This week, Gary O’Reilly and Chuck Nice explore what it would be like if we held the Olympics on Mars, or went ice skating on Europa, or played baseball on the Moon, using Neil deGrasse Tyson’s popular tweets that look at sports through the lens of science. Their only guest: astrophysicist and master tweeter, @neiltyson.Don’t miss an episode of Playing with Science. Subscribe on:iTunes Podcasts: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/playing-with-science/id1198280360?mt=2Stitcher: http://www.stitcher.com/podcast/startalk/playing-with-scienceTuneIn: http://tunein.com/radio/Playing-with-Science-p952100/SoundCloud: https://soundcloud.com/startalk_playing-with-scienceGooglePlay Music: https://play.google.com/music/listen?u=0#/ps/Iimke5bwpoh2nb25swchmw6kzjqNOTE: StarTalk All-Access subscribers can watch or listen to this entire episode commercial-free. Find out more at https://www.startalkradio.net/startalk-all-access/
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, Commercial free. I am the other aspects of your personal astrophysicist. The startup network is pleased to present to you a new issue where the universe in Sports- and now I am so nice I am very light and we are the whole stop playing with science ready for it
one day. We aim to put them through the vast multi verses of meal, digress, Thyssen's, mind and light up the cerebral spheres that engage with the complex and ever evolving world of sport. Yeah, so did you did you change your medical, This, like any other, says it- has many opinions and many things which he chooses to share on a regular basis, but he has a heartfelt connection to sports. That's constantly filtered through his scientific lens on twitter. So when you they would signs there can be no, but a play date than the man himself and to take us to sport feta out of this world. Out of this,
words have yes, indeed, out of this world sports, we have Neil digress. Thyssen has thanks for joining us. Now is the one, the only being scared. That's it. Normally, that's how you get someone off to stay ass order gone show our idea, man, I don't take it personally now, that is, that is a royal entrance right there. That's what the gun is for now. Normally I'm sitting there, that's rights are now you just took you just took it damn show a guess, your new I have to get used to this area and it doesn't happen without you know whether without news gonna start asking us questions
better help himself now reads: unhappily be your guest on the share that that they please don't ask us inequality, disease, I feel loved fuel vertical, that's why we're here may well radiated and of course you are a prolific twitter, you, but it's not well. So a couple of things for, as I said, I have many opinions which I do, but I hardly ever tweet opinions This is true opinionated tweet I ever posted, which was clearly an opinion was after star wars. The force awakens, I said, Baby aid is way cuter than our duty to clear, in opinion, family and then, of course, there are fight some things you can leave those generational fights and yet without end, but when I try to is not give you an opinion because, frankly, I don't care. If you in my opinion on anything you'll get what it cares at whatever opinion you come up with, it is informed with objectively verifiable truth nice day this man is always about science. Education
right there did a tweet there make whatever damn opinion you want rattle care, but I care broadly, but specifically person to person. Just I'll give you more information that you may have had before way to help you understand her decision. Setting and he saw how the universe I do I like that. I am representing the universe in my presence here today. In a funny thing, when you talk about opinions I caught the tail end is dropping of you haven't a conversation with somebody. You were saying that when scientists talk to people, if you say things that are just patently unscientific or to force a false yeah- and you just refuse uses,
you just you just blindly adhered to those things you we're not an arduous uses. Walk away is one way, there's the old adage, which is mostly true right- that if an argument last more than five minutes, then both sides are wrong and the hard line and said: oh, you know you think about it, because facts are facts in and by the way in science is not like. We don't argue, but when we argue, we argue with certain fundamental premise, which perhaps does not exist with other kinds of arguments. Other spheres of argument in science, you- and I are you its built on the premise that either I'm right in your wrong or you are right and I'm wrong or we're both wrong, and the fact that were arguing is that there is insufficient data to resolve this yet right so we use our arguments to help shape. What next data we're gonna put on the table so that we know
over without argument, agree and go on to the next four alright. But the argument in science is not for the sake of argument, but, like I know I am, but what are you I know you are or what am I right? You know ninety nine percent of the normal on Ray it's really a medium sized or no Europe, your Mama, irrational things, a good thing. It would be funny if, if I get up and give up talkative scientific conference- and somebody doesn't like us- Your mama aside, have no rebuttals. So little rattlers come on we're talking about today are the tweets of needles with respect to sports, which you called on my sportswear. So did my friend we re not does not up. I mean there's a few, but it's not like that's what I,
right now, but there's this this there's more than forty of forty. We are able to find out and ok, so this one in a hundred is a sportsman. Hundreds of is the sports tweet or in a lot of times they surround very significant sporting event. Yes, yes just to keep it in the mood riots. It's like this is its baltimores lamps, Israel, grey matter. If it is one in a hundred- and you are
an athlete with you now coming forty pounds ago. Yes, we ve, we think of established we're all everyone here is an exactly so you know, I am sure that you know your person who looks at so we as it as a former athlete. You were wrestler generator since we like three guys here. So do you know where my how I wear my forty pounds so a lot of it is everywhere, but of course we're guys- or most of it just goes to the beggar. I've always had broad shoulders and a large chest and my chest, even at my chubby, biased, was always bigger than my waist. So I have to do is cut a jacket to go to work to come in at the waist. A little bit right then still cuts in you? Don't look like some slob that you know that that clearly was once in shape, but is no longer so I've I've been able to fake this extra weight. In my in my next, we complain. Science will have colors
the spring and less tailoring other haberdasher Levice Rome with science. We like to start off every show with a clip of sporting clip that you're gonna forget. We have something you made a eroded sweet about who same ball. I thought it was very cute by speaking of the symbol who, by the way for those of you who are interested, we are going to be doing the show with same bald, who as expressed his it'll, come on. You shall not now he was that Europe which was put to me, was to do an interview with you that we will then take and put on the shelf. Oh ok, yeah and catch him. If we get that can't you see those cancer so anyway, he is too fast man, the world, improbable the greatest sprinter of our time and here's a little ditty from him and something called the real limpets.
