This week, Gary O’Reilly and Chuck Nice explore what it would be like if we held the Olympics on Mars, or went ice skating on Europa, or played baseball on the Moon, using Neil deGrasse Tyson’s popular tweets that look at sports through the lens of science. Their only guest: astrophysicist and master tweeter, @neiltyson.Don’t miss an episode of Playing with Science. Subscribe on:iTunes Podcasts: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/playing-with-science/id1198280360?mt=2Stitcher: http://www.stitcher.com/podcast/startalk/playing-with-scienceTuneIn: http://tunein.com/radio/Playing-with-Science-p952100/SoundCloud: https://soundcloud.com/startalk_playing-with-scienceGooglePlay Music: https://play.google.com/music/listen?u=0#/ps/Iimke5bwpoh2nb25swchmw6kzjqNOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free. Find out more at https://www.startalkradio.net/startalk-all-access/
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip. The commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free. I am the other aspects of your personal astrophysicist. The startup network is pleased to present to you a new issue where the universe in sports, and now I am so nice- I am very light and we are the whole stop playing with science ready for it.
One day we aim to put them through the vast multi verses of meal, digress, Thyssen's, mind and light up the cerebral spheres that engage with the complex and ever evolving world of sport. Yeah, so did you did you change your medical, this, like any other says it- has many opinions and many things which he chooses to share on a regular basis, but he has a heartfelt connection to sports. That's constantly filtered through his scientific lens on twitter. So when you they would signs. There can be no, but a play date than the man himself and to take us to sport feta out of this world. Out of this,
words have yes. Indeed, out of this world sports, we have Neil digress. Thyssen has thanks for joining us. Now is the one the only being scared. That's it Normally, that's how you get someone off to stay ass order gone show our idea, man, I don't take it personally now, that is, that is a royal entrance right there. That's what the gun is for now. Normally I'm sitting there, that's rights are now you just took you just took it damn show a guess, your new. I have to get used to this area and it doesn't happen without you. No, whether without news gonna start asking us questions.
Better help himself now reads be your guest on the share that that they please don't ask us inequality, disease, I feel loved fuel has very clear that we hear may well radiated and of course you are a prolific twitter, you, but it's not well. So a couple of things for, as I said, I have many opinions which I do, but I hardly ever tweet opinions. This is true opinionated tweet, I ever posted, which was clearly an opinion was after star wars. The force awakens, I said, baby aid is way cuter than our duty to clear in opinion family and then, of course, there are fight some things you can leave those generational fights and yet without end, but when I try to is not give you an opinion because, frankly, I don't care if you you're my opinion on anything you'll get what it cares at whatever opinion you come up with, it is informed with objectively verifiable truth nice day. This man is always about science, education,
right. There did a tweet there make whatever damn opinion you want rattle care, but I care broadly, but specifically person to person. Just I'll give you more information that you may have had before way to help. You understand her decision. Setting they saw on behalf the universe. I do I like that. I am representing the universe in my presence here today. In a funny thing, when you talk about opinions, I caught the tail and eavesdropping of you haven't a conversation with somebody. You were saying that when scientists talk to people, if you say things that are just patently unscientific or to force a false yeah- and you just refuse uses
you just you just blindly adhered to those things you we're not an arduous uses. Walk away is one way, there's the old adage, which is mostly true right- that if an argument last more than five minutes, then both sides are wrong and the hard line and said: oh, you know you think about it, because facts are facts in and by the way in science is not like. We don't argue, but when we argue, we argue with certain fundamental premise, which perhaps does not exist with other kinds of arguments. Other spheres of argument in science. You- and I are you its built on the premise that either I'm right in your wrong rife or you are right and I'm wrong or we're both wrong, and the fact that were arguing is that there is insufficient data to resolve this. Yet right so we use our arguments to help shape what next data we're gonna put on the table so that we know
over without argument- agree and go on to the next four alright. But the argument in science is not for the sake of argument, but, like I know I am, but what are you? I know you are or what am I right? You know ninety nine percent of the normal on Ray it's really a medium sized or no Europe, your Mama, irrational things, a good thing. It would be funny if, if I get up and give up talkative scientific conference- and somebody doesn't like us- your mama aside, have no rebuttals. So little rattlers come on we're talking about today are the tweets of needles with respect to sports, which you called on my sportswear. So did my friend we re not does not up. I mean there's a few, but it's not like that's what I
right now. But there's this this there's more than forty of forty. We are able to find out and ok. So this one in a hundred is a sportsman. Hundreds of is the sports tweet or in a lot of times they surround very significant sporting event. Yes, yes just to keep it in the mood riots. It's like this is its baltimores lamps, Israel, grey matter. If it is one in a hundred- and you are
