen over Paris or Tokyo, Europe. That would be the end of any of these places effect I read. Steve is a right that Tuscan was it the same latitude as Berlin, so that an earth had rotated an extra six hours, something like myself, some number calculable our that it would have been killed, a million people, the herbal ass, we shall be the worst case yea. So ok, so some asteroids are harmless. We call a meteorite, they make shooting stars, others can create severe local damaged, still, others can disrupt civilization, but the ones really care about are the ones that can render us extinct right or any well that's a hundred billion a year timescale, but that size, the ones that can do it. Don't worry about me. I will make us extinct not as much because hundred years is enough. Long time. Nobody arise that can wipe out civilization are like one every million years. I just gotta remind you that, just because such as to clarify what what is wiping civilization, we disrupting the collapse, olive agriculture, agriculture. Here,
transportation in food supply. What it's like, I just gotta, get remind you all. As now. Is an expert on statistics, but just remind you a lot probability event is: does not the same as a low consequence of it if it happens once we're the as yet only could be any moment, and I have held, in my little hand, a meteorite that killed a dog Huntsville abandoning the other guy. Let me hold it. This talk about an unlucky God: you're no industry, very right, trotting guns, reap MA am and then you're done. You're dead dog was little appreciated, though, is that you make a volcanic eruptions that could destroy civilization happen at about the same frequencies asteroids. They can do. It may be even more frequent. As I continually say, earth must kills
The first was very infrequent. I mean in any given century. It's a very low probability apostate. You he'll hear I'm coming while the volcanoes you'll make a volcanic eruption. You'll have warning, but does no mega means what means of like a thousand bigger than the biggest of Iraq has anything happened, jury civilization, ah one came close, whiskered toper, monotony civilization. No, but during you human tenure on the planet, there was one seventy four thousand years ago that might have cut down the population of our hundred gather and send. What's the super volcano to talk about. Oh, not Yosemite, ups, artists, You tell us a Europe that would not would that's happened, every familiars that when blows, that would that would qualifying we're talking about asteroids, but This room, one remind everybody view you've. If, for some reason you have not been to ash false state, part Nebraska
I am among those who have the courage to go by ass. False state falls, Asheville State part today, part Nebraska near Orchard Nebraska, as he said, aren't too many brothers taken up with the rest that aside. There are dead, rhinoceros is and camels and three toad horses, no camels, three toad horses and right as far as is that were buried by ash from a super volcano. What is now Yellowstone has always fifteen hundred kilometres acted thousand thousand. Miles, or maybe less only eight, so you ve taken be buried by ash. A thousand miles away from its really fast when it's big, but so are the big one will have global climate. Impact, so we should be more worried about the volcano were equally. I worry about the budget only after equally well, you know
asteroids alot more serious blow, except there is a lot more sexy everywhere. Where I live, where what we have on paper ways, we can think of deflecting an asteroid, even though there is no funded project in the world to do so right now we have no power to influence the fate of I dont good, didn't give you my life? Yes, don't you show up volcanoes? Don't just happened so there and can I prayed wrongly. It all have some worrying, but there's nothing we can do about it. Could master you view here? They're gonna want only tell me that no you have such cited. We get together through. Is you heard from time to time for a really big, when you might have considerable warning like Blackie deck? Well years may be, but you wouldn't you couldn't do anything to stop it It can deflect an asteroid, so some say bill. Sometimes Mr Weber, ending the world set aside the volcanoes and worried by the asteroids to your point. So what we want to do is maybe build a spacecraft, so much
so just as mutual gravity, with his object or this group of objects wouldn't do, of course, but with the planter citing. The trouble. With that ideas, tremendous amount of your she was pulled up in space more fuel than anybody. So the point is I actively planning such a mission to go back and actively planning indifferent mission, where we will yes actually planning to deflect an asteroid with the laser bees. So we would bills. This draft that have solar panels that make electricity to create lasers, powerful enough to await or evaporate, or, if I may, zap Zap as a guest because of the asteroid. Indeed, active material has momentum, So if it requires from this ejected meter because the asteroids a rubber pile. Well, that's it that's the great advantage. You can defeat
the centre of gravity, and if there are still have enough gravity to hold together, then the whole thing would get deflected, but you could possibly breaking apart. By doing this, yeah, but you They would have to evacuated coasts bill. So this is Why generally dont want to send explosives or Bruce worse, is this causes worker is well above the possibility of creating a shower of these. Objects. This is one more reason that we need to continue to explore asteroids and understand Damn rubble, piles, marshmallows things, ash giant solid rock piece of stainless steel piece of ice. This your questions we need answers to as to prevent the only then it will naturally disaster. Stephen just gets a basic facts about asked was one of the first one discovered eighteen hundred eighteen hundred known about it for two hundred years and
should have other planets right right. The first one was discovered in a big gap between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, where it was expected to be. And so it was assumed to be the missing planet. So exports has said this is a planet right the next year. Another ashtray was discovered in the very similar orbital than others, and more and more so- and it calls on us regard right these rest, but did ancient peoples a sense of asteroids young stars asian truth was where no idea, when there were no less, maybe three to yours, which is literally in Greek. It means something in the air were thought to be very close, comet, sir, we ought to be, as, as I know, the atom of the word boy I'd I don't
but a boy. I love me some bullet, so the asked the media that comes in bullets, no bigger than a golf ball, that's big enough to come through the atmosphere. You see a street then explodes at the end of its path. This were people call call the police when they see it as a growth would happen which I have been asked. Yet I had your bath well, we need another word over the bowling what happened in shaping said back in February low. You don't like about errors, if not whose way bigger than a bullet I mean we need the vocabulary. We currently have we'll see those often enough to have a cavalry for it. I guess not appoint airwave gesture refreshed memories. This thing blew up in the sky, there's so much insurance fraud in this part of the world that there are dozens of dashed. Be hundreds of dashboard camera images. Of this thing there and everybody goes to the window to look at it and then the sonic boom takes almost three minutes to get to the ground,
blows, the windows and everybody spaces, and they go to the big bandaid. Nobody was killed, nobody's killed by that much yet sixteen hundred people ass well, nobody the shot across our backs. A sort of sand, a cosmic shooting our let's get your people liked and asteroids identify asteroids weaken deflect one, as we can live a little longer than other species that he sees lifetime mammals, how typical lifetime of a few million years her. We should aim at that ITALY scope to match the records of the other mammals than we might have all right. That's not the only reason I gave you gotta call a Christmas legally ideal, because my group thinks they for joining this has been your hopes, the grass Thyssen and, as usual, to keep looking up
like Della, lay I'll drop the orange, which you can listen. The star talk: commercial, free joint start, our compatriots for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com, slash star talk, radio.
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.