Has it been sighted began? He's got some words stretching ten zero, Jane London. Let me get savers avoids I'm not very greatest there. You have. It was great about also used where jump in right now jump right right now, so he's not the fastest man in the world he's the fast as human. There ever was well just to be clear distinction This is why we have measuring devices to say positive
one of the greatest, if he's the fastest human there ever was, it is the greatest. Thank you it s, not one of about an opinion point I it. These are numbers that worries us is a good thing about the methods and tools of science renders opinions irrelevant so great so, and so No way you were gone with, that of the winner of the hundred metre dash, is consider the fastest man in the world that you set a world record in it you're the fastest person there ever was right. Airbus has pretty cool, ok oh you got my tweet, we'll just have to get it. So it's I really liked it. You caught some flag. This from some haters, because you used bolt the dog who, by the way great movie have kids, which I do young children who took a few years ago, and is it it's a tube movie and it's about all whose super super fast, and so what is red? The tweet okay, so in this treaty
this is not from memory. You haven't up on a screen and looking at ok, so I just thought I'd people should know how fast bolts are right. I said how many boats can I come up with so there's Hussein is a lightning bolt right and I thought I remembered some other sort, a cartoon character, ball and sure enough. There was the dog from the movie times. Then I looked up to speed the average running speed of that species of dog. Ok cause. There was a real species of dog portrayed in the film. I got all these, These have dog portrayed in the film like all these three numbers together, and I put it in metric unit so ten meters per second lightning bolt either thirteen point four meters per second bolt ten point: four meters per second Hussein bolt
important- I arrived and I met three images together, one of the lightning bolt the dog, and in saying this I did and then leads us. Is this not an opinion here, just giving you information, and so a lot of people were incredulous that important four metres in one second or they? Never didn't see it in this context. Right, yes, Christy! there's ten metres way, one second, a short ten metres is how far you gotta go in for down to get a first down exactly and they couldn't quite equal. What I can only say time and distance becomes an. Ok, I did not know cause. I cataract everybody's comment about. As I read the comments after I read a lot of people, like that's impossible, turned out so ten ten point four metres in one. Second, but it's over a hundred metre, right and in fact he doesn't look like he didn't hit his stride until seventy meters, or so it doesn't, he never does
to at a hundred meters, but that's the whole thing about using vote against the short sprinters. He takes one or two steps: less for the power transference from one is for hits the track and then goes lousy into to become. That much faster in the later stages. It probably also more efficient, as he had takes fewer steps at about the same rights and the experts saying he may not be the apex of human sprinting somebody is some stage. Another outlier will turn up and go even faster or whatever to look like, I've already legs gonna be really find the shape, if you think of splinters in the past, with little pocket rockets. Here he's come along at six. What fibre he's? Probably you remember, the great athlete car Louis, the court's he's, probably five inches taller closest five, ten or something or your six, five and much bigger yeah. Just that much quicker
they are so it was so it was a delight to watch him run. Of course I mean I'd on tv. I sought by so the attempt, so the meters per second transfer of of how to think about speed to every cent that would help that's great. What concerns me is that we have an educational system were somewhat could think. There wrong, yes did asserted, is wrong and which they did by the way right rather than say. Well, I never thought about it that way before. Let me investigate to see of Thyssen is right rather than assert that I'm wrong right, because the correct people- just so you know, I think, before I tweet it, this isn't that'll just like randomly. Don't let me so down some numbers, not I put way more thought into my tweet. Then you will ever leave given how much thought most people put into their tweets don't put into the streets. So just just so you know, but the fact is it possible to run ten point four meters.