an athlete with you now coming forty pounds ago. Yes, we ve, we think of established we're all everyone. Here is an exactly so you know. I am sure that you know your person who looks at so we as it as a former athlete. You were wrestler generator since we like three guys here. So do you know where my how I wear my forty pounds so a lot of it is everywhere, but of course we're guys or most of it just goes to the beggar. I've always had broad shoulders and a large chest and my chest, even at my chubby, biased, was always bigger than my waist. So I have to do is cut a jacket to go to work to come in at the waist a little bit right then still cuts in you. Don't look like some slob that you know that that clearly was once in shape, but is no longer so I've I've been able to fake this extra weight. In my in my next, we complain. Science will have colors
the spring and less tailoring other haberdasher all advice, Rome with science we like to start off every so with a clip of supporting clip that you're going to forget. We have something you made a eroded sweet about Hussein Ball. I thought it was very cute, but speaking a blue symbol who, by the way for those of you who are interested, we are going to be Belinda, show with disabled who as expressed his it'll come on. You shall not. Now he was that Europe which was put to me, was to do an interview with you that we will then take and put on the shelf. Oh ok, yeah and catch him. If we get that can't you see those cancer so anyway, he is too fast man, the world, improbable the greatest sprinter of our time and here's a little ditty from him and something called the real limpets
Has it been sighted began, he's got some words stretching ten zero, Jane London. Let me get savers avoids I'm not very greatest there. You have. It was great about also used where jump in right now jump right right now, so he's not the fastest man in the world he's the fast as human there ever was well just to be clear. Distinction this is why we have measuring devices to say positive
one of the greatest, if he's the fastest human there ever was it is the greatest. Thank you it s, not one of about an opinion point I it. These are numbers that worries us is a good thing about the methods and tools of science renders opinions irrelevant so great so and so no way you were gone with, that of the winner of the hundred metre dash, is consider the fastest man in the world that you set a world record in it you're the fastest person there ever was right. Airbus has pretty cool, ok Oh you got my tweet, we'll just have to get it. So it's I really liked it. You caught some flag this from some haters, because you used bolt the dog who, by the way, great movie have kids, which I do young children who took a few years ago, and is it it's a tube movie and it's about all whose super super fast, and so what is red? The tweet? Okay, so in this treaty,
This is not from memory. You haven't up on a screen and looking at ok, so I just thought I'd people should know how fast bolts are right. I said how many boats can I come up with so there's Hussein, is a lightning bolt right, and I thought I remembered some other sort, a cartoon character, ball and sure enough. There was the dog from the movie times. Then I looked up to speed the average running speed of that species of dog. Ok cause. There was a real species of dog portrayed in the film. I got all these numbers together and I put a metric units, so hearing is between one hundred thousand ten meters per second lightning bolt either. Thirteen point four meters per second bolt ten point: four meters per second Hussein bolt
important, I arrived, and I met three images together, one of the lightning bolt the dog, and in saying this I did and then leads us. Is this not an opinion here, just giving you information, and so a lot of people were incredulous that important four metres in one second or they never didn't see it in this context. Right, yes, Christy there's, ten metres way, one second, a short ten metres is how far you gotta go in for down to get a first down exactly and they couldn't quite equal. What like all centralisation right time and distance becomes an Ok, I did not know cause. I cataract everybody's comment about. As I read the comments after I read, a lot of people, like that's impossible, turned out so ten ten point four metres in one second, but it's over a hundred metre, right and in fact he doesn't look like he didn't hit his stride until seventy meters or so it doesn't. He never does.
To at a hundred meters, but that's the whole thing about using vote against the short sprinters. He takes one or two steps less for the power transference from one is for hits the track and then goes lousy into to become that much faster in the later stages? It probably also more efficient, as he had takes fewer steps at about the same rights and the experts saying he may not be the apex of human sprinting somebody is some stage. Another outlier will turn up and go even faster or whatever to look like I've already legs gonna be really find the shape, if you think of splinters in the past, with little pocket rockets. Here he's come along at six. What fibre he's? Probably you remember, the great athlete car Louis, the court's he's, probably five inches taller closest five, ten or something or your six five year and much bigger yeah just that much quicker.
They are so it was so it was a delight to watch him run. Of course I mean I'd on tv. I sought by so the attempt, so the meters per second transfer of of how to think about speed to every cent that would help that's great. What concerns me is that we have an educational system were somewhat could think there wrong. Yes, it asserts that is wrong and which they did by the way right rather than say. Well, I never thought about it that way before. Let me investigate to see of Thyssen is right rather than assert that I'm wrong right, because the correct table just so you know, I think this temporary tweet it? This isn't that'll just like random we'd all then we sort out some numbers. Not I put way more thought into my tweet. Then you will ever leave, given how much thought most people put into their tweets don't put into the streets? So just just so you know, but the fact is it possible to run ten point four meters.
