« StarTalk Radio

Let There Be Light

2013-03-28 | 🔗
Are you on our wavelength? Learn about the many ways the electromagnetic spectrum infiltrates our lives and illuminates the universe.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial free. Filled with secrets in industries leaving us with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time. What what When you see the domain, the brakes tat, you put, your grandma's have vastly Brenda get lab right now,
welcome back talk, radio on your host astrophysicist. The grass Thyssen I serve as the director of the Haiti planetary. Art museum in actual history in New York City and today's subject is light back there. I call it let there be light and who else shines bright in all our lives badly? complex, live, walk back to start talk, radio cohorts tomorrow on this programme, that's right and welcome better. Thank you. It's exciting to me. I know you think about light all the time. This whole issue is on white and what we would otherwise call the electromagnetic spectrum, but its light to plague most people, but to the astrophysicist lies not just like the colors of the Rainbow worthy bigger. He heard a region,
I don't know what you were. Not special me. Ok can change special red. Yellow indigo blow violet wherever the green, that's obvious hook, that's the jail red rhetoric, little green, blue INDIGO violent, that's the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. I never was a pop quaint and then it goes in either direction. So you go beyond the red beneath the red. Its infrared infer means less than back when they first laid this out. You can't see infrared go beyond a forensic to microwaves and radio waves. We ve all heard of these. Maybe it in no was part of the family of light that we call the electromagnetic spectrum Newcomb at the other side, beyond violent, get what he finer beyond violent s, headache ultra violet, intergovernmental travailing, x rays and then gamma rays, there's the entire Letterman it expects, and the actual physicist is an expert in each of these bans and the universe talks too
in each one of those bans telling us something different, but we should do so to start off with an amateur, be pacing. I don't understand half what you start out. Let's see what belie. Foolishly, we get bill nigh to just sort of warm us up with just the encounter with what our telescope, due for the universe, we're on the radio. What better time to ponder what we can. Let's see if you start counting you'd say you see a lot of things: tiny things like pistols between petals of petunias and big things like fantastically far away stars, but now try the eye piece of an instrument. A telescope, the moon is not smooth. It's a mess, those arch of bright dots, their world with rings and whether some of the dots oranges world their galaxies, followed worlds.
So far. We just talked about rays of light visible to human eyes. It turns out that, even though we see thousands and millions and billions of things, we hardly see the energy of the universe at all visible light waves and Michael waves and x rays and cosmic rays. Even heat waves are manifestations of both electricity and magnetism. At the same time, electromagnet It radiates all over the place or places all over space, the universe by building remarkable instruments to detect all these wavelengths of electromagnetic energy. We discovered planets stars and galaxies. Now, as we build better and better instruments, we found that we don't know the half of it actually about the ninety four percent of it. We detect it a great deal of energy from vast reaches of space, but they're just has to be so much. We dont yet see
Let's look into the sky and stay tuned. Four star talk, radio, I'm bill nigh the science guy Bill now always tell it like. It is Lynn. Welcome with me one of our guest tonight. We have cool guy you're, all here and there all here in studio. First up in this segment is Michael Benson. Michael welcome to start heart, radio, how you doing How do I characterize you as like a journalist photographer of Photojournalist a Astro, not because everything you write about and everything you published books on is about the universe. You have the answers. Yes, that's how you can characterized, as you very minor journal, irrational, followed, marginal role, not journalist. I first I first met you
Many years ago I think you're preparing one of your earlier books go far out. Was that one of them or did emerge that that was the first one word far out as the last one that covers basically everything from just at the gates of our solar system, all the way to the big bang? Ok. So this is a book where you have collected images together with narrative that, were you just bring in the universe, to the public of gas, and then the first book was called beyond that
when you probably saw beyond, we collaborated a little to put a sharp antonov. You remember, we put a shop at the eight unknown. I remembered so beyond beyond was those with space probes that then put up got images of the planet, so I'm why unfortunate as an astrophysicist have journalist who care about the universe, could then you get to do some of the work that we would otherwise try to do, but would Knesset wouldn't necessarily succeed, and you ve been eminently successful at this beautiful books that you published. So what about the universe? Attractive was a just cause, the stuff like school or- and you a photographer to so you know what you think about light and what it does and how it an end this limit of artist in you. So you think about how light affects the viewer and I'd like to think there's a lot of artists to me now, but Connecticut, easier on what about the universe. Attracts me that kind of question is almost impossible to answer that, because everything is the universal,