Per second, because at hundred metre dash takes ten seconds. Therefore, its ten meters per second Adolf, really simple ethical matters, math, not even one or one. That's like the thing is, I think a lot of people is like you say: you see ten metres and you see one second and you think of somebody coming from a standing as adding a position and going one. Second, I've gone ten metres right, that's that's where people to another another impasse in this mental impasse occurred as trains, we're getting faster, so much it or will we ever go a mile, a minute mile admitted it,
Had those in the same sentence before and and and how that just sixty miles and after all, it is sixty miles, is sixty minutes in an hour, my one minute and people, and nobody would bring twice at that right today, because we have, but they complain. If you were doing sixty miles an hour. Only sixty miles and early train pointed a super fast track gives european product without was great man. I was that there was really cool and I just love the fact that no matter what you tweet, it's always controversial to someone here, but that's not my I'm trying to be controversial by the way I have tweets that I read restraint, which probably controversial market treat that one day I went to collect all the ones. That I knew in advance would be controversial and chose not to treat them sweet, ok day. Dump the money the arbitrary data. I said you think you think, I'm too,
and to be controversial, the contrary. We have no idea here. You go K. Islands, new book of prophecy, gotta find a way to make them into a book meal texts. We got one here. The world from a two thousand told Olympics are right. I said how about Mars Olympics? Yes, all athletes with suffocate ignoring that complication a cooler than an earth Olympics. That's all I call it an earth Olympics. I'm saying you up for tweets. They followed ass. I was going to take us when you say way, cooler than you actually give us some examples of why Olympics on Mars or pretty much any sporting event on Mars might be cool. It also took up a hundred degrees below zero on Marser way. Cooler has double meaning the dining with the thing we pick them up like that up. Ok, so let's look at one of the Mars tweets and this is cycling on Mars,
Ok, all right, so go ahead guys. So this again during the summer, two thousand twelve Olympics. If the recycling on Mars try olympic mons of volcanic mountains five times taller than Mont Blanc, the Alps wow, so you think you got all mountains here now. The tallest mountains and deepest valleys are not on earth. In the solar system, there there on Mars there on the moon, so we ain't got no ways another right. We are we not without winning those contest. As you know, this, the atmosphere on Mars is how much less than the US atmosphere about one one hundredth. So if we had pressure, amatory prejudices and others for every breath, you take on Mars There is one one hundredth the amount of air in that breath and it would be ominously. Altitude becomes your enemy in terms of the oxygenation. If you're performing an attitude, but
the ideal way to do this is your train and altitude compete at sea level right what we need to do now. I suppose you don't have any problem getting up the mountain, while all the tourist like circled about each other, more here's what you do right on my maker, suggested, never been made before you're ready area drain, the Pacific Ocean, ok then hold the Olympics at the bottom of the Marianna trench who trade high altitude, but now you compete at the bottom of which is friends six miles down now every breath of air has way more oxygen and at sea level, and so now you have heroic feats before you do. You have a dope, your blood, the heiress, I will put the oxygen and ethical right in Europe must show the eyes is gonna stump up for that draining of say. I just like the fact that you are thinking like a supervillain basic item on the other ways echoes it's all good train on Mars.
The mountain outnumbered minds and come back to us and compete problem is its only forty percent the gravity of earth. So that you are carrying is not as much going up the hill at so they are selling trade off some trade offs pissed off dissonant, eddied suit say: will you just lead led, let yourself down another thing. Once you ve drain the Pacific Ocean, they had nothing to do with sports. Just while we're on the topic. If you drain the Pacific Ocean, that is the great toilet. Bowl of dead satellites are really guess, because splatter on the Pacific. They crashed down and the big satellite in isolation and as far as the other crisis area. So the reason why is the Pacific Ocean is almost a third of all possible longitudes on earth ratings. If you d orbit- and you do it do you have a lot of latitude, no pun intended to where you begin the DE orbit, so that is gonna point out and Pacific, I'm her wet and add people live air, so not over. The great bulk of the expanse hides a safe place to drop your stuff out of order of the day we do.
Albert Huddle- it's going straight in the present answer- is yes but the specific goals and exercise or greyhound bus by the way, if you now no eyes telescope yeah. This is one of my favorite. We actually talked about this ends in a different form on startup and its swimming on Mars. Ok, so here is again said same week. If there was swimming on Mars, the low temperature and low air pressure would force the pool to simultaneously freeze and boil wheat that how many hours does Michael this I have to train with freezing and boy scientist. I guess he's up to about fifty thousand here. It is currently editor trunks ice cream air as well, so at the exact as at the same time. So can you explain that that's all
How you get to that? How do you get to that, since we are so in chemistry in physics is well, it's called a triple point, sir, which is a cool. Dame measurable point of view of its substance is the point where it is happy being solid, liquid in gas or the south, Santa ok. So now that sounds freaky. This is outside of our common life experience aid, but it's less so than you might think on so take a look Dry ice. Ok sail to have seen a double point of its state, so it is simultaneously a solid and a vapor light is happening all once gas. Ok, you open a thing of the what comes out of the solid rights? That's a double point is occupied. It's not as interesting is the triple point, but it does make for some concerts, so here so here's the actual use other smoke for that. Rather they think there's other. Do they get their use. These rise backing
there were two right there. You smoke machines and obeyed years, we're twisted sister performed made in all three. So so here's how works. Do you know that when you go to high altitude, it affects cooking times, because Warder boils at a lower temperature right? You know this is territorial. Twelve, if we're all losing imperial unit, I could make a boil it two hundred degrees or hundred eighty degrees to increase the cooking time. Food is not at the high temperature for his long. You can't get boiling water hotter than the temperature that is boiling at right. One of the earliest experiments I do with my kids, so they understood this you I would start boiling a pot of water. I say I give them are thermometers and measure the temperature.
