Why did the US really go into space? Why did the Apollo program end early? Neil deGrasse Tyson digs into the history of space exploration with Prof. John Logsdon and co-host Chuck Nice. Now extended with 13 minutes of fan-submitted Cosmic Queries!NOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can listen to this entire episode commercial-free. Find out more at https://www.startalkradio.net/startalk-all-access.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial, free filled with secrets in industries, leaving us with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time. What what are you pray? the tv domain, the brakes, Daddy Glinda did you grandma Lastly, when they get lab Why were you
I'll, go back. Just learning now grew rocket been rather than a baby. An ignoble, to welcome to you Our talk, radio, I'm your host, Neil digressed, hasten I'm an astrophysicist with the American Museum of Natural history right here in New York City. Today I am joined by my co host comedian check nice, a meal of check, a united, and I am very nice today, my friend or unites all the time? No one knows I'm not go go that far. Sometimes check is not exactly that's when we liked best ago, such I think, you're the right age to be my co host for this
the same old I am, but I know how old you aren't. I must face baby you space baby. I must basic today we're talking about the history or space exploration right on, and that has a birthday like anybody was the birthday. Let me think, would there be July, twenty one, nineteen sixty nine, the birth of a new start always telling them that than when I love the way so the birth of when we started the birth there was the beginning of the end of the area of the space programme it wasn't even the end of the beginning, it was getting any other yet so, when is the actual birthday? Would that be that? Would that be Luna tool which has no no sputnik for tonight? Ok, us, but of course, what Nick, if you want to say right well, I have slotted today an interview with Professor John Log stand he's professor emeritus of political science in international affairs at George Washington University.
One of the founding the founding director the Space Policy Institute there and is one of the world's experts on the history of space exploration I just had to get. I just had to extract all. I could at him very distinguished, every became my office for it and let's get right to some of those clips SAS good. Then we can react return so this first clipped. I asked him the origins of the space age. Let's see what he says, the origins of the space age go. I mean there is a russian seal Caskey, a german o birth. These are famous. These are the people in the early twenty engine and early engineers, and we have one of them and we had Robert God Robber Goddard Guy. So I mean there were traditions of thinking about space in all of these countries and then rocket club space clubs in all of these countries. So Russia, germs,
America, ok, world war, to lead to the development of a functioning rocket to return, but it was used as a missile matter rocket and after World WAR, because missiles or the first things human beings thing to do with rocket power wreck low somebody else up its long range artillery. So the Aramis, obviously were defeated VON Bron and his team move themselves the end of the war from Pressure North Eastern Germany to Bavaria in order to surrender to the United States had not Russia so had they surrendered to Russia, we would have had nobody. We would have had a few people. The people started jet propulsion lab
were our rockets on one of the NASA centres, jet propulsion land, but not, then it was an army centre and they were doing rocketry. So VON Bron said to the: U S you will. Let me realize my dreams to go to the star was so he'd entrust the Russians? No, he didn't why not. Russians have find space program that they were nasty people, They are issues they saw yourselves. The aristocracy invoke Brown was very much prussian aristocracy. New well, what's happening to the german population, had insider information and that relationship get out, so the Russians with the we were sworn enemies with to surrender. He still presuming us to surrender to be presuming. It wouldn't be put on trial? Didn't put him on trial Nuremberg. Now there is a very special operation called operation paperclip to move all these people more or less illegally into the. U S give them special status.
Bypassing all the war crime, trial, all the rest and all of their operation paperclip, or how quaint look at TAT man ass in eating stuff me. I have learned something less with its with what we do about it. That's the motto star to learn something for charities that affords aids. When I just learned their wise, it pays to be really smart to the point where you can get away with work Basically, even your enemy wants a piece of your mind, that's right here, because if you are that good, I just think of the veto rocket Ryan, Nazi Germany. This rocket, I thought, is remembered. It gets under remembered for what role it actually played in the history of of everything. It turns out to have not been important strategically. Maybe some sort of a terror weapon- and it would come out of the sky
wouldn't hear you would nowhere is coming from and uphold block would be destroyed. It was hard to aim them because they went so far and they went out of earth's atmosphere and if you look at the total casualties from verses other ways, people were killing each other. It was small, pretty ineffective, yet well yeah, but It was an exploration in how to drop a bomb from something that was practically in earth orbit. Ah, those jobs Zaza, but there's something else. Aren't they ate their desire. So yeah has asked John launched in correctly noted the to was a it was a missile, not a rocket, but the fact that it would leave earth's atmosphere, travel most of its distance in the vacuum of space and then drop out of the atmosphere. Told everybody wait a minute if we ever going space. We better look closely at what's going on with this view, to rocket and that's why they all rockets from science fiction movies from the nineteen fifty what they look like than others.