Anything that attractive is the universe, but what about the universe contractually allow you blew my mind's hogs fat me. Oh my god, I think I did but saying even people sitting next to him is part of the universe, hiding himself images of him the minor issues onto my little. You know how to know this parliament, where I quite large nobody. What attracts me to the universe. I mean, I think, that part of it to be moderately serious years that you know in the last fifty years we have seen things that everybody prior to fifty years ago, could only dream of seeing which is highly detailed images of all the planet's you know of the solar system and then also after the Hubble was launched on incredibly detailed pictures of of the origin of the big
innings of solar systems in IRAN in this kind of thing. So my question is: how is it possible really for people not to be attractive essays beginnings? Resources have been around the constellation. Orion has one of its stars is actually region of the galaxy. We're stars are being born and it's what you meant well said the awry nebula right, maybe a very famous placing them in the solar system, stellar nursery in fact, and so so so all these places excite you and through you, you, but you didn't take any these pictures. You assemble them from public sources. Right will face for pointing that out. I will name wow Phoebe Locker No, no, I mean So what do we need you for a while I'll tell you why not even by children,
I was wondering how to when I got the call. You know that, but then I decided I along with play along with you. You know. Part of that, is that you don't you I didn't take the individual shots infected, it's impossible. No human being has been an orbit of Jupiter, for example, or order Saturn. But what I do I do, how italian tell mother gloves, I think I'll know, take out from hand to take that no genius in here is just a guy. I hold a new heading, I don't know I think he's is certainly got our midst of genius. We know I'm into our all of us. Do I think I'm on your side look limit. Let me just say this: you know what I do is go into archives that have hundreds of thousands of raw images and I look for extraordinary frames I can then Mosaic together Mosaic means they're, they're: U tile them together and make a bigger picture.
Single image, what yeah yeah I composite them to get color and- and so I feel very much I am, I feel, almost authorities towards them, because some of them really wouldn't exist of aerial authority. Like I'm, the author Onlooker Aerial reveal like the author of quite a number of them, even though, of course, anyway, can go into the archives, and I encourage this very much to go into the archives of the point is that anyone can do it, but they didn't. You did so you then had the privilege of being the first in and therefore the first out with these beautiful books that you,
I mean I'll, tell you a story, Hallijohn US, but you pay out together. You I'll tell you a story. I mean recently. I had a show in Chelsea in my gallery, which has Hasta crawler gallery and West twenty Forestry and M, because I had the deadline of February third to have an opening. I went into the archives and I've started digging in Cassini material Cassini is the spacecraft orbiting Saturn right now and I started looking for extraordinary image. Attorneys of images are there and I found I found these amazing images of the dark side of Saturn, which was not dark. It was not dark because there's so much indirect light, bouncing off the rings and so on, and I put together a multiple frame mosaic and and as it emerged in.
Color and I made it seem, listen everything I had the very real sensation that I was the first human being to see the backside of sad to see that yet you can put the backside of other the rear side of Saturn and away. You know- and I had this amazing sensation- that you know I was a privilege person as I had done this and then, of course, for my part of the fun of it is to get it out there and we do not show the people that we bring in my second created it is, it is everybody, my second three guess: who's name, Brian Abbot, Brian, welcome to start talk rate or your first appearance,
Thank you. It's a pleasure to be Brian. I, but you have to tell the city earnings. Tell me tell everyone cause. I know in advance tell everyone what it says on your business card is what it is that you do. You are what well I have a business card, the reeds manager of the digital universe, manager of the digital universe. That is so cool. That's like those extra dates in the bar is, it doesn't hurt us even staple the manager of the paper so Bryant you you come to this. Would you have it by a huge science background, your computer literate and you put together data sets for the hidden planetarium that enables people to sort of take journeys through those data, and so I dont worry some. Your challenges. Collecting them scientifically because Michael bent in his dick is, is mining the archives,
and then that's cool. But at the end of the day there still just photographs, still photographs to devote sergeant. I shall cite scope are carried out his art. It is our but brain. You take another dimension here. So where do you live ever? There is just another dimension. A hard dimension. Astrophysicist have a hard time getting distances distances in everything. Pictures does something in the night sky. Seeing that the threat to the sky fuel from earth is great length of attitude and shooting, but getting distance to that object is very cheap at once you get the distance, then you can create a journey through it right. That's right! Ok! So now now it's not just visible light data that you ve got because you got telescopes in every band of light of the electromagnetic spectrum we ve ultraviolet telescopes and infrared though we had a telescope.