Per second, because at hundred metre dash takes ten seconds. Therefore, its ten meters per second Adolf, really simple ethical matters, math, not even one or one. That's like the thing is, I think a lot of people is like you say you see ten metres and you see one second and you think of somebody coming from a standing as adding a position and going one second. I've gone ten metres right, that's that's where people to another another impasse in this mental impasse occurred as trains, we're getting faster so much it or will we ever go a mile, a minute mile admitted it
had those in the same sentence before and and and how that just sixty miles and after all, it is sixty miles, is sixty minutes in an hour, my one minute and people, and nobody would bring twice at that right today, because we have, but they complain. If you were doing sixty miles an hour. Only sixty miles and early train pointed a super fast track gives european product without was great man. I was that there was really cool and I just love the fact that no matter what you tweet, it's always controversial to someone here, but that's not my I'm trying to be controversial by the way I have tweets that I read restraint, which probably controversial market treat that one day I went to collect all the ones. That I knew in advance would be controversial and chose not to treat them sweet ok day to dump the money the arbitrary data, I said, you think you think I'm too
and to be controversial, the contrary. We have no idea here. You go K, islands, new book of prophecy, gotta find a way to make them into a book meal texts. We got one here. The world from a two thousand told Olympics are right. I said how about Mars Olympics? Yes, all athletes with suffocate ignoring that complication. A cooler than an earth Olympics, that's all I call it an earth Olympics. I'm saying you up for tweets, they followed ass. I was going to take us when you say way, cooler than you actually give us some examples of why Olympics on Mars or pretty much any sporting event on Mars might be cool. It also took up a hundred degrees below zero on Marser way. Cooler has double meaning the dining with the thing we pick them up like that up. Ok, so let's look at one of the Mars tweets and this is cycling on Mars.
Ok, all right, I'll sell guy had eyes. So this again during the summer, two thousand twelve limits. If the recycling on Mars try limping mons of volcanic mountains five times taller than Mont Blanc, the Alps wow, so you think you got all mountains here now. The tallest mountains and deepest valleys are not on earth. In the solar system. There there on Mars there on the moon, so we ain't got no ways not right. We're we're not without winning those contest. Is you notice? The atmosphere on Mars is how much less than the US atmosphere about one one hundredth yeah. So if we had pressure amateur approach, it always for every breath you take on Mars, there is one one hundredth the amount of air in that breath and it would be an earthly altitude becomes your enemy in terms of the oxen nation. If you're performing an attitude but
The ideal way to do this is your train and altitude compete at sea level right what we need to do now. I suppose you don't have any problem getting up the mountain, while all the tourist, like circled about each other, more here's what you do a final now and make never been made before you ready area drain. The Pacific ocean ok then hold the Olympics at the bottom of the Marianna trench who trade high altitude, but now you compete at the bottom of which is friends. Six miles down now Every breath of air has way more oxygen and at sea level, and so now you have heroic feats before you do. You have a dope, your blood, the heiress. I will put the oxygen and ethical right in Europe must show. The eyes is gonna stump up for that draining of say. I just like the fact that you are thinking like a supervillain basic item on the other ways echoes it's all good train on Mars,
the mountain, outnumbered minds and come back to us and compete problem is its only forty percent the gravity of earth. So that you are carrying is not as much going up the hill at so they are selling trade off some trade offs pissed off dissonant, eddied suit say: will you just lead? Led let yourself down another thing: once you ve drain the Pacific Ocean, they had nothing to do with sports. Just while we're on the topic. If you drain the Pacific Ocean, that is the great toilet. Bowl of dead satellites are really guess, because splatter on the Pacific. They crashed down and the big satellite in isolation and as far as the other crisis area. So the reason why is the Pacific Ocean is almost a third of all possible longitudes on earth ratings. If you d orbit and you do it do you have a lot of latitude, no pun intended to where you begin the deorbit, so that is gonna point out and Pacific no matter what and add people live air, so not over. The great bulk of the expanse hides a safe place to drop your stuff out of order of the day we do
Albert Huddle. It's going straight in the present answer. Is yes but the specific goals and exercise or greyhound bus by the way? If you now no eyes telescope yeah? This is one of my favorite. We actually talked about this ends in a different form on startup and its swimming on Mars. Ok, so here it is again said same week. If there was swimming on Mars, the low temperature and low air pressure would force the pool to simultaneously freeze and boil we'd that how many hours does Michael this I have to train with freezing and boy Maxima scientist. I guess he's up to about fifty thousand years. Gurgling trunks ice cream air as well, so at the exact as at the same time. So can you explain that that's all
how you get to that. How do you get to that, since we are so in chemistry? In physics is well, it's called a triple point, sir, which is a cool. Dame measurable point of view of its substance is the point where it is happy being solid, liquid in gas or the south, Santa ok. So now that sounds freaky this is outside of our common life experience aid, but it's less so than you might think on. So take a look. Dry ice, ok sail to have seen a double point of its state, so it is simultaneously a solid and a vapor light is happening all once gas? Ok, you open a thing of the what comes out of the solid rights? That's a double point is occupied. It's not as interesting is the triple point, but it does make for some concerts. So here so here's the actual use other smoke for that. Rather they think there's other. Do they get their use. These rise backing,
There were two right there. You smoke machines and obeyed years. We're twisted sister performed made in all three. So so here's how works. Do you know that when you go to high altitude it affects cooking times, because Warder boils at a lower temperature right. You know this is territorial. Twelve, if we're all losing imperial unit. I could make a boil it. Two hundred degrees or hundred eighty degrees to increase the cooking time food is not at the high temperature for his long. You can't get boiling water hotter than the temperature that is boiling at right. One of the earliest experiments I do with my kids, so they understood this you I would start boiling a pot of water. I say I give them are thermometers and measure the temperature