And ass. I hunted degrees three minutes late, measured again unintended. Greece hundreds why to keep doing this- and I say this heat go into it. It's a yet. We see the flame of my kids like six and seven and eight. So then it's like two hundred degrees. They check it again to an five torrent. Ten to twelve ok demonstrated measured again too ill to enter into wealth, where's the energy going I or my gosh. It stops going because water. And at that air pressure right got to become a gas scenario, lower the air pressure, the boiling point drops and the more you lower the air pressure, the lower the boiling point drops, and eventually the boiling point meets the freezing point of order. And now you have frozen warder liquid water in boiling water all night. That's exactly right! Awesome s, fantastic man that is fantastic are so instead of getting into another one. Why don't we cause we're up against
let's take a break and will come back with more produce. What real I got so Olympics on Mars. An imbecile market? I want to take my side of my eye caught it. Accordingly, I do not want to it. We can pick it up that after the break, but I for comfort women, the beach volleyball on Mars. No protect ozone layer there, Solar uv would irradiate all exposed legs buns in Tommy's their Morley wear clothes? They Donovan's bitterly balls which, as you know, that's why I don't watch it doesn't matter. What are you, why doesn't leave.
Our eyes, regular in trouble. Ragged wouldn't come back with more of meal, digress, Thyssen's, tweets on sports right after this, I've got no secret for you. When I consider singing all of the ads on this show there, just one way to get out of hearing there go to patriarch, coms last starred talk and supporters at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free. You download. All current episodes into your favorite pack has player and ever hear another commercial on star talk. Ever again, you will definitely not After hear me saying, if you support us at patriarch dot com last
talk radio! I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. In her son. In space how come you're not know how they work very rarely, I'm truck nice This was why we have few www backup team. This is playing with science. We have no direct Thyssen without work and that this is this is playing with science, ok
reprimanded carrying two, not not allies. Urania. Now you on ok, you bonding gone Butler, who never lose an opportunity with science and new. Grass. Thyssen is here with us and his treats his many tweets and other opinions that opinions, but there's ways forward jumped back into his. I just realized something so everyone's once you when you were talking about our Bala Mars, burning the skin because No! You ve protected by the way. The smartest farther away from the sun than his earth So the wasn't one point for care. The two Don't you get it wrong. You'll get so Mars. Has about two one. Half the solar intensity then. Does
so in any given about a time all other things being equal. It would take it twice as long to get to get sunburnt but Mars doesn't have you he layer right, an ozone layer right cause, it's not free oxygen on on on Mars, right, so on earth. Free oxygen is action. We breathe. That's oh two oxygen binds with us the ozone layer high up in the atmosphere is three oxygen atoms and the reason why that blocks uv no wonder why I did not ok, so this molecule sitting there fat and happy in the upper atmosphere, ok and one of its bonds that bind these molecules together is the same energetic such as that of an ultra violet particle of light and ultra vires photon automatic photo comes in. It is just what it needs to busted open right, so the energy of the light is gone.
And it got converted to breaking apart this molecule right so nicely, eighth uv molecule out there. You ve felt right that that that actual molecular Bonn comes a natural block lack let's, let's literally like like a blocking tat, are all block, and if there is a very close explosion to us in our solar system can supernova you can calculate because it takes a while to read generate the ozone. Rikers is stable air winsome. You lose some faggot red re manufactured and carry out or watch what happens so if you have a coat a nearby superpower which has a lot of uv, the waves of uv light. Take out your ozone and then the next wave goes through without without conflict LAO, so the first wave, just like an army, that's exactly like army way, waves of armies, and so that also can only present
few so much before it has to rebuild itself if you have a major flux of uv covenant? What's this and other rebuild. I died. I have to calculate that I dont get. It has many sources lightning can actually regenerate. You can put energy back in to recreate this, because different chemical reactions are exothermic endothermic, as the balance of all of these that creates the chemist, the chemical cocktail that our atmosphere ice, so yes or other mechanisms can be generated and whatever those mechanisms are, you can construct actual things in the universe that will override them, such as supernova explosions, other planets, saloons in solar system with a similar ozone layer, because we get our oxygen from life right? I used to think and STAR Trek captain, this is an oxygen nitrogen atmosphere. We go down and breathe it. That's all
Did you look around the universe for a planet that that happens to have the the chemical mixture letters has night and then I realized know how it works. It's not that every planets got its own mixture. Is that earth has oxygen because we have life right, because we because the the the photo Cynthia it's all the league, the green plants make that oxygen and that in it that's like rocket fuel for animals, Then animals can now rise up metabolize oxygen and we have this harmony of plants and animals. We just say so. Less will vote to some other tweets and we're gonna cut a group these, as you know, kindly to deal with ice so think of it? It's like you know, maybe skating on and selling a sore o row power, something like tat, but you you happen to have some mom some some skating facts that you tweeted about one. If this was during the winter Olympics is February to them. Fourteen out of fully remember the dates: s! Ok right!