Ban that we cannot see so what we do with those data will you show them? How do you show them if we can't see them while that's the challenges? I know the answer to that question, but I want you to say how could you got the title manager, the digital universe? How do you reconcile showing something that we should be seen with our eyes visible like the stars in the sky, with something that is invisible to our? I that's why I'm asking lie category. I thank you lay like the invisible like microwave radiation or infrared or ultraviolet. How do we see that? How do you make out myths about ass? We Scientists- and we take- and I heard you- the master
I want to see the manager on this in an Italian if the your manager mandatory take me to your leader we on, and we essentially decide how it looks. You get a sense of how it looks from the instrument, and then you decide how you want that to look and that relates to how we see things as humans. So it's always a judgment call. So you converting invisible light into like that. We can see, but didn't have to be honest and say The actual can't see this this, what it would look like if you could see in those bands of light years actually like when they take. This is how a dog see things you don't really know that does not put. You can stammered, but somebody has to decide what What would it somebody better? My John, the scientific data that pass somebody's gotta make their drying had. Then you need to make a dog hearing, simulator or dog, seeing simulator right, which is essentially that's essentially what you
unbridled. Yes, you made a simulator that allows us to see and bans are like. We cannot ask what your favorite data set in a band we can't see. I left the w map the we met. So this is of the microwave or wave radiation of the of the entire universe, baby picture of the of the universe born the light cast. Fourth, thirteen point four billion years ago, so you just digging. It said the Big Bang picture like that when there is a link, I have let every light baby here like what it looks like going to turn it on well, it's as far back as we can see. A roomful of mine has got out of that me. What we're gonna do when we talk about other council, I would say yes, we can will do that. In fact, when we come back and when we come back, we have yet a third gas bringing circus. Have you ever think about her that no real progress on here we'll see? You start your radio when we're back from this break itself? Let there be life
hey, I've got a little secret for you. When I consider singing all of the ads on this shell there just one way to get out of hearing there go to patriarch. Coms last starred talk and supporters at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free. You can download all current episodes into your favorite parkers player and ever hear another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to Hear me sing if you support us at patriarch doc. Arms last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying. The future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal start. I wrong.
Why amazing how much astrophysics there is. Obviously your back we are and start operating on your host, the other as Thyssen. Let me read- to do my guess: Michael Benson, stairway to Heaven, for example, Michael Benson, journalist, photographer space geek. All the way- and I could not at a month was by went on me one of your up ads or editorials criticising NASA and the nations priorities. Maybe we'll get back to that later weird tension with you got Brian Abbot manager of the digital universe at the hidden planetarium things would be enhanced our talk and, of course, my inaugural co host topless we're attention
between you, two that the light of your light wig, yes, who at nine since we are here talking about, let there be like the light of the universe and how it created what it's all about. Let me just sort of reset some of the physics of. What's going on here, some gradually shirt shirts light as energy. It's it's a form of energy. The lot of kinds of energies, kinetic energy of motion is potential energy. You get that and in and when you are in the universe or chemical potential energy, that's the energy that shows up on a bomb explodes, but in the universe light is a form of energy, and we call it electromagnetic energy and look at the big bang. Yet so at the at the Big Bang have all of this energy. In a very small volume, and it is so hot so energetic that matter is forming out of the energy according to equals empty. Where, in a matter that I wanted Bible, God says let there be lying? I liked her neck.
You're, saying you're, safe, a bunch of credit for that deed, saying something different from what you read in Genesis Yes, so what we have here is the soup. It's a matter anti matter energy soup and then, as it expanded and cool The other matter and antimatter particles collided with ease and annihilated and created light, except some man I met some matter was left over out of this. One out of a hundred million particles was left over. And that is the matter that you and I are made of, and all the other matter. Antimatter collisions created the light of the universe, now visible microwaves at the distant most distant regions of the universe. We call it the famous microwave background, the baby picture, the big
And so this is light at all travels at, of course, the speed of light which in miles per second hundred eighty six thousand two hundred eighty two miles per second, and if you like it, really geeky at home, one one nanosecond, that's a billionth of a second, my travels one foot. So if you're saying a foot away from someone you can see, I see you not as you are, but, as you once were a billionth of a second, you time travel. Be the light again back to the future. Ah. Well, maybe exactly like my really like it on science, all of our lives and our people remember like who is this hooker guys? It's exactly like a minus? That's, what's capacitors! Yes, we not so telescopes are kind of like time travellers because, as you see far out in space, you see far back in time Yes, I see you as you once we're, like, I said to billionth of a second ago your two feet away
you say you are younger. As I see you, then you are at that moment that I see yes, the moon, the moon is like a little more than a second light. Second away, the sun five hundred light seconds away. We have galaxies, here's a cool one. We have guarantees that are sixty five million light years away, which means that they had a powerful telescope. They could look to earth and they can see the dinosaurs go extinct as its happening as its unfolding. They will need super duper telescopes when they go back to something simple, very. Secondly, what's his let's break it down for me, ok, yeah! I'm fine.