Spit not we get yes, yes, that delay missiles and when they looked specifically like the veto of eating a big thin white, they look like bullet life, those ladder you climb up into them and that's the only way people could think about going into space, because that was the only thing that had a chance of actually accomplishing laugh. So here Our humans, with the whole universe, to explore, and the first thing we think of doing with our possible ways of this point- is like this kill some people. First of course, of course I mean that's. Human nature is now coming and seriously when we We discovered fire, it was discovered by a comedian everywhere and the first thing he did was set some other duties put on fire. This isn't the comedy journal. You really get rid of this research and assure and most people think of NASA civilian Agency because they know they get a space station and the doing science up there. But of course it was born in wartime born in reaction to Sputnik eyewitnesses alike early version of the arms race. Essentially,
well I mean they resource was going on. The answers are still going rubber, derivation, if you think it s an aspect of the arbitrary to enhance the space race. Russia's, where you get the phrasing space race as it take off on arms, race, right and so is an extraordinary period and what most people who knows that the the air force. Therefore, as their own budget for going into space. People said we don't want war space is already excuse me. If I been there done that, and you don't tell you about it, that's how that there's a secret weren't space at its well in terms of what the air force sees as needs to protect us from enemies that might want to influence us on the ground or are assets in space. As the code word for our satellite chuck, we gotta take But when we come back more my interview with John Langston, whose a professor of the history the space programme
baby. You know I have got no secret for you. When I consider singing all of the ads on this shell. There just one way to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last startled and porthos at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free. You can download. All current episodes into your favorite park has player, and ever hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not after hear me saying if you support us at patriarch dot com last our talk I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying.
This is stored on these missing saw them about not I'm all man. There is no stripe prejudice, no national park in outer space, as yet it has its own national towards its com.
As deserving the best of all mankind. We chose to go to the ball. We chose to go, we changed our mode in this decade and do the other thing not because they are easy, but because they are because that challenge is one that we are willing going, sap one we are unwilling to all and one we intend Kennedy, there's something. Yes, don't be. There's a speech for you, that's very inspiring. You know what I like most about that speech were is that he said there is no strife there no prejudice in space. As of yet more women. We get here party, we're gonna, make sure
all that crap is there because we're going to find some at some alien species it will be our slave has. So that was the speech given by John Kennedy in Rice Stadium in nineteen sixty two, and many people. Remember him single put a man on the moon, return him safely to earth that was, and a joint session of Congress a failure earlier rise. This speech put it all together right and I chatted with John Lexman about this and just so the politics of the space race and Eisenhower, which preceded Kennedy yet and transition to Kennedy had it all that work. I asked him about: let's check it cool, sputnik, one had only one purpose, which was to be in space. First they knew that. That would matter well. Khrushchev, didn't the russian leadership was surprised by the world reaction. So was President Eisenhower, Eisenhower's reaction was no big deal,
alone, thinking that airport, where he and his close advisable those eyes and our reaction to all the space stuff kid first instinct is this shows we can launch satellites to spy on the Soviet Union. These are built general. What else could possibly be now he's not thinking? I can explore the universe where, more than that he's a veteran of the surprise attack at pearl, harbor and say never again, will we be surprised, write anything if we have the capability to see. What's on the other side, I'd areas behind the iron curtain. Let's do it. We had thirteen failures of the first intelligent satellite before the first success that today, ok so eyes. Now it's a militaristic activity. What he wanted to do was military.
