In case you missed this episode on the Playing with Science channel… We’re taking to the ice as we explore the physics of figure skating with host Chuck Nice, Olympic medalist Sasha Cohen, neuroscientist Dr. Heather Berlin, and resident astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson. Record live at “StarTalk at BAM: Science is Everywhere.” (Adult Language).
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode. Commercial free I am here the rest of your personal astrophysicist. The startup network is pleased to present to you a U show where the universe and sports, and now I am so nice I like, and we eyes the host of playing with science ready for it.
With science and normal for those of you who are under the shade of playing with science, is a sports science mash up where meal likes to say where jocks and geeks allied, and I like to say without any concussions by peaks, because you know we're just in Its collide. Only one person suffers in that collision. One percent waterway monetarism miles away the other one does not normally we do in high school. I was a geek drunk a geek job here,
so you were wrestler yeah yeah, so I I intellectually associated with the givers, but anytime I saw a geek sort of get beaten upward bullied. That was my suited. Superhero Like the geeks need me that go and just So I felt this urge to protect the weakest fear that as a high school, if the super your name, I don't know- I don't know charter leaves one guy, I believe, is the Thyssen. That's very cool already have so, but before we get into our guess who is just so so so awesome? I actually want to use a different word. Who is such a superb guess pity. He said that because any termites hearsay awesome is, it would be awesome if you could pass the salt and I would say,
when I grew up the word awesome with applied to curing polio, walking on the moon and there's a next generation that has no concept of how to use that word, and I blame the leg You did. See. I feel everything ok, ok! Let me just say: first of all, I can tell you how long I've been waiting to do their own state. But normally this show is co hosted with Gary O Reilly. Who is a former professional soccer and the co host of playing with science and he is currently a broadcaster and he resides in the UK. Unfortunately, his flight was cancelled.
So he could not be here snowing and then was annoying in the railways knowing here and unfortunately he could not be here so we, but he is listening right now, not right now, but he will be listening to this broadcast. So nah gave a round of applause, Gary O Reilly, So what we do here as we explore the science of sport and to help us do that today we have an incredible guest. Who is a former olympic silver? Medalists and C is five time world champion of metal. Please welcome the incredible
as co decided to join a fine. I disagree with what did she get her metals in I thank him for this that I took it for granted that everybody would know, because you started go away as a source, of course, is a figure scale of course, as a figure skater a damn good one, and not just the figures gator, because you are also incredible ballerina and journalist, all of those things like rolled in and then strap skates on a do it all exactly. I started in Damascus,
x. I wanted to say hip hop my mom directed me towards ballet gaiety. I want you to have a job, evaluate very excited about what's wrong here, so my favorite, like Europe, wide Science Raffer Bulgaria, so so that was how it I've started. I I started gymnastics because because I was basically a bundle of energy and destroyed the house know how can we com you down? So I put into gymnastics for about three hours a day every day, and when I was five years old, I was doing hundreds of jumping Jack jacks push ups and when I got I was very well for Europe. This would show me of this strategy sorry, later this year, I going Ecevit without that's very impressive, I gotta tell you
You know what I'm good at it will do that exists in the space time continue sleeve. So we of course have had a Berlin here or Doktor have a balloon who is going to break down the Neuro Science because there's a lot of neural size that goes into pretty much every actually correct, you're late, when you talk about the brain and the discipline and
they call it muscle memory, but it really is theirs muscle memory right, it's actually called procedural memory. So basically, when your first learning and your puppies had this experience the moves or whatever it, maybe you have to really focus and you're using parts you're, prefrontal cortex. You need conscious focus. Even learning to tire issue is, for the first time and then overtime over repetition and discipline to do it all those many times it starts to become implicit or unconscious and it moves into the basic ganglia, which is the sort of sub critical part of the brain, and it becomes this procedural memory of what we call mushroom yeah and this like writing about and then once you get into that implicit state. If you become too self aware of what you're doing like oh exactly, how should I hit that tennis ball or two? It will mess up your flow. So I imagine that you practice it so much that when you go into a routine you're almost going on autopilot
right. You want to get to that point at which your body knows what it's doing and you'll have to think about. It goes the thinking message because Yogi Bird said a baseball is ninety. Nine percent of the game is have mental. I love so here's here's a bundle that can be such a. I pointed out so you can lose. You ever should know it's true and I think that's where a lot of elite athletes get in trouble and I'm it's happened to me and you know several occasions is where you train your buyer, usually over and over and over. But then you have this one moment and you like, I can't you, to chance, and so you get your mind involve because you also have a you know days that you, you re only practicing an hour a day once you're at competition, and then you just thinking about it over and over, and this one moment arrive and it's very hard to put away. You know the monkey mine. Does it really wants to be there to help you, but it's like too many cooks and the kitchen exactly