Like you said, light and energy. Is that why we can see lightning light was so yet so lightning is a lot of energy and a small spot spot which rapidly expands the air decreases. Christmas was shockwaves, we hear the thunder and it's very cricket rapidly expands the air and that creates a shockwave and so that that's why you're here it and of course you hear it later than you see it, but it is very high temperature and when you bring anything the high temperature glows, you see the sun because it is at a high temperature. It glows you he'd anything, a high enough attempt. You will glow period weather the gas, solid, it'll, it'll it'll beetle glad that's correct how trust- and there is a guy from the nineteenth century, who put together all our current understanding of the behaviour of light and is called Maxwell, James clerk Maxwell and combats wills equations, when most beautiful set of equations there are, in all its physics, river had a maximum.
You know the imam Poppy Guy, just checking for office, the same guy, probably not, and he made rediscovered x rays, who does not x Rays Wilhelm Wrong in fact, in Germany, then I called x rays. The convention raise yet so they want. They still remain I don't have a pronounced. An annual operating for my mammogram yeah, basically with real him watch him and was actually discovered quite by accident, was working with sort of high energy emissions. From tubes and, as has happened to be in the way of a photographic, play any development and saw his bones on that. Rather it completely creep out of freaked out. If that had happened, and it's only get it again, not knowing that this kind of thing use things you die from, you know too much. Explosion, accurate then the x ray room and what does the extradition do right before they foot this? May only they leave closed the door shut, the door, that's what they do: a cat scan the words tat guy down the hall and talk to you.
Through it rang. Like? Are you ok, you know I'm not ok, I'm alone and obviously, with a really frightening room. What about brands of lighted will actually are in our everyday life. So your cell phone uses microwaves. Why tell me now what I try, and now I've got all of you here in this little light summit meeting. I want to know when, like I travel all the time when I'm on the road- and I'm gonna be doing it this week when they, albeit their orlando, but he waved. My question is this: for those who are listening on time Delay Itunes protest, which means they was there when things like a month in advance by the newcomer, whatever just go online on my part but on the Orlando but here's. The question had been making me now at the airport: walk through those bodies. Can things violence whether someone else's you naked in the person of centuries,
It doesn't seem really try to split the person who knows who you are and the personal senior you know. I don't care about me- will see me naked that enough. Now someone wants to pay by all means taking, but I'm more concern. I can kill me like how why does it might hurt? I haven't formally studied that scanning process and I think you don't know what that means. Decay in Vienna speak. What take what they're dead? Don't know. We see they claim that it's not any more dangerous than than a plain flight that you might be taken over to the expulsion of radiation on their Bryant, as is exactly effort that when you fly in a plane iraqi exposed to more radiation- and you would be on her right on earth surface because the atmosphere protect you from his shield, you from a lot of radiation from space in and noticed at the doors of it are opened by the way in your microwave ovens, which also uses microwave, I should have let off by saying: what's the difference from one band of light to the other, the length of the wave?
self microwaves or about half an inch, the third of an inch long in a little Lula wave shape. So if you want a block, microwaves just put a screen where the meshes smaller than that site and a microwave, can't get out so take a look at the door microwave nets? You just and it's got holds. Why don't you MIKE we'll come through the holes because the late wavelength, bigger than the holes themselves- and are you old enough to remember how people used to receive tv sings rabbit, ear antennas exactly? Why are they Kenneth that long here about a meter what you know about a yard long, that's the one Radio, radio waves or longer than microwaves an idiot. Capture radio waves, you get it. The antenna has to be about that link, so walkie talkie he's which use microwaves. How because their attendants much Studier, it's like you know it's like an inch way in a daze microwave thing. Can that be bad for you to talk to them, while if you create a cavity and zappia with much greater power than what goes on in the world?
