How important is space exploration? What’s next? Mars? Europa? Find out when Neil deGrasse Tyson interviews NASA Administrator Maj. Gen. Charles Bolden. Neil is joined in studio by astrophysicist Dr. Michael Shara and Bill Nye.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode: Commercial free, welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide. Startup begin right now and I have a right of the one, the only then inimitable bill, neither science guy. I think you will tonight we're featuring my interview with Charlie, bold and general Charles, bold and told us earlier the head the administrator which in government speak means you're, the highest ranking person of NASA Trolley, bold and I went to Washington where we got the interview. NASA headquarters and we talk about everything. Past present future NASA. He was an astronaut himself and one of his missions, you like repaired, that
we'll space telescope with Euro drove the ship, the short sighted power we have always, I know, you're a space guy, but I wanted more the sight of a list, and I know you're a space guy, but I wanted more so calm the landscape and happens to be in my department, the Department of Astrophysical here in the roast interference in space. Can we seem of natural history thanks for joining start? Absolutely must not. Why would we have two Ashraf physicist in the same place? At the same time, I was going to ask that that is, there's some disruption in the space time continue. I do skeptical, so my shower actually work for seventeen years at the Hubble Space Telescope Institute. You were I witness to the telescope going up and it's true I wasn't tribulations so the first day Hubble was put in orbit April nineteen. Ninety that's that first day was was not a good day for Hubble
so I hear him sitting with the head of NASA deplored the telescope himself, and so I had to get the bottom line of how all that down on that first day. This check it out. Nothing went right, they d. Why well? after we finally get another payload bay. We deployed the hygiene antenna, two of them on either side boom boom room. They went down, no sweat first got antennas and tell his first. You can't appoint antenna gaunt guy. Will everything worked, but we thought if it can deploy a solar re go home and we almost said to do that. So we deployed the first solar re. Second solar. Started out man. Maybe sixteen inches and stopped, and we went that's, not suppose, DAB, so they solar panels unfurl. We had to do things we had to unfold the drums and there. When we activated and that they had disappeared, it was incredible that they had a ribbon that that pushed out and as it we formed itself into a rod, and so that was the
two of them on either side of the soul array and eight is a clever engineering. Does credible, clever engineering design except the second one get about sixteen into that? and we were all my goodness. What's going on long story short, when we could not get the solar rate a work before they determined that it was attention monitoring, module. They made the decision that ok you ve gotta, get this we're running out of power because remember Hubble, as batteries right now? I did have any solar rays to get power from the sun, and so it better we're running low. The team down it You stand in Goddard, said we gotta, get it off the arm. We gotta get out of here, and so they said, take Bruce and Cathy put em in the airlock suit him up and they'll go out. They both were veteran space walkers, and so they were anxious go out anyway, in Basque in the sun and save hobble So I got in Madeira Lock in the only person not excited about them going out with me, because, as the Ivy crew member your job to make sure they stay alive in them, and so, once again my heart's thirty
you know that guy did not what they don't my contract. It was because that's one of the most cinematic things to show is a space walking person drifting away. I don't want them to Kate with this. Is that every siphoned movie shows that so, I got em all suited up. We got the airlock depressed and we get down to vacuum and we were probably five minutes from them, opening the hatch and going out in the grounds it stop. We young engineer down here that thinks he knows what what the solution is, and we want to try it last chance and so long get the vehicle in position and they said let it go and we went three. Two one go and bruising Cathayward up in the air, like it vacuum trying to look little hole and they couldn't see anything except the payload back, so they they hate me to this day. It's funny have to be that I put in it
you have chosen to really cool. If Europe, Europe can control of what the ship is doing so where it was everyone the Hubble Space Telescope Institute at the time away, of these little problems of deploying the telescope. We were terrifyingly aware. Volume is exactly what this this was for. All of US life and death. Many of us have been working on the telescope for seven ten twelve years. This was our careers. This our passion. If it is a hard to tell us what was not off the shelf, it was a one of a kind object. Nobody had ever done is unavoidable. Terry ones that look like that, but that's a different, show, that's ok. They were looking down not up, they will we ran. We were gonna look out, so everyone is pins, needles, beak and and because you'd not only care for the telescope. You care for your jobs
My guess is that part of it there's a little higher institute designed to serve the data the come from a telescope. There are five hundred people who have decided that they are going to devote their professional lives to advancing astronomy a century in the space of ten years. Every one of us had put our hearts, and so into this and we cleared, I think, more than anyone, except maybe the astronauts and the other builders how this thing went to go. Well, What are the young engineer due to shake lose the spring loaded rots? I would like to say that all he wanted to do was just ass. It with a hammer but now they are nice story goes. The engineer said: don't believe the don't believe the censor. Occasionally the fence, because you don't want major things to fail, but if your sensor fails the tells you that something did failed and didn't, then you got to ignore the sensor and somebody's got to make. That call I'm sure enough. The panel's unfurled and