We turned down that part of the its base, the dorsal, lateral, prefrontal cortex. They already aware and that's the inner critic and omega which had it and then, if you can manage to turn that down and just enter into the flow stay and lose yourself. That's when you really perform exactly you gotta watch, others will tell you, think it through the ice. Neil you yesterday. Actually I heard you talking to somebody at another thing. We were doing what you were saying that you skate or you did something at the ice rank. Were you wore figures gates? What didn't you haven't even know? I spent a time. In high school as a rink guard, but now the hockey skates. Now, how can I bore fridges, area, unusual, yeah yeah very hard is like me, more aggressive with if with hockey skate, but I have figures,
you're out of figures vary, so I'm just trying to figures, and maybe you can tell me because the topic in part you that's, why you have it you see, figures, gate, there's like in the front of figures gates and so here at the recent thugs who came on who, like an idea he said no figures. Game was so tat like beefy, doggie, guys and rather than fight them, I'd just challenge them to erase. From one end of the ice or the other, and if one party ways- and they haven't hockey skates, so they got it. I press their feet left and right to go forward. I hadn't figures, when I my toes interests and wait for them, then they shut up after that. But it does. I deeply appreciate your craft and as the figures
I myself as a visibly next episode on the right I will raise. Oh you re so, light rank me outside undertake figures. Take on a tutor demo like you and me. Are you aware of the physics that, because they call figure skating, visits on ice, there's there's so much to our your? Where are the physics when you're skating or are you aware of it at all, I think you are aware of it, but you don't think of it in terms of physics, you know you'd the way that you define is like this, like hyper body awareness, and you can feel when you take off for a job. If you don't have enough speed
You slightly throw your your shoulder too much and you can feel in the air that you're you're off killed her and that you're gonna go down hard, and you also know that if you do in a single a double a triple quad, exactly how much talk you have to put in when you leave the ice cause. That is what determines how fast your rotating, if you'll, be able to complete in a certain number rotations up in the air to talk is a force that set something into rotation. Otherwise, it's just a force giving acceleration too in order to force the goes in a straight line, and then you have to work with the force. Turning to so so there you are it's a force you were putting between your body or state in the ice so that you can rotate too to launch it like to begin and end the same with spinning and that something you know your kind of going to a spin slow and then you, your glide, in annual your ride the edge and then you'll take the right time, your body and you'll, like your snap, it to begin the spin,
Then you'll use your arms and legs to increase your speed or slow it down on my got so are so I'm learning how to further so that scales escape had a serious event, our ideas. So here's what I would love to do. If, for those of you who are listening and do not have the benefit of visual, because everybody is here if you could stand up and just show us the actual, but you have to talk it through because people listening there, if you don't show, was the physiology of what happens when you're doing that motion and the meal. If you can break down exactly what's happening for example, in Africa, will be really cool and making this up as a go a long way from where it says. So we can pretend like we're where they can whipping this is where you register Association grown she's wearing high heels
I'm not gonna this labour programme so would have theirs. There's two instances right, there's a job and a spin. I feel like everyone. If anyone's rights, any figure skating somewhat aware the difference. When you leave the eyes and one you don't the jump you in the eyes of Gaza, where I'm keeping yours So, for instance, I would start with a sow, and so is something going to take off backwards and you're going to be gliding on the inside edge of your left, foot and you're going to determine how much speed do you want to get going in right, so I'll be doing crossovers and running going far right and then people have different entrances but say like when I many many many years ago I did a quads outcome and I wanted to get extra torque, so I would do it turned a head and then I would set myself here and then I would use the edge gliding
backwards, my the right side of my body, and I would dig in with my left with my left foot into the eyes and with this up and not what would initially like the momentum, and I would leave the eyes, push off this topic and then immediately slap snapped the way over my right side and based on how much I, followed through with my right arm and right, lay and pushed out with my life would determine half ass. I was span and if it would be a single job, a double jump, a triple jump or acquire wake. I ask your question and how the way just broke down was a very logical, conscious, whatever, but when you're actually doing that, you're not think,