On one side and that open civilian programme on the other side that the? U S could show to the world and cooperate with the world, so he had a very sophisticated. So often side was GEO political posturing than we have peaceful uses of space. That phrase originated in his administration, ok, so NASA founded under item nineteen fifty eight, but I saw how our said: let's do a modest, scientifically driven open programme, put a person up to see what happens, but I now I don't think, there's much value the human space flight so at the end of his administration December of nineteen sixty, what Kennedy would do was not at all clear is present, like massacres, founded and there's no real missions. Before it right it just kind of their wealth. Do everything explore space, do whatever that it can be a leading nation in the space? Ok entities up a Kennedys up for already supposed to lead the world
Why did his speeches have any value at all? We're supposed to do that anyway? Well, because he saw within three months of taking office that space was an area visible achievement which Oh the union like cause, he takes wealth is January. Nineteen sixty one and Eureka Guerin goes up April, twelfth sixty one three months, three months his face before that it was very uncertain about what is posture would be people talk, that's but the moment it was really a garrison moment that drove the rigour and the first human in space rice and eight days later April, the twentieth after the Bay of Pigs it's kind of reinforced. The inclination to do something positive in dramatic Kennedy wrote a memo in asking advisers to find him a space program that promises dramatic results in which we could win in the answer came back, go to the Mercosur, the moon, so that we in your face, that's it sufficiently the United States
it was shamed into going to say I think their effect. We dont remember it that way, but that's exactly what it was we react. We reacted to Russia And- and I studied carefully- could have a book recently that space chronicles facing the ultimate frontier and in it I tried put the stuff on the table and say you wanna, remember America as pioneers in this, but in fact, almost every decision. We made likewise reactive to what Russia did or reactive to what Russia said. They would do so instead of space the final frontier. These are the of this. It wasn't that it was necessary it was more than exit. Thank you. Miss the history, through the land is nice. Ladies and gentlemen, I know, but I have to say literally that's what you know. There's the outward appearance
And then is what action has already underlined, the motivation with, because so I had not appreciated how bigger role the Euro Gagarin step into space was because we all remember Sputnik as the birth of anything going into orbit at all and so Oh, do you remember the mainland and right, of course, you're coming cause you're back when I was a kid at that time I was. I was a kid, but I do remember, being a big deal because I must see worked, great was I and I was young enough where they I believe they bought in either a tie a vision or a radio. I'm not sure I had tvs ready, they have tvs. I do know that it does not. Actually there is a big deal ever tv. There was on wheels right, you can anybody, whereas it was it was on a car that was a thing had them one car, the whole school and you have you had to do it. So it's interesting that the space rates would begin in this hysterical reactive.
But then we kind of aligned, our ducks and said was actually go to the moon. So, sir, do you think that the lack of competition as it were right now to do something big in base is really what the problem is, what America, or is it more political? It's all of the above, but let's find out what role Kennedy played in this now, because Kennedy was not didn't Whan Sputnik was launched a friend sir liquids. Sputnik stayed with me. Let's go to my mind. Next clip withdraw Martin, see what he says so Kennedys assassinate we gotta Johnson. What guarantee does anybody have that this epoch adventure gonna continuing to different leadership, while the first thing to know is Kennedy?
wasn't sure what he wanted to do right at the end of his life. People totally forget he went to the U N September, twentieth, sixty three and said: why not do it together, rule formal proposal to the Soviet Union? Any was serious so seen whether this possibility of Turn APOLLO into a cooperative undertaking was worried about the money lot of reasons by his death, though APOLLO became a memorial to a fallen president, and that was the one space priority of Lyndon Johnson was to finish a power arrived, so that actually constrained. Then what might have been a broader this programme. Indeed overwhelmingly. The focus was only moon by end of the decade and there was very low.