Turkey than would boy boy your blood, and that would be bad. It's not gonna happen. We have the right things from the inside out yourself, microwaves. What happens is with a watermark you'll really likes microwaves. They have a deep, cosy relationship with each other, which is one of them This is why, when we try to observe the universe and microwaves you wanna get above the cloud forming layer of earth's atmosphere, because clouds wreak havoc on microwave. Your cell phone signal is worst during thunderstorms and all microwave signals are corrupted in the presence of water and we exploited that with microwave ovens, because most food that you will ever consume has water in it and the border absorbs the microwave vibrates them real fast and its friction that could your food and nothing else, and so people think of migrants Evans is nothing the food, not it's. Just the vibration of the water molecules all next to each other, vibrating ferociously creating heat and its microwaves and are in our life.
Culture that a microwave Brian you got microwave datasets, tellin us what's going on in the early universe, necessary Mckenna lighted at night when you use night vision, God depend so what the kind that afflict switch on your camp quarter is like infrared, ass night night mode about behind follow Bill Warren Unfounded, the lambs. Ok. So that would be like an image intensifier so that taking a very low those are developed in wartime by the way you can like should people in the dark of night I'd like to see us alive, this is military technology and so on very, very low light situations. You can greatly magnified electronically, so you have. It looks like in broad daylight to you in someone else's groping in the dark, so I think you mean that literally mean what literally growing things groping. Yeah yeah, just trying to make an instrument like any Haddonfield. South Asia, so might be on any of your photos. You do do you have a relationship with other bands of light
were you primarily visitor relationship. Do you know I'm I'm goin on trying to stay with with these visible? oh spectrum, using your little guy, I'm a visible like that's my time, but you realize the human eye season, one octave of light and we have the taxes that sea and sixty four. So what you told me now is that of your books, basically art demonstration that were actually mostly blind in the universe, although we are mostly blinded the universe anyway, I'm union a ninety nine point: nine percent of the universe is made out of stuff. We don't even understand a whole other, but I can't believe I have to tell you that point of view go anonymous! Ignorance have another question: do you have not requested? We might have to save it, for Search aim of getting a real quick ago now I want to ask about photosynthesis all cool. Yes, we can so go there because plants like light, as do the rest of us going back as I have planned. We, I will say we'll get there you're a plant lover of recent, I'm saying I need to nurture. We can do that also bring in an ace visualize of cosmic phenomenon. When we come back to start talking,
breathing space and sat down to earth you're listening to start. This starts work. Radio, welcome back your hosting the other grass Dyson today's subject: let there be lights, you never Michael bench. Author and journalist: I've got Brian Abbot manager, the digital universe at the famous Hayden Planetarium here New York City and, of course, the white of start or incomplete herself Lynn. You had a question just before the break. What was then I did, but I have to tell our gas at now tells me there are no stupid questions.
Sometimes I feel uncomfortable because I do feel like there are things I should have listened to and clients. Let me just show you asked the breast stupid questions bank ochre. If that's how you have to feel about having pre empted that I don't think I've now I never used to be able that, like let plants live in my care and I've just started, raising some little plants and have given them all names which weird, but I'm forty green. You ve made your plants for anyway, so I put them on the fire escape in their doing quite well, but I've noticed because I've been home and have him and on the road for a month or so, and I ve been able to watch them that you know. I noted. Sentences as one of the other very like light you, like my lord, but some of them like Steve he's. Oh yes, he leaned toward the lie still leaves, but what I thought it was three was known by one of your points: yes, but it here. I thought it was just Stevens Ebay's, very cute, but Eve leans towards why. But I thought it was just sunlight, but I bring him in early life.