so those who hears. What are you watching you'll impacts in Sochi? I'm leavin me some of them pigs. I let me someone went books, ok, size, its eternal, obscure fact, whether I tweet a hundred and twenty five characters. Not a hundred forty leads in Asia. I want everything by the way you're pretty much. Every time I try to leave air exception actors, airlines. Will you characters on the table just in case I needed here. Just occasionally, you need of the interbank break. Ok, obscure fact skating is possible only because compressed ice melts so skaters glide on slippery warder, not on slippery ice sweet. So now are you saying that the friction between the bleed and the either friction the pressure that pressure between the blade and the ice is
melting the eyes so that there is an ever so thin layer of water ass that the skater is actually gliding like a snail makes its little. So is it who plays slimy? Do I've never heard skating annul analogy to snails? Fine snails live exactly ok, Jackie gonna need amid this morning. I think I'm going to share your house. So is this? Is this there is no mention. Is battery backup for me, because I'm really fascinated by this generally people's understanding of the workforce is
accurate to how we use it in physics. Generally, this aim I e more forced to open this door workers, so you put enforce there's another term call pressure which is less familiar as physics term in the public. So pressure is force divided by the area over which the forces operating at you. Ok, so so watch what happens if I have a nice and it's not cutting because its dull I'm putting a force on that knife and it's not working. You have to ask yourself: what is the area of the hunting bleed road is the area of the thing it's touching the thing you're trying to cut
its doll, so you may it's not very big lakelets saved one square millimeter over the entire length of the blade. Let's say: ok, now you sharpen the blade. What does that mean you reducing the surface area of the cutting it Oh, it's one hundredth of a square millimeter Cosette stuff. Would you can't even institutes and now the force divided, The area creates an enormous pressure right, so the lower the pressure, the area? Is that cutting blade higher the pressure? The pressure is for the same force that are using to cut that's. Why sharp knives cut that's? Why is this what it means?
It will sharpen a nice, your shrinking the denominator of vat equation pressure legal force divided by area. So if you ve ever isolated, I used to I used to be a skating guard actually long ago, login and by you figure skates by the way. So so, ok, so the winning quote sharpen skates. What you do is you, She put a concave cut at the bottom of the blade is concave right. Ok, out of you ever look closely at us, haven't it's on Every day the school day go varies, so it's concave the full length of the blade. So that means, if you leave to the left her to the right, of your weight is on basically a knife edge of the state, and so that
reach extreme pressure on the ice and how thick as the ice is like a fraction of an inch. Did you notice, I skinny ranks it's like a fraction of an inch and know that, so now you put pressure on the top of tat ice and melt the ice in the. Didn't you escape comes over. Allow ok now, but I didn't explain why the ice melts, etc. That is one of the most profound facts in the universe, but are you? But if I don't love you ready for that down anyway, sentence Gulf K ready. Ok, as though you with me now that the discharge for this the edge higher the pressure right, we got that are so now. We all know that Its floats case, that is rare among matured. Unbroken among substance, is usually, if you free something cool it and freeze it. Get smaller red brigades. Water, however, expands when it gets to about food.
Four degrees celsius by with water is shrinking down to about four degrees celsius. Enough freezing freezing would be zero forty celsius, then it says I'm not gonna get bigger right, so between four in zero becomes puffier and it becomes less dense than the water it sitting on and it floats. Ok, that's why it is almost impossible to completely freeze a lake in the winter because if a chunk of ice forms anywhere, it floats and you will freeze the top of your lake and that old, insulate. The rest of the lake. From the cave. Temperatures that are above it right allocated. Temperature basically prevents the bottom Other fish just get lower and lower and lower hang out until spring time, and then they come back right. Otherwise we would be. Filling all life forms in every lake for every winter. Okay, so now watch what happens- and I now have is ice cube tat is
girl in volume. Then they can what it would be melted ranked with you. I will now. Squeeze that ice cube, that's not allowed. You can't do that because the ice has to be that all had it. That has to be that volume to be ice, so it has to return I ask for your browser. This way is that it's gotta turn back. Turn back to water under pressure. Oh my god! That's all! It's! Ok! Ok! We're with you know it's fricking, when I'm on my way way way way some justice up where we can anyone else that light bulb just love rain, orgasm stuck between orgasm. This will bring. My guess is such that we are going to tell you that when we waste, but we can't go also, why pipes break in the winter right? What happens? Warder is sitting there. Okay,
How can they don't break it at your water sitting there in the pipeline watch what happens so the water tries to expand, but the pipe is preventing it right. So you can get down to thirty one degrees, no nobody's pies, freeze! thirty one degrees or thirty degrees. You know the borders they are contained. Ok, then you reach a point where the pressure of the pipe can't make can't can't keep this thing. Water and water. Changing state becomes more powerful than frickin copper pipe itself as right says. I am now Iceman Play burst out of the pipe it'll bring practically anything, but if you make something this kind of on board,
it'll, stay water. All the way down so check this out. With that in mind there I'll love scotch. Ok, I enjoy drinking some scotch mammals and they have these giant copper weights and they are hollowed out so that its sphere on the inside of this giant, copper weaknesses in the vat where they now, whether maybe this is for at this for ice cube, so that you can make a ice cue to put in your Scottsdale diluting yours, diluting you're, ok, what they do is they take a block of ice. They said it and they put the giant copper weight that is concave. On top of it, the pressure of the giant, copper, wait pushes down on the eyes and the eyes melts into a ball. Yes, yes,
it is exactly what you have just started about and what happens when the skater is one that I know it also happened. You could take a screen. A grid like like, like a screen or be screened. Orb met just to make this a little more interesting increase the size of the grip of the screen hole like maybe a half a centimeter on aside and pulled it horizontally, take a block of ice and place it on the screen, but can we really heavy ice and screen is not to find a grid? So what will happen is that the ice in contact with and it's gonna melted, right, melted, but just to get around screen and it comes out on the other side. I am. I am melted ice at third one degrees could I was under pressure, but I'm back to thirty one, thirty, two to thirty that it said I write it melts in a bluff.