The planning and certainly no money for future programmes they after or even beside that. No, we became oclock obscure one trick pony really here, so they basically one is a disk like Emma. Come like a swan song, less you some, dear for Kennedy? You know like the widow poor so now for the brothers who s here right, Rodya, completely alcohol, let's just never milk rights, no sooner ragged up there for the president to want like do and for the dipper right, and so so that's interesting! I don't! I don't believe I mean you know just launched in is the story not I am, but I mean I can have an opinion. I dont think Kennedy believed that Russia would join us in going into space and knowing that he didn't believe it. He still goes on record further olive branch,
offer a high? Then they say no anything Effie, all we're going. You know we're gonna go our own route and that, as a way to politically is set yourself up right for reacting to something without looking like the bad guy yeah, because you know your opponents, gonna say screw you their economies. For goodness sake, what do you know this is after the duke of his shoe Podium Renault light. So I could, with partner with your cap and little running dog, pass the night, so so I may be for the parents. Is it looked honest, but I think politically it was actually pretty clever move on his part as pretty brilliant. So you know there's after that there was Johnson and then, of course, Nixon comes along and then we stop going to the moon, and you know all the Kennedy supporters like to blame Nixon for that. But knows it's more it more interesting. We subtle and complex
I love the moon. He made the first really expensive phone call to outer space. He called these Duessa Europe. Eighteen tea set up the phone call and it is the gap, tastes light timed it right away. Trying to get to the moon. Tobacco will talk more about that after this break. Your listening to start talk, radio I'll be right back. My means space inside it down to earth, yours listening to start
Malta has gone forever, so the more you won't be banned dozen right, we can't sleep. All I ask is often a machine that you just call me carefully. All means misuse is back use of interests and our talk, radio meal digress station and I've got my struck nice here. That's right he's been nice today, as he is most of the time. I don't want to see him when he's not. No, no, no one
haven cover the mirrors, that's good, so we ve today were featuring my interview, cliffs with John Lockstep, Joe Martians, an old friend of mine and he's he's professor political science and international affairs. George Washington University. That's not! Why have him on start out. We haven't start talk because he's a former director of their state he's founding director of their space Policy Institute is a space, extortion, extraordinary cool and right away. A little bit of the history of space, but more as an observer. Not as the you know, the academic professor historian, I'm not the historian, I just observe it and just riff on it, and so we we talk about the APOLLO program is a focus of the American Space Programme and its withdrawal of everybody. It drove their spending. It said anything NASA did. It was to get to the moon every next dollar. They were handed in their budget. It was to get to the moon
We need hookers to get to the move photos, but at night, what a hooker rock air think clearly a fucking thing. Clearly we can't get so beautiful, so we can ask well, was it worth it one of the benefits? Now people like talking about in us and you know who didn't love a good spent. Everybody loves. You know they ve got astronaut ice cream. I prefer my call, but if I'm in space young, you know what they should do cause spaces called that's right, you, but you are facing the sun at some milk. Back to a water and put our space and get me some begin. My screen, Koning Aerial, ice Cream, Mohammed S, room temperature, stuff that my saliva reconstitute, but no, but what I did was it forced us to think about food. Food preservation lay life support systems. I mean there's a
all the surrounding thought. They had to go and astronauts metal mental health. What's it like to be cooped up in it in a tiny little capsule for days and days needs one other person do other people are you friends? Are you do have attitude? I call that marriage to collate, so you get the merit duty to try to help you out things like filtering air with carbon dioxide in point, you can even be carbon dioxide poisoned. If you don't do that right, and so a lot of this was how to make use of materials that you have, that you can't swap out of recycling, becomes a big issue and space exploration, if you're, not otherwise, gonna go someplace in and you out of the mountain side materials that you would just consumed on route there. So there's a huge side of this that that matters so astronauts. You, like the first hippies
Basically, yes, it's a big coconuts longer, but I there's a whole other side of the spin offs that I don't think people talk about and I've been talking about it lately. Ok out in front of the house are represented members of the House of representatives recently talking about this very Did you know that here we are in the nineteen sixties turbulent decade there was bloody kids in on cam- pursues a cold war in in South EAST Asia and the cold war in the world. Hot war in South EAST Asia, Vietnam, and we lose a hundred servicemen a week. Yet we found time to go to the moon. Man you know what's funny is that nothing has changed with what you just said: said the we don't go to any more everything you described is happening right now accept we don't go mad, so, let's so desperate. So what I found was not only did is that just a crowning achievement, technological scientifically promote,
ocean, but in those years that we went to the moon, you know what happened in the year plus one. Nineteen sixty eight eighteen, seventy three that five six year period, we created the Environmental protection agency that happen after weep the picture of earth rise over the lunar landscape ass. We went to the moon looking to discover it and we look back and we discovered earth for the first time yet much to the chagrin of Rick Parry and all of a sudden the modern day environmental movement began. Let's find out what we get another clip which I'm lost him just to see what it did. Russia trot go there to. Let's find out Russia decided in August of sixty four to go to the moon, built moon rockets, build a lander tree. The crew and wasn't there moroccan more powerful than our just about to say? Ok, except it didn't work there,
there's more detailed, ever or launches the in one rock for failures, and we have been to the moon, so the programme got cancelled, but There is a very real russian programme. When did it get cancelled and seventy two, I think all so we have gone through seventy two right Bhopal, seventeen. They cancel their moon effort. Seventy Seventy three: when we're done, we don't even do pollinating right. I mean we get cancel their responsibly. Twenty a palace twenty appalling thing and we start that seventy the enemy was defeated. Well, the problems, it problem, the realities. If you make something a race and you when it there's no reason to run it over. There wasn't a strong stop Randy. You won the day a lot of people now we're scared to death of the risks of the programme and APOLLO
Ten showed that we want to look at that, but we actually had lost almost every other metric of space exploration. Russia had the first satellite, the first living anything which was dog like I. I didn't know that you're seeing other popular convention is that it was a chimpanzee. No first thing was a dog dog was a much runnin around a street to Moscow and he put his behind. There is basis with no plans of bringing him down alive the animal rights do not write, he didn't have choice and hidden, I said, look he's alive. Look I said, look right this. This dude died in space. He is the most famous dog since Lassie. That's true right and if you got it, they're gonna die anyway and you're gonna die in space that instead of Hungary on the streets of Moscow, skews me that's ongoing. I'd rather die in space than just be in Moscow.