All those things are you are you feeling them? Am you violette feel it? So I really am explaining exactly what I feel right, but it's it's it's your very fine tune. You know exactly how much speed you need, and you know how much speed is too much so you'll lose control that it could turn out gray, but you have to get lucky because, basically speed magnifies anything It helps you get more height more torque, but if you are one millimetre off in any direction and you have extra speed Europe, go down really hard or a year. You're you're alignment won't be quite right, so people are TAT, an alternative, a speed, because that can you know go up in flames. It's like it's like putting leverage on your house. It can work. I really wow or just can go bust,
But now. Finally I wish us all yours, so do you so so I get. You gave a brilliant description of how you give yourself rotational inertia. Photoshop we haven't got into this ban, but, however, you didn't well. Ok I to me up in physics, you gently break things. Apart in two components- and you put it all together for the one thing I break this apart, you told me how you gained spin, but you have, if you do a quad, you have to be borne warm enough to complete the quad before you hit the ground. Yes, so that's part of it because you'll notice, if you watch figure skating, pass Olympics. You will see some people barely get off the eyes and they can do three turns, and some people get this half this high up and they don't completed
You don't say I so it really is. The rotation is now how fast your aunt yourself up to and then obviously goes into like. What's your body type do have like wide hips, how fast spinning and that's why men rotate faster and generally do a lot more quads and women do there. They spend faster. They ve got narrower hips. By adding a women are more flexible, so we ve got that aspires inhabitant, how many women have done court? You know a couple of done it in practice and I feel like maybe like wine, one or two have done in competition and you ve got to go I have a large area, you painfully Youtube exists and it will always lived there. Like a wow, I used to do that now. I just meant jobs, so people, that's the free girl for me, As you know, people can see when you get really closer, you double funded, or is that Bob
excited, because you know people can see when you get really close or you double footed or you step out and when you actually do it and you're kind of you come down from four turns, and you have to have tremendous amount of strength and balance to catch yourself. When you come, get out- and so at this moment like you, can do it and you have it in its very exciting, was exciting- was to launch the Lambert report yeah. So so why? When I train, you know, you'd work, onyx explosive muscles for balance, and then you would also would jump down off of boxes this high in order to collect, learn how to absorb all that pressure and momentum coming down the usual with skates. On with five training our do without skates and then on the ice with
before that about. Hello secret, for you gonna consider singing all of the ads on this show just one way to get out a hearing. There go to patriarch arms last started talk and the porters at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free. You can download all current episodes into your favorite park has player and net. I hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not happy. Hear me sing if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio.
I mean I'm just sing it I mean just SAM. But don't let me get you a strength of character, frightened you got watching yourself out and it's something that goes for much longer. It's not fraction of a second, it's a spin, you know can be thirty seconds. It can be a minute and you basically you'll see most people wind backwards and there are creating this. It's all about torque in the body, and this is why relies on the terrible skeer? it's the opposite to the wine during the spring, your wine, and so my hips are going to the left and my shoulders are going to the re. Lotta ebbs labs, coroner, yes and then, and then so then you step in and you ride this outside edge and then again you do the same. With momentum for jumping up, you don't take off and then
sped generally. If I wasn't anything, I could do more spin and then once you're there you can you keep this. Momentum and then, as I would bring in my arms and my legs, I can just insanely increase the speed of my spin and likewise, if all of a sudden I wanted to slow it down, I would just open up and you would see the rotation just kind of almost stopped, and so in that way I was aware of physics, but fur figure skaters. We would think about it more in terms of like body awareness of you wear your hips, I what torque you need push you to Madeira yes, right, creature being judge how you look at it right, there other dimensions of the analysis of the other rank of the scores exactly right, so you actually! Yes, can you tell us what is happening when she does that saw the physics yeah you're, so so
if you take my less sources, doesn't get tell you this Simon is never come so physics, here's the deal. So if you set yourself rotating so I do there right now so so here I am routine. This added Arabs me wait, don't applaud! Yet you know what's about to cook. So so you just, but are you so you can calculate how much anger, Lou
So so in physics, you might remember from your physics class, if you had it or you re, so everything that happens in a straight line you can think of in a rotation. So there is a force. The rotational counterpart is torque. There is mass. Their voters a counterpart is moment of inertia, there is, you also have momentum and there were tabled teleport adjust, angular momentum, so here's the thing. Once you start rotating your angle, momentum is constant, ok, its constant. So if I start spinning, and you kept you calculate to anger momentum by gay here it is, it is the mass