and ass. I hunted degrees three minutes late, measured again unintended. Greece hundreds why to keep doing this, and I say this heat go into it. It's a yet. We see the flame of my kids like six and seven and eight. So then it's like two hundred degrees. They check it again to an five torrent. Ten to twelve ok demonstrated measured again too ill to enter into wealth, where's the energy going I or my gosh. It stops going because water, and at that air pressure right got to become a gas scenario, lower the air pressure. The boiling point drops and the more you lower the air pressure, the lower the boiling point drops and eventually the boiling point meets the freezing point of order and now you have frozen warder liquid water in boiling water all night, that's exactly right! Awesome s, fantastic man that is fantastic are so instead of getting into another one. Why don't we cause we're up against
let's take a break and will come back with more produce. What real I got so Olympics on Mars. An emphasis market? I want to take my side of my eye caught it accordingly I do not want to it. We can pick it up that after the break, but I for comfort, women, Beach volleyball on Mars, no protect ozone layer there solar uv would irradiate all exposed legs buns in Their Morley wear clothes. They Donovan's bitterly balls which, as you know, that's why I don't watch it doesn't matter. What are you? Why doesn't leave,
I still don't break whether regional Reagan wouldn't come back with more of meal. The grass Thyssen's tweets on sports right after this I have got no secret for you gonna consider singing all of the ads on this show Just one way to get out a hearing there go to patriarch Since last star and supporters at the five dollar level or higher to listen, the star talk ad free, you can download all current episodes into your favorite park has player and ever hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not after hear me sing. If you support us at patriarch dot com last
talk radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. In her son, things have been going like an astronaut, no helmet, overwork jury, Riley, I'm truck nice This was why we feel able your backup team race is playing with science. We have no direct Thyssen. Whether we can work on that this is. This is playing with science. Ok,
ago reprimanded carrying two, not not allies. Urania. Now you on. Ok, you bonding gone Butler, who never lose an opportunity with science news. Egress Thyssen is here with us and he's treats his many tweets and other opinions that opinions, but there's ways forward just back into its. I just realized something so everyone's once you when we were talking about eyeball Mars, burning the skin, because, as you know, I know you ve protected by the way the marshes farther from the sun than his earth so the wasn't one point for care the two don't you get it wrong? You'll get so Mars. Has about two one: half the solar intensity then does?
our specific at any given amount of time, all other things being equal? They would take it twice as long to get to get sunburnt bat Mars doesn't have you he layer right an ozone layer right, because it's not free oxygen on on on Mars right on earth. Free oxygen is actually we breathe. That's oh two oxygen binds with us. The ozone layer. High up in the atmosphere is three oxygen atoms and the reason why that blocks uv- no wonder why I did not ok, so this molecule sitting there fat and happy in the upper atmosphere, ok and one of its bonds that bind these molecules together is the same energetic such as that of an ultra violet particle of light and ultra vires photon to alter by default and comes in. It is just what it needs to busted open right. So the energy of the light is gone
and it got converted to breaking apart this molecule right, so he ate the uv molecule out there. You re so tight that that that actual molecular Bonn becomes a natural block black, let's, let's literally like, are like a blocking tat, general block, and if there is a very close explosion to us in our solar system, supernova, you can calculate because it takes a while to read generate the ozone. Rikers is stable. Where did winsome you? Some faggot red re manufactured thanking Al Gore, so watch what happens If you have a call a nearby soup and which has a lot of you being the waves of uv light, take out your ozone and then the next wave goes through without without conflict wow, so
first ways just like an army is exactly like army way waves of armies, and so that also can only protect you so much before it has to rebuild itself. If you have a major forks of uv covenant. What's I'm lying on a rebuild. I died. I have to calculate that I dont get. It has many sources lightning can actually regenerate. You can put energy back in to recreate this, because different chemical reactions are exothermic endo thermit, as the balance of all of these that creates the chemist, the chemical cocktail that Our atmosphere ice. So yes or other mechanisms can regenerated and whatever those mechanisms are, you can construct actual things in the universe that will override them, such as supernova explosions, other planets hormones in solar system with a similar ozone layer, because we get our oxygen from life right. I used to think and STAR Trek
captain. This is an oxygen nitrogen atmosphere. We can go down and breathe it. That's all. We have to do is look around the universe for a planet that that happens to have the the chemical make sure that it has made, and then I realized know how it works. It's not that every planets got its own mixture. Is that Earth has oxygen because we have life right because we because the the photo photosynthesis, It's all the league, the green plants make that oxygen and that in it that's my rocket fuel for animals, then Animals can now rise up metabolize oxygen and we have this harmony of plants and animals. We just say So, let's move on to some other tweets in we're. Gonna cut a group these, as you know, kindly to deal with ice so think of it. It's like you know, maybe skating on and sell it. A sore o rope power of the like tat, but you you happen to have some mom some some skating facts that you twitter vow wonder if this was during the winter Olympics is February to
fourteen. I remember the dates s. Ok right here So those who hears what are you watching the Olympics in Sochi? I'm never me some Olympics. I let me some Olympics, ok size. It this time obscure fact whether I tweet a hundred and twenty five characters, not a hundred forty leagues teenagers. Is on the table to sank ass, any of us here, just occasionally any of them back in the break of obscure fact. Skating is possible only because compressed ice melts so skaters glide on slippery warder, not on slippery ice sweet. So now, are you saying that the friction between the blade and the other friction the pressure that pressure? Yes, a twin the blade and the ice is melting, the eyes so that there is an ever so thin layer of water ass. The scanner
melting the eyes so that there is an ever so thin layer of water ass. The skater is actually gliding like a snail, makes its little closed. Loop like swine fever, slimy grew I've never heard skating an analogy snails slime. Snails live as executive, ok, Jackie, I'm gonna need image this morning. I don't think I'm going to share your house. So is this? Is this
Prevention is better than we back up for me because I'm really fascinated by this generally people's understanding of the workforce is accurate to how we use it in physics, generally, this aim anymore forced to open this door. Ok, so you put into force there's another term call pressure which is less familiar as physics term in the public, so pressure is force divided by the area over which the forces operating at you. Ok, so so watch what happens if I have a nice and it's not cutting because its dull I'm putting a force on that knife and it's not working. You have to ask yourself what is the area of the?