In fact I sit in a said that it was wrong. So that hasn't happened. So we get to the moon and we discover earth for the first time and in a short period of years, even while those turbulence the most but the most violent decade of American, three since the civil war in one hundred years earlier, we take the time and the interest after we see earth spaceship earth aloft there in the darkness of space, we found the environmental protection agency. We ban DDT, we ban. We set in regulation to get rid of leaded gas. The catalytic converter gets introduced, the whole earth Catalogue gets formulated. We saw earth not as the schooling globe would reveal it with color coded countries. We saw earth as nature intended to be viewed with oceans, land clouds on AIDS.
It is when I was late hour later nature. Ok, then we stopped go into the moon because the Russian stopped going to the moon. So that's the evidence that we were not explorers. We would just reactors highlight human requires and then NASA needed another thing to do So what do we do? Next? go where space sorbet Shudderingly was in which go back to my interview with John Marston just to get a sensor that transition and why we in what its point wise check it out Nixon made the decision that characterize the programme for forty years, which is to build the shuttle broker. An the shuttle decision also meant we can build a space station. There struggle certainly do they were conjoined. They haven't Verona get here, ok, and so then the shuttle gives launched and the space station gets initiated under Reagan under Reagan. Nineteen, eighty four and basically that's all week
an inhuman spaceflight from nineteen. Eighty one to twenty eleven is fly. The shuttle build the station. How many Shuttleworth will respond career when, when you have what is proposed thirty to fifty one every week, and it became how many a year most ever was nine. Aren't you, It was even that met here. What did it average out about? Well, they were a hundred and three five flies over thirty year yandah up. What's that says everything with our year three or four year, it proved to be an experimental cramped and remarkable technical achievement, but an experimental, very touchy, very different. I remember the first launched the news announced back has now wants the most complex vehicle ever to go into space and they said it with bravado He said that really what you want? Complexity, we believe on the board said too complex, replace it with something simple: what's happening, something blunder, something simpler, something like the russian the soils. In spite.
Early failures and wanted remarkably reliable, as it has on removing parks or something what's with the soil, are all built out of cast iron. Anything irish whale exaggeration, but it's a very sturdy, robust spacecraft, not a temperamental Prima Donna, like a Lamborghini, where I work in his great, but what is not working in the garage right yeah, so the russian we works You don't look good and it is. It works like a bunch of drums welded together for the rocket strapped to its back itself, but it works. It worked, and so that's what fascinating to me is the spaces. Its born in nineteen, fifty seven and we land on the moon. Coming years later. Twelve years later, we go from no space anything to foot prints on the moon in twelve years and from nineteen eighty one.