Of whatever your body is whether in this case would be the biggest figures gator, here's the point: your hand, your hands over certain mass, ok they're rotating out at this distance. So you have part of your body mass away from your access of rotation. Case. If you you calculate how much angle momentum that is now watch if I bring part of my body cos. So to my access of rotation, then one of the terms in your anger momentum drops it so so so What happens is the distance to your? The access of rotation drops But you're angle stays the same. So something has to increase so because when you
multiply these numbers. You have to get to say answer every time, ok, so if I start changing the distance of the mass of my body to my yes and I make a smaller. I have to speak up nice. So they have allow me yes, my man, so I will spin and then. And I'm just like she said what we need right right in a brighter, so you you're submitting speed up, but then you can stop it by putting your man back up so here down. Here is my proposal to area, so I don't know, doesn't legal? Ok George, do you your maid Skating physics demo in this moment? We have a certain amount of mass coming out here. So so way for those listening right now, saucer has our arms spread apart report, yes and unity,
formation and go ahead exactly so. It's a certain amount mass on your arm and in your hands It also showed earlier when you started Sven, you might say, your leg out. Ok when you bring your leg, closer and torture access of rotation. You start spinning faster and ok, so we got this. Oh, I think you have it, infinity on the was very cool. How that, yes, that is infinitely. So I I don't know if that's ok, so here's my suggestion, I don't over its legal next time. You do this. I think you can do a quaint. Is there such a word? There is such a good point. Five turns now. How would you do that? I'm going to say, you get some lead weight to put
Tom radio really of ice skating, new start when you start spreading with lead weights in your hand. Even if your spinning at the same speed You once were you have more mass farther away from your rotation axis. As you can bring the mere mess in you will spend faster, and I don't know people will notice, grab and certainly get many measures, data rather worrying what Chu kettlebells. So what you do is this really heavy ring, robberies, bracelets and lead infuse the risk bracelets and you just you're you're, you're, jewelry new! I build up huge. What I'm saying is, if you did that the same gestures you will spend faster and
you'll have to land. You have to figure out the landing. But but gets you how to throw this ban to you, but first spitting Agnes would absolutely work and it will give me more talking momentum when I spend, but I think the x We would not allow me to get up as high in the air, and so even if I got extra towards one I pulled in, I would still not be able to as many have work on this in order to try to figure out a bit about God. Think about that This is one of the interesting physics problems where there are two variables competing with one another, and you don't know of one is a powerful than the other one where they meet to get the best combination above and those that we get the more interesting, complex problems. And in life. I haven't neurosciences science problem here that I can you know what why don't you get dizzy when, during all these,
yeah, you know Joe could be we we be around and saw you know there is actually no scientific explanation for that. For that question the weeds, interesting for dumping, you know it's, it happens in a fraction of a second and you, you don't get dizzy. She's very quick, but spinning is something where I lay and skating really diverge. You know if you're ballerina, your spotting, you know like to the edge of the room and that's how you are keeping
You know you're here where I spotted you. May you pick us yeah, you haven't you weren't quickly, back, that's why you like you turn that prevent you from getting dizzy for ballet propeller, this we're ballerinas, do they always spot, but for four figures: gaiters, your spinning so fast and you're not doing just like kind of one one one you're literally doing I don't know it's fifty turns and you the trick is you have to stay in the same centre so about like one to two blade length and- and I don't know- I think it's like something- do your inner ear- that if you're not travelling and you're a kind of your staying in the same spot, even though your spinning, you don't get dizzy, but from perfect personal expire and when you do a span and you do a bad spend what you get a deduction for and your travelling. So you kind of start here and I end up off stage- would be a way out of the Spirit and it's like a cartoon where you see the stars and you're just like. Why or am I so that's why they did you have your centre and don't travel.
So in a way that inner ear to me and like near ass, I hope so. Your inner ear consists of these three like fluid filled, tubes right and each one is at a different orientation. So it's meant to be sensitive to a different orientation that save your head goes up and yes, like this or no or side to side and within those provisions, three dimensional yeah reads: dimensions within their their represented within your inner ear. In these little cannot these tubes and within each of these fluid fib tubes? Are these little set hairs that are like sensing? It's almost like sea weed at the bottom of the ocean. So when you move it senses and send signals to your brain. So, if you think about it here in a chair, lets a spinning and you're holding a bottle of water and your spinning in this swivel chair and then you stop. The water is going to keep going right, cause it built up momentum and the same thing is happening in your inner ear.