Using temperature and what comes out you decided just freezes because no other under particular pressure. You come back in a half hour. Half of the block has passed. Really tell it still ISIS others ice on the other side and see this and all this happens. When you were talking- and you don't even know it so speaking skating an ice, any tips for school anywhere else in the universe. Iser earth does not have ownership of all the ice. That's going on so Mars has polar icecaps as does earth, has a shrink and grow seasonably, as does and while we're there Mars rotates about once every twenty four hours as desert. So that's why Mars is such an object of our affection as a possible second planet that we might inhabit? after we trash earth. But if you wanna go beyond Mars, one of my favorite objects out their social objects is a moon of Jupiter called Europa rope. Let me so Europa. This is far beyond the warm habitable zone, the goal.
Relax zone where the temperature is just right to sustain liquid water to close. If you have water- and you too close to the sun, it evaporates fahrway freezes Europe as well outside of the zone, but beneath the surface of frozen water. Is a liquid oceans been liquid for billions of years. It is an energy source from Jupiter, stressing the shape of Europa in ways that are not fundamentally different from even play. Racket sports who say: yes, warm up the ball rights? Yes, yes, yes! What are you doing? You are compressing the ball for every hit and then the ball wrists restores its shape, ready, futile smack it again Ok, I'll bring energy. This through gravitational, so what's happening. Is that what we call title forces that distort the physical shape of Europa and, as Europa goes around Jupiter, it's been distorted in another way
I then, in another way, so constantly getting getting harassed rain by Jupiter and other surrounding moves, so that collects as energy deep within, and it makes the ice just like when you bend a paperclip back and forth back and forth that so he's always matter getting stressed and heat, and why does it get hot you're putting energy into its spending a back and forth first of all energy into funeral and surrounding moons or conspiring to to make this happen now watch. So you have a nice surface of ice on Europa in principle, you could go skating there. However, this ice is not on top of a this ice is not on top of a rigid surface as its as a normal skating required. It's a float, an ocean. So what happens? The ocean moves, the ice, cracks water seeps up, Ray freezes, so dude
there's no smooth zahm bona fide surface on Europa, so I dont know them skate. Will you I guess bring zamboni there that that would be a real. Wealthy civilization, less moved out Europa guys, just as we go ice skating, we discuss guy, I guess, but more than wealthy. A quick thing about Europa is, of course, I've said is many times I wanna go ice fishing on Europa cut a whole, see if anything, swims did anything evolve and that ocean for over five billion years. Here's a bargain for I dont you watch what you wish for, but have colleagues of mine isn't that might not be necessary because Europa keeps breaking apart and re freezing when you break apart
water gurgles up and then we freezes very quickly cause it's a spontaneous crack. What so you might be able to fish are caught in the up draft of the water ripe, and so then you they're editors, frozen fish. Read you didn't have to dig for it is in the cracks right. It's it's! A tv dinner just waiting for Europa TV food, sexual selection, frozen homosexuals. Are you so so it would be a very big challenge to smooth out and by the way the surfaces Europa looks just like. What's the north polar regions used to be its ice sheets on an ocean because no land and the North pole country to any representation of Santa you have ever seen at home, because you think they have show pine trees around his is no that doesn't use on a north pole he's on an ice flow and net is no different from the polar bear. That's about to be stranded costs. The ice is melting
rise. So that makes this problem reindeer theory that not now not only that he'll be overdressed. Further warm weather that to come so in the future will be sent with fewer clothes on non you sitting on the ice so I want to be there Do you mind? Don't worry about that? Bad, Mr Madam Mina put their image in your head out of each year he's working on his ebbs Arabs, Vienna, as baby celebs baby. All these also another moon Enceladus. This is a fun moon, because their pressures under the surface and Newton, when we think of the OECD, think a Jelly stone yogi. Yet, yes, thank you. Yellowstone park with the guys are things I slider geysers preclude the work is heated. A pressure builds up it blows out. Faithful back is not
It turns out after an earthquake is my faithful anymore, so you haven't heard about. Unless decades was I'm anyone even mention awful, you think about it got so what read was it was an earthquake in it messed with the under areas and now she's, not faithful, and it's still still blow so do not like That's the way. You say another word, you say socially old unfaithful, so we ve got I'm so. Enceladus has geysers and volcanoes that blow from the pressure of evaporating ice rather than from the steam that would build up from high temperature, so uninstall it is. You ve got geysers spewing, hurling chunks of ice, oh and vote.