Now what we ve been doing is driving around the block just just right, but in all fairness to the shuttle error show that we can make build huge structures and zero g. The space station is the size of a football, although MRS huge rife and we can live and work in Space- not quite The numbers originally imagined factors of production in the nineteen eightys by the year two thousand and fifty thousand people will be living and working. Base, while they were just a little bit three orders of magnitude off. There were three organization at the time, so there's some failed dreams there, but you can't for people for wanting to try and remember. Of course, there were two tragic shuttle disasters we lost. The challenges are on the way up. We lost Colombia on the way down right. These are the two tricky parts of any mission and the same one scene with flying interposed Mosaic,
and then, when you get on a jet hake offer laid off in land area where the problems are go and six hundred miles an hour at forty one thousand feet never heard anybody that, probably, even though you do, when you don't even know, you're doing it so by the way, all the while this, into the community is conducting science. There has always been a fraction emphasis on fraction of this of the NASA budget given to science that the launch him averages about. Twenty to thirty percent of its budget has gone to seismic. So in fact we had rope. They were. They were like landers on the moon before humans went there you hear about it. Now because we were sending people see where people go, you don't pay attention to the robots rank as nobody gets. Ticker tape raise two. But you know I hear the robots are a little upset. In fact they might do you know what was the net in and in the Terminator Skynet my
Skynet might take. Overpayment notified has been duly notifies. The machines watch out people, but we there's a long string of missions. We sent missions to Sudan, eighteen sixty eight into the seventys we sent explore. One was the first, you a satellite, but we had mariner our aid and we had you know there was a Russians, went to Venus And- and I will call the veneering, spacecraft as good or by doing the janitor forms the janitor form of if you're a Venus is venereal Linaria needs, but we we said when I go on their site event: Like you keep myself only way from Europe, an area of exile, I may say so so we it was so we had sort of missions that went to Mars. Robotic missions that were fly buys a couple of landers inviting and we have reconnaissance orbiters that photographed the Martian surface good stuff and we continue not only with rovers but with telescopes launched into orbit by NASA, and the top of the list would be about Hubble, of course, and
oh, what's interesting, as in the face of these disasters, you always ask all battle in the programme because we have seven dead astronauts, but each time that happened, it didn't write the widows and the widow workers of that this house's of those Who died would stand up one by one in front of microphone and said. It is a reminder that the frontier is a risk and often you put your life at risk, but if the act of losing a life man, you should never go further, we would still be in the cave exact, so I'm on paraphrasing, but its basic,
Everyone says to a person like you're, allowed me to die in vain now right, Zack as clearly what it comes down to exactly chuck. There's the perfect analysis of how all that happened, and so so, basically, the space programme not only serves a geopolitical purpose in emotional purpose, a technological purpose, a scientific purpose is also a symbol. It serves as a symbol for who and what we are and who and what we can be. That's final, John Locks and who studies this professionally. Let's get his reaction to this notion cool. All things considered when you add up all the disasters versus the achievements. How do you view that? How do you all, I I think, on net the space programme has had lovable great, for this country. It's been a symbol remains a symbol of something we do well, and so, when we die
do well. We surprised and disappointed. I think it is essential that a form of standards of american excellence- you think what are symbols of american patriotism, the flag, the body and some sort of space image human on the moon shuttle wants hobble image. Those things that make us feel good about american symbols. So me ass, you what the whole space programme, what rises up in your important. I think I'm most astounded. I just realized I'm making a comedian this, so maybe you can
finding the most comedic moment live on a trip on the moon or sense. I wish I could not for me, it's Hubble reels have to see in such clarity. The places there are unimaginable the universe was brought into our backyard exactly at I'm, I'm still astounded by the pictures that I love you for it. You know something the Hubble images are so extraordinary, even as scientific record of our explanation of the universe, who so extraordinary that they did not require captions ignored a few to embrace all your majesty. I now, but I took the liberty, riding some anyway. How would you do that? For me? Was APOLLO ate it wasn't on celebrated mission, melodious was celebrated, but it was the first time we ever left earth on route to anyplace else in the universe. I'm going to wrap up two segments. I, with my co host comedian, Chuck NICE and founder the Space Policy Institute in George Washington University, Dr John Logsdon
this start on nine August arrive in his died away. This is our very first start. Talk cosmic queries live on Facebook. Can I go with me check nice jack. I got a couple minutes together here we deal. Yes, we do is alive, it's great s and though we are going to get tough questions for once we'll get online was they know that we're here and a popular online requires? This is a normal thing we do on starts on radio, absolutely agenda peopled, so people type in right now,