So the actually any any lie pansies open up at night when I turned a little light, night for you messing with your rhythms, will have my question in my MIT Scleroderma, complete pairs of the name of a planners out the type of names Panza Michael. In writing de the European Visa, silly we call on you, man, man, most people, think that plants like light, but in fact it's the light. That's inhibiting the growth of the plant on the side of the plant that faces the light, allowing the far side of the plan to out grow the side of the planet nearest the light, and so we then say, oh leaning, towards the light and make the light is inhibiting the growth of the plant. On that side, oh, not standing there What do you? I because I don't know Thank you. I don't see that connection. I am sorry that I could stand their growth. You could have to do more than just water, the children. Yes, that's what he's got more? You have to do more than just water plant here my questions it wouldn't leaning. Then why does it say to plan things into
some. I do some plans, they preferred direct sunlight rather than too few sunlight or indirect sunlight. So did it depends on how the plenty so if I dont remember found, I can, I just put them in a pot- but a regular light on them. If you want to life is close to the spectrum of the sun and you can buy some lamps, oh yeah, then you could you completely, you don't even need the outdoor son just go for it in case he has put in a lighted. It didn't wanna, regular incandescent Bob, it's not! blue enough for what the plant, what added value for the very ever if they never have any sunlight I am indeed what did which limits the vital measures must be taken I am indeed yeah, so you don't let him do you? Don't pretty vitamin d if you have light skin? Yes, that's it, that's a rule. So what happens here? What I can died for not getting any scurvy. I wanna scurries vitamin c, but I'm industry proviso that like powder, so so yet so that son help shoot the body produce vitamin d, that's correct, but what happens? If you don't mind him Indy what happened to Youtube,
We can really young and if you have to press ready for developing than you you're, u get rickets, look like the cowboy with abode legs. Well, let's get back to the universe. If we may, just let's glitzy understand how this works, so we have objects in the universe that emit light. And the visible part that's easy to understand, because our eyes see visible light. Many really cool things in the universe. Dont know anything about Isabel I and the trying to talk to us in bands of light. We cannot see as a triumph of twentyth century astrophysics that we ve been able to build specialised telescope. With detectors that can reveal the universe and all these bands of light ultraviolet x, rays, gamma rays, radio waves, all these bands of the electromagnetic spectrum to tell us what the universe is actually doing, because we are practically boy who came up with black line black, like that, just ultra violet light and the part of the ultraviolet you, the part of the black, like you see it's just violent, but it's really
when its job in the part of the spectrum, you can't see the ultra violet and bugs wrappers. Oh that's right of all to revive it. That's. Why is black right? You can have a link, does the ablest yet so that's the ultra violet sort of make rent bring that aglow, so you'll find dna on things like the crime scene. People use the crazy people, use ultra violet light to see different things that it might be left on your sheets interesting and quickly about bugs uppers. Did you know that bugs aperture violet basically cause bugs just love violet light they come out in the early evening where the sky has a higher fraction of the total light represented an ultra violet, and so you see me
the twilight sky with a bug. Zapper and the bug says: I'm fly into the light. Then it just gives that an end is greatly is evidence that we're smarter than but that we can fully exploit the fact that their sensitive to ultra violet light, even the we're not gonna, bring in our third guest here. Is this guy? This there's? No one like em in the universe. Last I checked Carter Emirate card it you are. You are director of Astral visualization of the row centre for Earthen space, welcome to start talk, radio, and you gave her presentation at the World Sign Festival last night, bringing the universe to the public as never before you have. You were born and artist with deep interest in the cosmos. You became a computer literate and you'd transitioned. What used to be canvas and paint? Fourth planet term shows into the twenty first century. So welcome MR talk, radio and tell us what you did last night thanks honey. I actually
at the Hayden. We had a programme that was looking at the started off with a sixties era, light show from the general I show, and then we went to which these aren't have lasers and stuff right. Well, no, it was pre laser pre laser, like MRS and the Joshua Light, show actually backed up Jimi, Hendrix him and other band So we were people getting high in the in the dome. Well, ten minutes of that man on a sickly, I took us peace where we we leave. We go from the earth on out too, to the cosmic microwave background, so you do ass. You like a powers of ten kind of Xenia. We do and then we actually travel all the way back to earth and through the atmosphere and down to the town of nor shipping. Sweden, where I actually directed this film last year, and we fly all the way down to corks in a carbon nucleus. These a swedish corks,
yes, in that case, strands of dna, so tat. So as you as you soon out through the recent familiar things will see her from a distance like the APOLLO images, but rapidly those images would become unfamiliar cause. You were you doing through a three dimensional space that telescopes can provide yes, but to set its data map, thanks to my work with Brian Brian, taking datasets academic, datasets catalogues of various object, so that we see we observe a polite and their signature from the light gives us distance information were able to pluck that really dimensions in three dimensions. A revolution and planetarium surely occurred from that of showing the sky to now showing space three dimensional three end, and so, when I have a question like you know, we're time of the universe is its own humongous. The idea, like you creating a show, a light so directly
and some rightly, how do you decide exactly what you want the show to be hard enough like when you're putting together a musical or something? How do you decide what parts of the universe are interesting and how you gonna use or another way to see that? How do you know what do not include exactly that's what I find the idea of the digital universe is to include everything and that's a cop out his eminence the right answer, but you choose a pathway. They'll take the visitor on it. You invoking and artistic. I today We were we were used were also you. Yes in design, and movement is a big part of nets that goes to the heart of what our spacious iron in, how we create them and how
display the data, but not a sign of a pure scientists, wouldn't necessarily know the best way to look at their own data right. You have an artistic I for this. Well also, it's it's it's a matter of putting the pieces together. If you look at any one data sets a stars that'll be very interesting to the people that study the stars, but to put that in coordination to our solar system or the galaxy at large. That those stars are part of is our job to night.