cutting bleed road is the area of the thing it's touching the thing you're trying to cut its doll, so you may is not very big. You know one square millimeter over the entire length of the blade. Let's say: ok, Now you sharpen the blade. What does that mean you reducing the surface area of the cutting it? oh, it's one hundredth of a square millimeter Cosette stuff. Would you can't even institutes and now the force divided? I the area creates an enormous pressure right, so the lower the pressure The lower the area is that cutting blade higher the pressure. The pressure is for the same force that are using to cut that's. Why sharp knives cut? That's why, what it means. When will sharpen a nice your shrink,
the denomination of that equation, pressure equal force, divided by area? So if you ve ever isolated, I used I used to be a skating guard actually came on ago. Longing and by you figure states by the way, so so, ok, so the winning quote sharpen skates. What you do is you she put a concave cut. The bottom of the blade is concave right, Have you ever look closely at us? Haven't its own everyday. All day? Ok go very slowly, so it's concave the full length of the blade. So that means, if you leave to the left her to the right All of your weight is on basically a knife edge of the state and so that creek extreme pressure on the ice and how thick as the ice is like a fraction of an inch did you notice? I scatterings it's like a fraction of an inch and know that. So now you put pressure on the topic that I saw an
the ice in the instant yours gay, comes over it now. Ok now, but I didn't explain why the ice melts access. That is one of the most profound facts in the universe. But are you? Are you but if I don't love you ready for that down anyway, sentence Gulf K, ready. Ok, as though you with me now that the discharge for this the edge higher the pressure right, we got that are so now. We all know the ice floats case that is rare among material unbroken among substances is usually, if you free something cool it and freeze ETA, get smaller right Bulgarians. Water, however, expands when it gets to about four degrees celsius water is shrinking down to about four degrees celsius enough, for you
freezing would be be forty celsius. Then it going to get gonna get bigger right so between four it becomes puffier and it becomes less dense than the water it sitting on and it floats. Ok, that's why it is almost impossible to completely freeze a lake in the winter, because, if a chunk of ice forms anywhere, it floats annual, reach the top of your lake and rattled insulate the rest of the lake from the cold temperatures that are above it right allocate. The temperature basically prevents the bottom the fish just get lower and lower and lower the hang out until spring time, and then they come back right. Otherwise we would be filling all life forms in every lake for every winter. Ok, so now watch what happens. I now have is ice. Cube, tat is bigger volumes and they can what it would be melted ranked with you. I wanted house
We know that ice cube, that's not allowed. You can't do that because the ice has to be that followed it. That's it this. Has to be that volume to be ice, so it has return ass. He asked yes, it's for your browser with me is that it's gotta turn back Turn back to order under pressure- oh my god! That's all! It's! Ok! Ok! We're with you know it's freaking, The widow way way way way way: some justice up where it can anyone else that light bulb. Just love great orgasm, stuff, orgasm it'll bring my guess. It suits the way we are going to tell you that way, but we can't go. This is also why pipes break in the winter right. What happens warders sitting there? Ok, how can they don't break at water sitting there?