our typing and right now, they'll just to make their little replies and their comments and as they come true, I will give them to you and the EU in the meantime. I just talks MAC enemies and normally you know normally what happens is wee wee, wee filter these questions so or I fell to them. The cool thing about this I have no idea where anybody's going to ask and whatever comes through, so whatever you want to know ring around is pretty bring it make my day itself before we do that. I should also let you know that for those of you who are interested, you know everything that we do no matter. What it is we have now, a site called STAR talk: all access, dot com, which is a subscription site. Where you can subscribe everything we do. You receive commercial free. In addition to that, you'll receive videos of all the package that we do. In addition,
that there are interviews that you do Neil with very famous people that never make it to anywhere the other on the cutting through another riding we'll floor and we'll have those there, and in addition to that, if that is not enough, you, we also have exclusive original content that can only be found on all access and when you subscribe, if that is not enough, you can watch us on Apple, TV, Amazon, fire and Roca, and you get against United Way. If you ask now So what do you have that come in yet sir? I'm not gonna pronounce your name representative on THA come on Could you say any advances in the field of interstellar travel, as we have discovered seven new at so planets. So he won't you what you want. Reverse. He was I gotta get out here. Her goldilocks zone
I am like I'm ready to go well, so the problem is the fastest spaceship. We ve ever launched this the fastest thing, if you ain't it for the closest Exo Planet, the other seven rights go to proximate Injurie its call proximate some operators close of course. This is why this we gave get gave. Their name is for light years away part because the other one is what does it? Forty fifty light years? I forgot the number, but if tens of light you'd proximate century right, their aim you're fast. This thing we have ever launched take seventy thousand years. I let's go tomorrow, so you gotta figure out How do I defy your biology or inventor wormhole and I'm gonna, I'm gonna to bet on the wormhole? Okay, not cryostasis stasis, now and then make a movie and act up. We wake up seventy thousand years later. Right, of course, is the thing. You only have a five o clock shadow, some reason in movies to sleep for several thousand wig,
I might lead. This is not the only issue that movie they never p or poop and movies factly. I cried. Is there The issue is that there are other nowadays gryce when Austria Here we go. Let's, let's move down and see what we got interesting here. How old doktor ties in this is a deep decrease in swing. Kyar doktor, tight, I'm I'm so sorry for During your name. I know I did how adapter ties it. Ain't gonna bring in a name. Reader is when you pick up the question after font: ok, doktor, dicing! You talk about the articles you ve written that have appeared in any pier
you journals along those lines, yeah sure you have yet. I have not as many as many of my colleagues ring do that exclusively, but I had a prediction some years ago published in the astrophysical journal. Letters right, which are shorter, faster communication that might have impact to affect the work of others remained a prediction that there might be ten times as many galaxies out there and what are then catalogues would show right and at the time some better telescopes were brought to bear on it and they said unlike the three or four times as many galaxies. Yes, the full up technical tended still feel good for it, prompted searches and and and a way to find them there and recent evidence actually comes much closer to my original prediction, since I feel pretty good about that one example of stuff that I done, but it's not secret publications, there's something on Google scholar. Ok, it's not your normal Google search
changing, but just type in Google scholar go there and type in my name in use your majesty s off their eyes very cool there you have it. I also study the structure of the milky way galaxy of oil in the core in the centre, and things like that. So it's in there if you're, their core the center of the milky way. If I'm not miss black hole lurking there here, oh no, I thought it was cargo and creamy Newgate MAX. I came here remain outside lightning round could time later, doctors I want to do exactly what you do. What did you study to be where you are right now I studied physics and mass, both of which constitute the language of the universe.
Ok in the same way you? Why did you go to China? You learn Mandarin. You speak to people there weren't spanish, to go to Spain. You speak to people there right. You want to speak to the universe and understand what is telling you write speak its language at that's. Math is Matt Math and Physics, basically the foundations of of of the sciences, and so that's what I did. I majored in physics, sweet in college and a Phd in astrophysics and then you are conversant then. But I do these other than write books and this sort of thing. So I think a lot about how people learn, how they pay attention, and I followed in what I know with what it is to share that love. Then I'm just doing what Carl They can said you do when you're in love. You want to tell the world oh, how I hate Chauncey he'd Chauncey offers well what's up, and secondly, I says dogmatism. On or Mars mean that I love that cause. The whole question it is implicit in
Do you wanna, go first say you goon Margin Automatic moon go to Mars. What is ardor and you have the money can and do it yet? Can we do to my first and you can that in a new cycle could only take through. Basically, ammonia, hey I'll, come back you back in a week. Mars is years. So I'm saying on the contrary in here that country- and I am driving in the different lane- ok, my lane is. We should turn also the system into our backyard, with a line up booster rockets into two from here three from there to get you to Mars right, one from there to from their that gets. You do an asteroid right why we should not be thinking of destinations, which should be thinking of capabilities and, if you think of capabilities as a goal in the entire solar system becomes your backyard and nothing sits out of reach hot damn. That was good.