Whole sweep of the universe, ass, friends or land is the hope, reckon universe so also eight. I should say that the fact that the programme last night after ringing us back down in light essentially from the most ancient light we can see- which is the cosmic migrate background in microwaves. Yet as we look farther out we're looking farther back into the past that the term as we we come down, we we then handed over to join her shoes, the director of the Columbia, Brain LAB, and she talked about really the difference between photons and essentially the light of in our mind in the sense of understanding and so that mind. So we are really trying to address this issue of the universe around us and the universe we know in our brains, so you Utrecht, so you went from out the outer universe to thee.
The universe of our inner. My correct you know about my myself when I use tat when I was in college, I took a lot of drawing up like art minor, and I remember my one of our teachers telling us to squint arise because we what we thought we were saying and what we were saying, we're different things, and he said it is. If you squint your eyes and you just draw the shadows and draw in the shadows and the light, and then it was so weird. Could you look up an enormous and you have a What and then it's what you were really saying, you're so Brian? How do we know? How do you distinct from both of you, Brian, the Carter So there is what is- and this is what our perception is.
And how do you make the to work to get the best the most effective show? You know when we look up and we see stars, we weaken sort of have a sense of their different distances, but to really see the lay out and the distances or say where the planet's fall and thus because look look up in the night sky tonight. You'll see one of those bright stars so to speak is Saturday Saturn Zoning Sky, the annual site tuna. We were showing that, with World Science Festival largest on Friday night, which is wonderful and people, are on the brink of rich, they ass a beautiful setting. Look at people, don't know this, viewer every year in New York City, the world's signs festival in some of the greatest scientists in the nation and in the descend on New York and bring signs to the public in many different values, one of which was the hidden planet time last night. But if you look at the grand tradition of of natural History museum you, u typically have a diameter, you'll have taxidermy animals and then you'll have the grass or a tree, and then you have a backdrop painting which is too far. It really does.
Earn some depth do so in a sense, we have of a digital diagram of cars, are making a dynamic of the universe, is so and but its accurate, authentic experience when you can walk through or journey through, while not even leaving the seat that Europe and the data authenticity is Ryan, Scott We combat more, let there be light start talk rate marking the secrets of your world everything orbiting around. It started this star talk, radio on your hosts meal, the grass Thyssen Astrophysicist American Museum of Natural history. You can fly. On Twitter STAR Talk, radio is our handle
We are also online store, talk, radio dot net and of course, you can like Us Star, talk radio on Facebook and needed, and I, like you, I am manager of the digital universe. You have some comic just before the break about the difference between what is I have a scientist views data and how you guys makeup alive. What struck me when I started working on this project is that scientists see their data not only as a to De Graf, but also they only see their data. They don't see it in a bigger pick. By the way, a context of where that fits in the university visually delay. Using off. You didn't mention all right into the courtyard, We have a duty to diversity to dig yet two dimensions. Yes, sir, it's it's a really boring way to look at the data and you might miss the bigger picture and so Carter. You make the big pictures which regulate the scientists, understand the bigger picture and answer job. It's our job to again create that continuous expire.