in the pipeline watch what happens so the word it tries to expand, but the pipe is preventing it right. So you can get down to thirty one degrees, no nobody's pies. Freeze, forty one degrees or thirty degrees. You know the border is still there contained. Ok, then you reach a point where the pressure of the pipe can't make can't can't keep this. As water and the warder changing state becomes more powerful than frickin copper pipe itself as right says I am now Iceman Play burst out of the pipe it'll bring practically anything, but if you make something this kind of on board, It'll stay water all the way down so check this out. With that in mind there I'll love scotch. Ok, I enjoy drinking some scotch mammals and they have these giant copper weights and they are hollowed out so that its sphere on the inside of this
giant, copper weaknesses in the vat where they were now. Whether maybe this is for at this for I q, so that you can make a nice cue to put in your Scots outdated. In Europe without diluting you're, ok, what they do is they take a block of ice, they sit it and they put the giant copper weight. That is concave. On top of it, the pressure of the giant, copper, wait pushes down on the eyes and the eyes melts into a ball. Yes, yes, This is exactly what you want to talk about anything. What happens when the skater is one that I know it also happens. You could take a screen. A grid like like, like a screen or be screened orbit, met just to make this a little more interesting increase the size of the grip of the screen hole like maybe a half a centimeter on aside and pulled it horizontally. Take a block of ice
and place it on the screen, but he's got a really heavy ice and the screen is not to find a grid. So what will happen is that the ice in contact with and it's gonna melted right, melted but just to get around screen and it comes out on the other side, I am. I am melted ice at three one degrees could I was under pressure, but I'm back to thirty one, thirty, two to thirty that it said I write it melts in a bowl of freeze temperature and what comes out you decided just freezes because no other under particular pressure. You come back in a half hour. Half of the block has passed through really it still icily others no ice on the other side and see this and all this happens. When you were talking- and you don't even know it so speaking- skating- an ice, any tips for schemes
anywhere else in the universe. Iser earth does not have ownership of all the ice. That's going on so Mars has polar icecaps as does earth shrink and grow seasonably as desert and while we're there Mars rotates about once every twenty four hours as deserve. So that's why Mars is such an object of our affection as a possible second planet that we might inhabit? after we trash earth. But if you want to go beyond Mars, one of my favorite objects out their social objects is a moon of Jupiter called Europa rope. Let me so Europa. This is far beyond the warm habitable zone.
They like zone, where the temperatures just right to sustain liquid water to close. If they have water and you too close to the sun, it evaporate fahrway freezes. Europe is well outside of the zone, but beneath the surface of frozen water is a liquid oceans been liquid for billions of years. Is an energy source from Jupiter, stressing the shape of Europa in ways that are not fundamentally different from even play, racket supports who say? Yes, one up the ball rights? Yes, yes, yes! What are you doing? You are compressing the ball for every hit and then the ball risk restores its shape ready for you to smack it again. Pumping energy. This through gravitational, so what's happening. Is that what we call title forces that distort the physical shape of Europa and, as Europa goes around Jupiter ford in another way
I then in another way, so constantly getting getting harassed rain by Jupiter and other surrounding moves, so that collects as energy deep within and melt the ice since, like when you bend a paperclip, back and forth, back and forth that support yet so easily matter getting stressed and heat, and why does it get hot you're putting energy into its many events and fourth, Jupiter is for energy into funeral and surrounding moons or conspiring to to make this happen now watch. So you have a nice surface of ice on Europa in principle. You could go skating there. However, this ice is not on top of a decisive, not on top of a rigid surface as its as a normal skating It's a float, an ocean. So what happens? The ocean moves, the ice, cracks water, seeps up, Ray freezes,
So do you? There is no smooth zahm bona fide surface on Europa, so I dont know them skate. Will you I guess Bring Zamboni there that that would be a real wealthy civilization, less moved out Europa guys, just as we go ice skating, we'll discuss guy, I guess, but more than wealthy. A quick thing about Europa is of course, I've said is many times I wanna go ice fishing on Europa cut a whole see if anything When did anything evolve in that ocean for over? a billion years. Here's a bargain for I dont you watch what you wish for, but have colleagues of mine that might not be necessary because Europa keeps breaking apart and re freezing when you break apart.
The water good these up, and then we freezes very quickly because it's a spontaneous crack. What so you might be able find fish are caught in the up draft of the water ripe, and so then you they're editors, frozen fish. Read you didn't have to dig, for it is in the cracks right, it's! It's a tv dinner just waiting for Europa TV food, sexual selection, frozen homosexuals. Are you going so so it would be a very big. I was just move that out and by the way to serve. Europa looks just like: what's the north polar regions used to be its ice sheets on and on, because no land at the North pole country to any representation of Santa you have ever seen at home, because you think they have show pine trees around his is no that doesn't use on the North pole he's on an ice flow and net is no different from the polar bear. That's about to be stranded costs. The ice is melting
right, so that makes this problem reindeer theory that not now not only that he'll be overdressed. Further warm weather that to come so in the future will be Santa. With fewer clothes on non you sit on the ice. So I want to be there Don't worry about that bad, MR, I don't mean to put their image in your head on a beach chair. He's working on his ebbs Arabs, Vienna as baby celebs baby. All these also another man and sell it is. This is a fun moon, because their pressures under the surface and Newton, when we think of the OECD, think a Jelly stone yogi. Yet, yes, thank you. Yellowstone park with the guys are things I slider geysers preclude the work is heated, a pressure builds up, it blows out. Faithful back is not
turns out after an earthquake, it's my faithful anymore, so you haven't heard about. Unless decades was I'm anyone even mention awful, you think about it got so what read was it? Was an earthquake and messed with the under areas? And now it's just not faithful stills will blow so do not like That's the way you see another what'd, you say socially all unfaithful. So we ve got so. Enceladus has geysers and volcanoes that blow from the pressure of evaporating ice rather than from the steam that would build up from high temperature. So on and you ve got geysers spewing hurling chunks of ice, oh
Vocational that blow other check it, so the pressure is from cold things. Sublime ink evaporate, like like Co2 was here to Brussels, could call volcanoes as a fun idea as a great idea theme park, fascinating, yeah. Got stuff region, it take a break more Niels, trades, more checks, discovery of ice and abroad, an orgasm and me inquired probably learning not sit in a minute
I think I'm going to really I'm sure denies. This is pointing with signs before the break. We got limit glacial. Yes, we learn plenty about ice water how you cannot escape without pressure melting, the eyes so that look at that and I am sure that most people were under the impression that you're just carving through the ice in that's what makes this gate or, but that's amazing and enhance the way they sharpen the boy right to make the finnish
under pressure and thou, hailing that that is obviously of healing eyes, look at that, and I am sure that most people were under the impression that you're just carving through the ice in that's what makes this gate or by that's amazing and enhance the way they sharpen the blade right to make the thinnest possible edge on each side and that's why, in an figure skating, it's my my daughter for your speech and I did a little bit of long ago. The most of what they do is on one edge and other edge, and as rarely are they ever just go and straightforward, and it's all about the curve, because you're on the as and that's how you do it, that's how they just want to do all the fun things. So this is great. Let's, let's move forward, because now what I do. I just realized that that this that dislike to the cheap, ass show because, like family and I'm your entire guess. This whole show, yes, was the ideology.