In those that blow other check it, so the pressure is from cold things. Sublime ink evaporate, like like Co2 was here to Brussels, could call volcanoes as a fun idea. As a great idea theme park, fascinating, yeah good stuff region to take a break, more meals, trades, more of trucks, discovery of ice and abroad an orgasm and me, Inquired, quite probably, learning not sit behind us in a
Thank you very rightly recognises is pointing with signs before the break. We got limit glacial. Yes, we learn plenty about ice water. How you cannot escape without pressure melting, the eyes so that in glide on a little them stream of water. Fascinating stuff, be warned that water refuses immediately right on the other sectors. It's not. The water is not above the melting point. You just forced it into the liquid state
under pressure and failing that there is a feeling of healing eyes. Look at that and I am sure that most people were under the impression that you're just carving through the ice in that's what makes escape or by that's amazing and enhance the way they sharpen the blade right to make the fullest possible edge on each side and that's why, in an figure skating, it's my my daughter for your speech- and I did a little bit of long ago the most of what they do is on one edge and other edge, and, as rarely are, they ever just go and straightforward, and it's all about the curve, because you're on the as and that's how you do it. That's how they just want to do all the fun things. So this is great. Let's, let's move forward because now. What I do. I just realized that that this that dislike to the cheap ass show because, like family and I'm your entire guess. This whole show yes wasted ideology
cheap homes or some people would look at their own saying on that important. This whole shows about me. You guys doing here what I'm hoping I get out of getting people women from on the world. Our Gore doesn't want to talk to. Our committee was very short celestial areas where low base are right, of course, some time before we look at the tweet on baseball, because you are really interesting tweet about the slowest you can make a pitch which made me think about another. If there's a slowest possible, petrol is possible pits which can actually has the physics of a slow as possible pitch, but it also got me thinking about one of the most unique pitches in. Baseball, which is the knockabout and there's a guy by the name of our aid. Dickie who throws the nasty is not a ball in baseball. So let's take a look at this clip and then I just want
the comment on the knuckle barfleur me of what an overseas Boston, Boston versus Toronto and dickies on the mound and taken away because they destroy Josh, told me to day he said trying to capture knockabout stop trying to catch them. Not the ball in the shadows on a four o clock is nearly possible, so we will watch that tomorrow, force through the bright tat might be a broad variety aggregate Nasser Michael that therefore barkers stolen with NATO. That was the one peers two legs wired and whose waved by duplex. Why hide what just happened there, that that was a delivery, took a little somethin, often work. We have watched the flying from my heart. He swings
see about just nothing but ere. I saw what a lot of air wasn't like you just near the ball, not only putting at risk the bat wrapped around his waist then flew out of this control of it. So but the thing that made that interesting, please will you hear the announcer say the ball gets to the plate and just wiggles. So what's going on from physic standpoint in that instance to what we know from base, physics wanna one, is it wise to visit. One or two of that with second semester. Second semester is, is the stability of an object is improved and enhanced. If you rotated yes, so that you might have heard the notion something being spin stabilized right, ok, so NFL, but this August we establish that we saw the spiral goes in its very stable and that in that artistic, simple gyroscope gyroscopes, for example, planets are stable, spinning spinning objects. So
we might spend a satellite to stabilize it adds and its location, so so I'd a knuckle. Ball does not spin. It is therefore not spend stabilized and it has not been stabilized. It is susceptible to any possible puff of air. There goes transverse to its path to the plate. So the slightest breeze, we'll just take it and breezes are caught up the strong in one instant and a little less in another instant in and we just take it for granted walking down the street the Brits. Not always constant in your face, an idea from one of our little many serious what're we had science. We're is that's weird because when we see it, its, it does will only weird if you're unfamiliar with the science which people are as good as dead men.
About a right to do what we're science we said with is called it's only weird if your unfamiliar with people go so so, uncle ball. So one thing I would be interested in testing is: if the air is perfectly still, and I would wish I would wonder whether knuckle balls in dome stadiums are as effective as knuckle balls in the open in open air stadiums You know in any state of you been in them. Air can just come in and circle or as swirls were different kinds, all kinds of different things and
now, you do have air currents in a closed dome vestige of air conditioning docks and they cycle the areas that are opening and closing right. So there's some there's some air currents, but I would be curious and ensure the Sabre Metricians folks who calculate what every little detail that as ever happen in history, baseball ass, the universe. Maybe they have thought about this? I don't know, but the I would guess that in Oh stadium, you're knuckle bulges does not do as many things as would otherwise do in hand, and it also means if it's a windy day, you can even trust a novel ball, because the catch you will never catch it because it will just Gulf one foot away. An unpredictable whether on the ball. Every time we gave it. If it's too windy yours to India, you can't even it's it's a crapshoot that that was the worst would happen if you'll catch it doesnt catch it or if the better doesn't hid it. So what would you rather, if your catch it doesnt? If people on base you don't want to
another sign if it'll, if its lower matters, a change, the dynamic so to catch, it doesn't catch the runner advances and its a bit surpassed? Also so your breath, you know the difference. We pass balls and an error. Ok, so we have a brick in the house. The pitcher and catcher handle the ball on every single play right, so they get it. They get up a dispensation if they do something wrong for the fact of handling the ball in every single play, so via the patron, I throw the ball and its way outside you can recover it and began to advance its, not an error. It's called a while pitch right right with you and a farmer catcher, and I should have caught the ball, but I just messed up. It's called a.