Nine throb of Andrew, let's move or ok so yeah yeah yeah once and others can. He was developed to be higher and smarter creatures, and we developed that. So I don't see why not in principle is just that the brain remains such mystery to us. We don't really have a good explanation for consciousness, much less, what's going on in your brain, for it to become intelligent We know what can make you really not intelligent so because almost any chemical influence on the brain makes you sort of less capable than other than no influence on the brain. Ok, when you things like alcohol and drugs and things that people people do under those France's that's! Not when you want to write down the rocket formula right so So in this I would say that could be a day where we find out that these neurons snap
these are your analytic centre, and this is where your math centre is, and this is why our artistic centre is it I want to be a better artists, will stimulate dad or rebuild this. I saddle see anything in principle from standing in the way of that, ultimately being discovered one day. Unless intelligence is so complex, so it's so distributed in all the Neuro synapses, that it's hard to just point to any cancelling can't locate, ok, alkalies it localize integrate, but could be something much more intricate. Then how I'm making it sound at this moment but sure you'd want to do for that to happen, and dealers are, we can become better shepherds of our own fate, says, there's also the integration of technology into the human brain that may be the next evolution of her. We become more widely to put it in the brain. Just leave it out here
You cannot be my brains out your eyes, tat message. What my brain stay on the phone direct people send the phone one day will plug the usb into your neck and are saying this is kind of ready that right right, it's! But it's not me! into my neck right and get now. Rum, the world right here, an apology and got alone and last question from yes, a bumper, yes Vampa, who says: hey Dogmatize and I'm from India. Please will you run for president I put the way we work. Pretty sorry means, but that we pretty parties is where Europe oppressed.
Of India that he or she I dont, know, sounds name yes about up your servants. Seventh thoughts. I think you're female I dont know, but so no, I actually on my website I have. I was asked. Why didn't? I was asked by the New York Times: Equity Congress was at an impasse and they say: let's ask people who are not politicians if they
solutions to this could clearly the politicians don't ok, they act like a musician and its annex like the scientists they ask, and I M so the question is: what would you do if you were president- and my answer was and is still is posted on my website now my facebook page, I actually have a website as how old fashioned I am. What if I were president this is what things would be and in their it says of our present. I would not be president. I have. I dont have interest leading people interest as an educator and especially as a scientist is educating people right so that they can make an informed decision as they can when they are lacking.
Do they want to represent them. As you just went around swapping leaders back and forth, you haven't solve the electorate problem, okay, so the real problem with America is. We are too dumb to pit good leader what its now know that now, let me say differently. Ok, the problem is that if we have this, if we have dysfunctional politicians right! It's, because we have a dysfunctional electorate rat, because electorate puts them in office and if you say I hate this guy bearer thin vote, em out right therefore, these people in a democracy in India, the world's largest democracy. Yes, we can control this stuff. It's not some king. Brought down from the ages, were you can't get rid of them and in the old days the only way to get rid of him was how off with your hair, with your head- okay, so so so I'm just saying, I would rather
I would rather disseminate knowledge, wisdom and insight to all who I can so that when they make their political decision, whoever they vote for it has informed the decision as they possibly can make plough. That is good, good stuff. We're out of time- and I made a jaw, Lynn, Gabriel and Ali, and me No, no. We couldn't again all the core leonard and care all and job, and you guys have some great questions, but their very involved- and you know I'm just
this was live, lie sort of burst in your day. This way, right and put you know what we're gonna get all this stuff on a regular starts out, because this we're gonna keep these classes and those questions. Let me keep this we're gonna. Keep those questions. Do a whole store talk to a star talk, just after the questions that you guys have here, that's great for new quit cosmic queries and, of course, everything that we do can be found commercial free, along with exclusive original content on start up all access, dotcom stuff that you see me I'll do that he won't do anywhere else like get naked, does not know, don't net then was senior make it had not been what those who has seen the make nab Natalie start up all access that car no. That's that's start hour after hour. We out, we are like Galileo job, the orange.
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-22.