Cheap homes or some people would look at their own saying on that important? This whole shows about me. You guys doing here what I'm hoping I get out of getting people women from on the world our Gore doesn't want to talk to. Our committee was very short celestial areas where low base are right, of course, some time before we look at the tweet on baseball, because you are really interesting tweet about the slowest you can make a pitch which made me think about another. If there's a slowest possible, petrol is possible pits which can actually has the physics of a slow as possible pitch, but it also got me thinking about one of the most unique pitches in baseball, which is the knockabout and there's a guy by the name of our aid dickie, who throws the nasty, is not a ball in baseball. So let's take a look at this clip and then I just want
The comment on the knuckle barfleur me of what an overseas Boston, Boston versus Toronto and dickies on the mound and taken away because they destroy Josh, told me to day he said trying to capture knockabout, stop trying to catch them. Not the ball in the shadows on a four o clock is nearly possible, so we will watch that tomorrow, force through the bright tat might be a broad variety aggregate Nasser, Michael that therefore barkers stolen with NATO, that was the one peers two legs wired and whose waved by duplex. Why hide? What just happened there, that that was a delivery, took a little somethin, often work. We have watched the flying from my heart. He swings.
See about just nothing but ere. I saw what a lot of air wasn't like you just near the ball, not only putting at risk the bat wrapped around his waist then flew out of this control of it. So but the thing that made that interesting, please will you hear the announcer say the ball gets to the plate and just wiggles. So what's going on from physic standpoint in that instance to what we know from base physics wanna one, is it wise to visit one or two of that with second semester? Second semester is: is the stability of an object is improved and enhanced? If you rotated? Yes, so that you might have heard the notion something being spin stabilized right, ok, so NFL, but this August we establish that we saw the spiral goes in its very stable and that in that artistic, simple gyroscope gyroscopes, for example, planets are stable, spinning spinning objects, so
we might spend a satellite to stabilize it adds and its location, so so I'd a knuckle ball does not spin. It is therefore not spend stabilized and it has not been stabilized. It is susceptible to any possible puff of air. There goes transverse to its path to the plate. So the slightest breeze, we'll just take it and breezes are caught up the strong in one instant and a little less in another instant in, and we just take it for granted walking down the street the Brits, not always constant. In your face an idea from one of our little many serious what're we had science. We're is that's weird because when we see it its it does will only weird if you're unfamiliar with the science which people are as good as dead men.
About a right to do what we're science we said with is called it's only weird if your unfamiliar with people go so so. Uncle ball. So one thing I would be interested in testing is if the air is perfectly still and I would wish I would wonder whether knuckle balls in dome stadiums are as effective as knuckle balls in the open in open air stadiums. You know in any state of european and American just come in and circle or as swirls were different kinds, all kinds of different things and
Now you do have air currents in a closed, dome vestige of air conditioning docks and they cycle the areas that are opening and closing right. So there's some there's some air currents, but I would be curious and ensure the Sabre Metricians folks who calculate what every little detail that as ever happen in history, baseball ass, the universe. Maybe they have thought about this? I don't know, but the I would guess that in oh stadium, you're knuckle bulges does not do as many things as would otherwise do in hand, and it also means if it's a windy day, you can even trust a novel ball, because the catch you will never catch it because it will just Gulf one foot away: an unpredictable whether on the ball. Every time we gave it. If it's too windy yours to India, you can't even it's it's a crapshoot that that was the worst would happen if you'll catch it doesnt catch it or if the better doesn't hid it. So what would you? Rather, if your catch it doesnt? If people on base you don't want to
another sign, if it'll, if its lower matters, a change of the dynamic so to catch, it doesn't catch the runner advances and its a bit surpassed. Also so your breath, you know the difference. We pass balls and an error. Ok, so we have a brick in the house. The pitcher and catcher handle the ball on every single play right, so they get it. They get up a dispensation if they do something wrong for the fact of handling the ball in every single play. So via the patron, I throw the ball. And its way outside you can recover it and began to advance its, not an error. It's called a while pitch right right with you and a farmer catcher, and I should have caught the ball, but I just messed up. It's called a
possible. Ok, those do not accrue to your record of errors. Ok, whereas I'm a pitcher. It dates back to me and I throw the first base the throw over the guys at airports and air I'd, I'm trying to catch the ball who played at bounces off my my web and goes over my head. That's an error! So catchers and to have a lot of a lot of past balls when they have pictures who throw both very because they are not able to dissipate. They cannot anticipate where the balls It was with that in mind so that a mine, you wrote a tweet, because the knuckle ball, as you say, is kind of a subject to the whims of Erica