Possible. Ok, those do not accrue to your record of errors. Ok, whereas I'm a pitcher, it dates back to me and I throw the first base the throw over the guys at airports and air I'd. I'm trying to catch the ball. Who played at bounces off my my web and goes over my head. That's an error so catchers and to have a lot of a lot of past balls when they have pictures who throw. Both very because they are not able to dissipate. They cannot anticipate where the balls It was with that in mind, so that a mine, you wrote a tweet, because the knuckle ball, as you say, is kind of a subject to the whims of Erica.
And I didn't tend to go very fast and they dont send of go very fast. Fastball hitter you just give up and go back to the dog correct of waste, which brings me to the sweetest. You wrote about slow pitches and so go Henry. This ok slowest pitch in baseball to reach the catcher thirty miles per hour, throne. Forty five degree angle, any slower and at any other angle it hits the ground. So that is the slowest possible pitch and an end. And so here's was funny about this- would not funding here's what I love about this sweet and and work and with the period, as you say, a lot of things and people which I appreciate. I appreciate that people go behind you and actually say, ok embassy. If this is right, what is good but making trying to prove?
Thyssen wrong. As a support that lesson has more to do about gap. We write a great thing is there is a guy which we don't have it? It does make a difference. He took your calculations and diagrams it out and put it up on. Twitter was like near the grass size and absolutely right. This is the absolute and it's the the act Calculations thirty point four miles per hour, rounded rounded, but its thirty point four miles per hour thrown from has to be forty five degree angle factoring the mound the Mount the man was already factored in your end, the catch is not actually at home plate and the arm of the pitcher the ball leaves the hand of the pitcher well forward of the other rubber on the mound. So you gotta gotta, put everything I saw. I did have a rough estimate to Venice,
He actually proved your calculations in a diagram and put it up on Twitter, which I thought was fantastic, and that is that is the slowest. You can purchase little bitch the thing about a forty five degree angle. We all know what that is its its equal amount forward as up and learn in physics, one or one. That is an interesting question. How do I make by the way this comes from military military napoleon? I visited Napoleon's library, on Elba when he was their entire wall of engineering and physics books. She wasn't just a little radical guy. He knew he knew not. We have make his can and he knew it accountable is gonna? Listen! You gotta know what a put those cannonballs. If you want to rule the world no way, but you? U balls, go right if you wanna hit your enemy as far away as they are. What angle should you put your cannon and you can calculate that angle forgiven, speed of the boy come out of the nozzle. Whatever the whole forty five degrees, if you
angle is higher than that you're wasting some of the speed in altitude rather than in distance. If you angle it lower than forty five degrees, it doesnt state air long enough to go as far as it could have great forty five degrees maximizes, the hang time and the distance so that you can go as far as you possibly possibly can on that. It now have their closer than that maximum distance. Then you'll want to adjust the height so that what he call those things that thing Did they motors more? Do we others motorcycles, yeah yeah? So that's a fixed speed that it comes out. Anything is far away the maximum speed. You got to change the angle higher and then then, so that's how you do it. And that those wooden was the first country may be used for Sweetwater WAR right. So you play that same calculated to a pitch. You get. You get a forty five
You re thirty mile in arabic, sweet man! I just thought that was really interests or that's why this way? Sometimes they are people first pitch ceremonial. First pictures I listen to us, we will thrown it. Just never makes its complaint because they thought that twenty eight point four miles an hour. If you ever wanted to have the evidence of NEO thinking deeply about his tweets before retweet some, that's exactly that says you sat there. You ve calculated thought about it and just to be clear, it's not that I distracted my day to make their tweet. I just had fought anyway, then I civil, let me make it rigorous with a calculation, so that did take extra time when this was I thought I was having any while watching a baseball game. Cool. Let's get. You are probably will be our last sweet. What we have for the segment or got mixed up, you can baseball on the Airless moon, but only if you find a way to not suffocate Tokay, and if you don't care about curveball right there,
because curveball requires a difference in pressure at one side of the ball to the other. Two have air alter the course of that of that ball and The current like Becker Movement would certainly like that. I'm the bendy Becum there is no different from what he's doing on when he can kick it forward. The spin is relying on the aerodynamics of the bomb will be through the air for the airline and push the ball sideways. Like it has some magic arc to it, but it's really just aerodynamics resistance is like it's the aerodynamic dynamic version of putting English on the ball when you play billiards right there, putting English and the ball in the UK was a pudding American on the answer is yes, yes, that's very cool mild me. I got
tell your man. This was fantastic, must find we didn't get through. Most of my tweets are. We do have to come back and do it all again. Ok I'll, be a cheap date for you guys you already in this. Our talk, family just call me up and I'll come by cause, I'm a sucker. For this day will we certainly appreciated man seriously? That was a lot of fun, very informative, and you know a little different western cell, so we're we're glad that we did it in a terrier riley, your check nice. This has been playing besides, but if you think about it, we ve spun the playing with signs just a little bit differently. So thank you too near the grass Thyssen who was being entertaining is always informative and a great support for going back through all of those tweets over recent years. From us, implying besides Bardell lay I'll drop the organs
We should listen. The star talk, commercial, free, joint star, talk I'm patriarch for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear, learn more at patriarch dot com. Last star talk, radio,
Transcript generated on 2020-01-24.