So it's telling your brain you're still moving. That's why people get disease and also there's more s right when you stopped beating you fall over, could you can keep your balance who's? Your brain didn't figure out that you stop spray, thinks you're still moving, but than theirs. Also information, so information review of your brain, but your muscles are telling you stuff is well there's proprio, set input and there's also visual input right, giving you information. What kind of what was the muscle input, propria, receptive probe, Proba, Rio's, feels like appropriate reception propos, that's out of every hour. Proprio sub showed good now it signals that tell your bodies its awareness in space, so you bought it. Your brain is getting that information from your muscles and joins the inner ears.
You're, so moving and your eyes are giving you information. So that's why they often say and Tom. If these you, when you're added when you come out of this, been different than ballerinas, you focus each time they make a term. But you then are told to focus at a specific point, because you want to have your eyes telling your brain counteracting what your inner ear is telling us that it still moving that you're not moving any longer and also what you do. I'm sure is you practice off eyes, just spinning too, that your brain can habitually. So it's not so much that you're spinning one place verses moving, although the movement is going to cause it to be more confusing cause, there's moving in different direction, so it'll be less of a movement if you're in one space, but that's not what I think is happening. I think you habituate cause you practice, rightly obliged acclimated to split, yet only so much though break so a physiological factory somewhat you'll, soon, figures gaiters do has thus been very fast and then not slow down and they slow down their kind of getting their burying their readers, trouble ease and yourself out of ignorance.
And then there's like a trick, move that you do. Is you spin really really really fast and you ve stopped and then you can you do to the music they, What am I gonna? Get him in your life. To focus at a specific point, because you want to have your eyes telling your brain counteracting what your inner ear is telling us that it still moving that you're not moving any longer and also what you do. I'm sure is you practice off eyes, just spinning too, that your brain can habitually. So it's not so much that you're spinning one place verses moving, although the movement is going to cause it to be more confusing cause, there's moving in different directions, so it'll be less of a movement if you're in one space, but that's not what I think is happening. I think you habituate cause you practice right at oblige, acclimated to spread its only so much, though break as it still a physiological factory said. Will you
Judging system, where you're getting rewarded getting more points, if you jump after the halfway mark, but generally you want to end on a big know, and so people will do combination spends where you hit like six different positions: you're in a camel Uranus. It's been lay back in and on the other foot at your legs up. So there a lot of fire. I'd like a farm in the eyes of all of us now raise throw adobe ads,
Let me ask almost out of time. Why is it that, from a neurological standpoint that that is our first kind of foreign into getting high, you see children's aroused just like Mr Mann Blade what what is it
a lot of what drugs do, is they kind of play with your senses right? So normally we have input coming in from our senses in and our brain is organizing in a certain way. But when you kind of mess with your senses in the way the brain is interpreted them, that's also what drugs tend to do and it feel it's interesting because it's a different brain state here that it is not just your inner ear by the way, those inner ear it in for that information goes through that little green in the back, your brain, the cerebellum right, it's right in the back yard, and what's interesting, those that that has to times as many neurons as your entire brain bright two times as many neurons so twice yet two zero to twice Maura but its unconscious. Ok and people who have complete damage to the cerebellum. They are still fully conscious of what I mean. They might have less coordination. They can't do triple axles and things, but their fully conscious and aware. So we
need basically one third of our neurons shall have conscious awareness, but it's interesting. How much goes into that ability to have balanced and, but so, but I think the reason why it feels good is that we like different sensations. We liked to be outside of our normal, even dream states. Creative states or daydreaming when we're not in that normal state where the prefrontal cortex is on and everything is working properly. It's it's fun. It's interesting us. I would like to go, and bold coaster rides that make feel weird social sure when you are performing urine and altered mental state according to this was at the end I became a figure skating world is going to be too much guiding this gave for twenty years. That's why you drink before competition sure I have one kind of hyper geeky thing left to say about figure skating go ahead to do we have time for sugar you're going ok, but it's kind of its like embarrassingly geeky
are you sure you know you could tell me private, ok, so so here it is and will take a few minutes, but it's just ok most things when they get
cooler, they will shrink Norway, water, water, does the opposite. If you cool water, take its temperature down to thirty two degrees, it freezes and gets bigger. The same amount of water occupies higher volume after it freezes and so the water, the frozen water. The solid water is less dense than the water from which it came,
And the ice floats okay. This is profound because you can have a lake with fishes in it. Winter comes winter was coming, ha ha ha Windsor. I like that we're Dragon tweet with the dragon breath? I didn't ask you to get you. Do so so so a lake, it's what you called outside timber to drop below freezing the water at the top seals, this temperature? Ok, so what happens it turns out as the tap water does get smaller preventative bigger again,
four degrees celsius? Water is had its densest, so the so the air is cooling water, it it's four degrees, it dropped to the bottom of the lake and then he calls it dropped. So the bottom drops to the bottom finally go call their catches up with the water and the water. It freezes the water and it creates a lid of ice. Now the temperature stays call. How does it gonna get to the water below it, can't that ice insulates, the lake and does not overfish nice given ice if the US we're not. This all relates to figures could give this. Like I said if you see, I told you wait till you get this gates on these things. So if I
sank, Vince, systematically the cold air would freeze the leg from the bottom up and the fishes would have less and less and less water to swim in and at last lay would freeze and you would kill every single fish every single winter. But we have frozen lives over running streams in every municipality everywhere. Ok, so now, This really is seeking your father. Now suppose I have a block of ice and I want to We it into a smaller volume. You can't I know of your days ice big.