and I didn't tend to go very fast and they dont send of go very fast, fastball hitter you just give up and go back to the dog correct of waste, which brings me to the sweetest. You wrote about slow pitches and so go Henry. This ok slowest pitch in baseball to reach the catcher thirty miles per hour, throne, forty five degree angle, any slower and at any other angle it hits the ground. So that is the slowest possible pitch and an end, and so here's was funny about this. Would not funding here's what I love about this sweet and and work and with the period as you say, a lot of things and people which I appreciate. I appreciate that people go behind you and actually say ok to if this is right, what is good but making trying to prove-
Thyssen wrong as a support that lesson has more to do about gap. We write a great thing. Is there is a guy which we don't have it. It does make a difference. He took your calculations and diagrams it out and put it up on. Twitter was like near the grass size and absolutely right. This is the absolute and it's the the act. Calculations. Thirty point four miles per hour, rounded rounded, but its thirty point four miles per hour thrown from has to be, Forty five degree angle factoring the mound the Mount the man was already factored in your end. The catch is not actually at home plate and the arm of the pitcher. The ball leaves the hand of the pitcher well forward of the other rubber on the mound. So you gotta gotta, put everything I saw. I did have a rough estimate to Venice
He actually proved your calculations in a diagram and put it up on Twitter, which I thought was fantastic, and that is that is the slowest you can purchase little bitch the thing about a forty five degree angle. We all know what that is its its equal amount forward as up and learn in physics, one or one. That is an interesting question. How do I make by the way this comes from military military napoleon? I visited Napoleon's library, on Elba when he was there aren't wall of engineering and physics books. It wasn't just a little radical guy. He knew he knew not do we have make his can and he knew it accountable is gonna. Listen! You gotta know what a put those cannonballs. If you want to rule the world no way, but you? U balls, go right. If you wanna hit your enemy as far away as they are, what angle should you put your cannon, and you can calculate that angle forgiven speed of the boy come out of the nozzle, whatever the whole forty five degrees, if you
angle is higher than that: you're wasting some of the speed in altitude rather than in distance if you angle it lower than forty five degrees. It doesnt state air long enough to go as far as it could have great forty five degrees maximizes the hang time and the distance so that you can go as far as you possibly possibly can on that. It now have their closer than that maximum distance. Then you'll want to adjust the height so that what he call those things that thing Did they motors more? Do we others motorcycles, yeah yeah? So that's a fixed speed that it comes out. Anything is far away the maximum speed. You got to change the angle higher and then then, so that's how you do it. And that those wooden was the first country may be used for Sweetwater WAR right. So you play that same calculated to a pitch. You get you get a forty five.
You re thirty mile in arabic, sweet man. I just thought that was really interests or that's why this way, sometimes they are people first pitch ceremonial. First pictures I listen to us, we will thrown it. Just never makes its complaint because they thought that twenty eight point four miles an hour. If you ever wanted to have the evidence of NEO thinking deeply about his tweets before retweet some. That's exactly that says. You sat there. You ve calculated thought about it and just to be clear, it's not that I distracted my day to make their tweet. I just had fought anyway, then I civil, let me make it rigorous with a calculation, so that did take extra time when this was. I thought I was having any while watching a baseball game. Cool. Let's get. You are probably will be our last sweet. What we have for the segment or got mixed up, you can baseball on the Airless moon, but only if you find a way to not suffocate Tokay and if you don't care about curveball right there.
Because curveball requires a difference in pressure at one side of the ball to the other. Two have air alter the course of that of that ball and The current like Becker Movement would certainly like that. I'm the bendy becum. There is no different from what he's doing on when he can kick it forward. The spin is relying on the aerodynamics of the bomb will be through the air for the airline and pushed the ball sideways. Like it has some magic arc to it. But it's really just aerodynamics: resistance is like it's the for dynamic version of putting English on the ball. When you play billiards right there, putting English and the ball in the UK was a pudding American on the answer is yes? Yes, that's very cool mild me. I got
tell your man, this was fantastic, must find weeding gets through. Most of my tweets are. We do have to come back and do it all again: ok I'll, be a cheap date for you guys you already in our talk family. Just call me up and I'd come by cause, I'm a sucker for this day. I will. We certainly appreciated man seriously. That was a lot of fun very informative and you know a little different west on the cell, so we're we're glad that we did it in a terrier riley, your check nice. This has been playing besides, but if you think about it, we ve spun the playing with signs just a little bit differently. So thank you too, near the grass Thyssen who was being entertaining is always informative and a great support for going back through all of those tweets over recent years. For most important sides. Bardell lay our job. The organs.
We should listen. The star talk, commercial, free, joint star talk. I'm patriarch for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear, learn more at patriarch dot. Coms. Last star talk. Radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-21.