And from earth. All the way out, one of the most moving moments in this journey is when we pass by the radio bubble. Toad could tell us we'll quick, abbess yeah I've if you actually look out into the stars anxiety on a different distances. But if you stand away from the earth what stand away from the earth about a hundred light years, you would look back and you see a sphere about seventy light years in radio sets. If you had radio sensitive eyes, you see well, I know you'd have to actually be detecting it and we have had the atmosphere at answered. Oh god, what we do is we draw graphic of a sphere, and that indicates how far radio signals have travelled. Since the earth became radio, bright, he had Tesla Marconi and early radio. The balanced regional inside the eye on does not when earth became radio bread is when human beings on earth became radio emitters, yet doesn't within apparatus, yes, we're with rate hours and television carrier waves, and so you can see that moving out. So if you part next to Arcturus tonight, which is up in our sky, you in ITALY,
To do that, you would be hearing for EU be hearing a radio broadcasts or tv from forty years ago yet said I have a question: if there is honest, have that we can see how these waves than n n light waves and thing penetrating nobody right now, don't they are bump into each other. One is there to manage and what happens: you're, not rid the goods about unrightable they can interfere, but they can. They only interfere through sort of coherent. So unless you can make lasers interfere and you get like with coal fringe patterns of people we live, I have to know other light, savers we might online or worse yet. Now, ok, So now it's only two way mask on the air. No, no! No you can make out. You can make a beam of light. That would be visible. Let's say like here light being how used to point
and I even tweeted this a few weeks ago- light sabres would not hate each other. They would just pass right through one another and through the wouldn't, have these sort fights the way they would show due to pass through one another or candlelight liners may not like it. It's a visible light, did you can make you can make other kinds of laser light, but Finally, with the result that the the radio spheres, or sets us up in a sense that if you go away from the earth, far enough you're going far enough back in time, everything we see a star twice. A distance away is twice as far in the past, the centrally. So if you look far enough, you're actually seeing the cooling off of the universe or the transition between when it was a plasma, oh pake to wear. It became clear space and that's the microwave background, so you not only showed a lesser radio bubble all yet that we created that's now about. Like me, in all of our civilization, as communicated through each other leaked into space and contained within
body like I've, gotta get a look at it. You have it harder. Yes, those are those are waves, moving out or radius here, but the stuff that's coming to us was essentially even imagine a sphere very large that some, like rate background in everything that we can observe, is contained within it and its centred on us, but that's just because it's us observing it. If you moved anywhere, else, universities we're, really feel like you're in the center. That's an outward and harder! Creating accurate are yes, yes, and that is my homework. We act of the twenty four metres from data sets its end like the as these gave him
Aren't you a moment ago with the dire rammers, something that the Americans even naturalist, reply near two hundred years ago, where you create jobs, not just an animal stuffed honour on a pedestal. You put it in an environment that transport you too, that local took to that other locations, not willing we're in an expanding universe and this microwave light and all the lighted. The universe is getting diluted in space and its energy is dropping, and so the universe. I don't a few new. This is approaching This will not end in fire. It will end in ice not with a bang but with a whimper and all that money used. We asked what light as a poem. You know it's a dsl down it, so they call it. He TAT was really a cold death. How do you acquainted?
global warming? We got so I mean I don't know. How does that mean that you don't believe in global is significantly small compared to the scale of the universe on which I am referring, and so so the temperature, the universe of this causing micro back when you can't really stick a thermometer in it and get a reading its about three degrees: absolute, absolute temperature, three degrees above it, zero so and whereby fourteen billion years, all when we twenty eight The result will be one and a half to Greece and ITALY gale right on down into we asymptotically approach, zero and the day we have added? I rise. We, u approach it without ever, actually hitting it as its absence you get closer closer without adding everyone does the gale. I bet you're like asked about tobacco asymptotically Where did you learn at an inn? Algebra too and trigonometry in high school yeah self kept getting
so all I'm saying is that so the universe attempted universe will continue to fit out and get cooler and cooler. Cooler star had stopped well yeah. I think Yeah stars will eventually run out of their fuel. They will die even the cloud they'll make whatever stars they can and then they'll. I out and then all matter will be left will be. We will be left in the end, the remnants, the dead cold remnants of stars that once were a universe, tenth cabinet have they went to work really hard in an earth. Is this may want energy sources run out? The stars will turn off one by one. The galaxies will shut off and the universe will turn dark for the remainder of eternity Brian. You use. How can you say anything after what I just said about a fascinating that future astrophysics will not know anything about cosmology, because they will not see any the galaxies out
asked our love o, because where we will expand so fast that our galaxies will expand beyond the horizon? That's not true, because if you look far enough away, you will see some of that radiation coming to you. I might well it's well with it I'd we do. We must show up. I then we're going to have you no faster than light travel and we'll have sources will be able to make our own stars and will be able to, and my conventions been reading tons of science- I mean. What's up, so grim. Will you fix it technology. If you look far enough backing, you see the hay daily without me, and the bomb I I'm really without backed by the end of all white and the end of all physical processes there ever was. This is about Can we live on a good? No sure I could Am I tweeted the weak. They start talk to each other. We let's see. If I can leave you wanna poetically,
May I thank you guys, you're off astral physicists. Do not fear the dark, because telescopes reveal the night to be ablaze with bands of light eyes can. This- has been star talk, radio, thank my yes Carter, Brian Lynn Michael we're, partially funded by the National Science Foundation. EL, the grass Thyssen. Lighten up hard radio will see an extra We should listen. The star talk, commercial, free, joint start. Talking, Patria for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot coms. Last star talk. Radio!
Transcript generated on 2020-01-26.