Encouraged by. I thought I told you about that. It still here. Ok fatigue is building. Oh my god. It's just. Let me give a quick aside pipes kind of what water flow you it's cold outside and its follow up, and I myself am pipes are holding onto the water. The water is trying to get colder and it gets cold. Cold recalled it begins to thirty two degrees and it wants to freeze, but it can't because a type is holding it puts it.
If even colder, and it wants to freeze even more, but it can't because the pipe is holding it, that the ice, the water will go to thirty two to thirty one to thirty, and it will freeze until it was too free so badly it becomes ice. Top your pipes, no matter what their Meda it'll pop, your pipe, about ourselves, good company, that's what our target values! Ok, if you reversal we ve ice. You will melted. I'm squeeze it hard enough pressure to pressure pressure pressure. Can I watch come on baby tat, my son.
Go on the ice, not because I see is slippery but because her skates are shot grinned, not like a knife edge put, it gives you a cross section of an hour. I skate blade. It's actually concur yes, it's concave, so you have to get used to thinking about your on. So, if you're skating on an edge her weight, No, she ran away much. That weight is sitting on top of Amy area of metal blade and pressure if force per year.
Area in the area is small. The same force over that area becomes a higher pressure. That's how the math works out so what's actually happening when she's skates is that the ice beneath her skate blade melts. The instant her blade touches it and she's gliding on a bead of water on hopper, the ice. That is what she's doing she's compressing the ice it mills instantly, because the ice kid stay ice. In a smaller volume. It becomes water immediately. Add that if we want so so so
over the water, the ice melts. So she smooth and the moment the blade comes out. The other side, the warder re freezes instantly. So you think it's because the ices slippery no it's because the water is slippery. Now very they temperature below which even the high pressure- knock knock the ice. There was an expedition to the South pole in nineteen eleven, the Scott expedition. He had a team he had slain with skate blades on it. Ok, gliding over the ice he got to the South Pole to Lakers the was the guy admiral- would have begun. He wasn't. He brought him to it. Ok, fine, so he's ready to go back and article went into a deeper freeze than usual
they were this. What the moving was slow. They were running out of supplies. They had to get to a to supply station. They got within eleven miles or this efficient and I couldn't go any further. You know why, because they were moving so slow and was taken so much energy than to eat their dogs. Ok, they ate their dogs, and that was not enough. And now they do nothing to pull this one. So the humans are pulling the sled and Poland and there's a point where they can pull this. Any more because the temperature dropped so low. This blade were no longer melting, the ice and which they guided and their blazed froze in the ice, could not make it to the eleven miles to the station and everyone on their expedition die
This is the story that new used to tell his children why there was quite an they just walk and leave the sled We got a brother, we collected ranch residents that they wanted to bring back to England with them, and those rocks recommends we're just shoot a dead end with the rest of them later on. We came back, found the rock specimens and they can contain fossils of firms and other and other prehistoric life evidence that aunt article was not always ice. This was a scientific expedition
and they gave their lives for science. Yes, we and, I must say to building story. Not one of them was you will find a frozen that wasn't anyway that is it for playing with someone who is a member of the inevitable we do not forget yours, not rose is theirs. If you play with fire, you get burned, play was size,
We have a good night, everybody here, like devil, my old, the organs wish you could listen. The star talk, virtual free joint start, compatriots for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com slap star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-20.