Trinity started to flow, and instead of that demographic doing derived from sunlight from the solar panels, and instead of that, instead of oh, my god, we're going down, the toilet suddenly started coming back up again and he was saying that their bat, we were running on battery power at the time, and so you had to get those they solar panels deployed that's right and if you didn't and they were semi deployed or partially deployed, you were going to ditch the telescope because you work in a risk. The lies, the astronauts You said you can't, you see, I know it seems intuitive if you pick something up on earth, but you can't just go space and shake something because you'll be the shaky and the thing is it this amount of inertia. So much so well, I think what you like, as I can see there, is shaped his microphone and are now moving anywhere in space was a thing that It has a mass of several time. Fifteen turn fifteen tonnes, you're gonna Shakespeare,
yeah you're gonna be the shaky. Russia is not a simple plus. The thing is extraordinary, aiming nor pointing capability. We turn that on yet we ve got a little telescopes. Looking at the sight, the winter barometers, how how how big is a cute little telescope. In this case, this one is one and a half times the size of a city, bus always always fifteen and a half tonnes human view right down it. It's a it's a very respectively, hello scope, even honour the first time I saw it because I wasn't. I wasn't the astronaut right, so I visited the National Airspace Museum in Washington and they ve got up mock up of the Hubble telescope. There that can't be at this is to be beautiful. One to one mark on my gosh up is the biggest you can't, even what don't? Even even bigger it is the more light it gathers right. It's diameter primary here on one or one with hobble. Yet why would tell us why? We all would like hobble
size of the mirror is great. It's important. It's two point two and a half meters across that's careful, but the diameter of domain collecting serve Zack. I correct, and at the time that was all about ten percent of the collecting surface of the biggest telescopes on earth, and that when it was in nice, but that's the point because I would have said so so is right, but once your above the atmosphere, all that blurring us goes away, and all of that four violet absorbing oxygen and ozone goes away. Ordaining additives are clear, strong legal, Twinkle little star. I wonder what you are is the boon to modern astronomy, it because the twinkling is atmospheric leader, twinkling asshole, you get a bad, you gotta, sharpers images there ever was. Suddenly you can see in the ultra violet and you can see details twenty thirty four times finer than anything you can see from the thirty. Nine of the resolution means thirty times more detail. That's correct, given spot
think of it ass, going from an optical microscope to an electron microscope. We ve also produce an electron microscope. Those suddenly you're not you're, not to seeing the bacteria the virus. This pop into view, all new sorts of things. You can see all sorts of ability to Russia all what's going on in the centres of galaxies. So what you're saying is hobble? Arguably the most productive scientific instrument there ever was not argue You cannot argue it if it is true that an argument about Microscope Burgoyne Mercer, look you care point to any one microscope that is as productive that one of em I write dragon amen, you get double amen. Double amen, man I met a man amen, but one tiny flaw nearly Do the entire project. That story is next on stock
back on Georgia? That's bill lying in case you otherwise otherwise recognize him bill. Nine should be in my coat it is I who must thank you and we ve got my friend and colleague Might Shara Fellow Astrophysicist Astrogas extraordinaire, totally pleasure poorly and we got you on here because you have first hand information about the deployment and success. About and about how much of your research would you say has pivoted, honourable, since the Hubble what scope was launched? The ninety ninety, probably two thirds of the papers that I've written of the research of your rather research rarity refugees have been Hubble, ok, you're, hoping that for my career is the core of your career, that to other astrophysicists other people's everybody's research been affected. That much, I would say, the average astrophysicist is two slash three to one slash two
only a half of everything you do all day from this one instrument. That's why there's no argument! It is the telescope. It is the thing that has transformed astrophysics and when it was deployed deployed by the head of NASA, when he was only a shuttle, astronaut energy shuttle, Parliament's calendar, that's when he's only that miracle wit we're learning that things didn't go smoothly. We have this multi billion dollar instrument and things are not going, That is really the understatement of the last two decades. It was a complete mess up a complete mess ass. Yeah your mouth. We will get your point of view on this in a minute. You are on earth, let's find out what it looked like from space, early, bolder we will all apprehensive about doing something that might damage. Hubble Hubble was huge and you know that twenty five thousand pounds exercise or school based the size of a school bus and ahead-
in less than an inner was almost fifteen feet in diameter. In a fifteen foot diameter payload Bay and I remember the day before we were supposed to launch the first time going out to the payload chained to the to the pad. In sticking my fist in and my fist could just fit in between in the side of bubble, and the launch of these is the clearest lets the clearance between the circumference, the outer diameter of humble and a shuttle itself, and so Do you really a load of Ashur, Natsir and Steve Holly was, was the prime arm operator and it had been through all kinds of analysis. We had carried me no classified things before, and everything said this is gonna work. All you do is lifted out. So some even I train for that for about a year, but when we started lifting it out, when do you started first,
and I was reading after the attitude and imposition numbers and as its deep stop all of a sudden. The telescope was starting to twist in tilt. Which was not good, because there's not a lot of room. You know the twist untilled So we want to break it pointed out of the box ass. Finally, there when we began were turned into what was about to take about ten to fifteen minutes. We began what came about an hour long, arduous task of can constantly tweaking the joints on the arm Steve didn't I job just buy moving joint by joint to live tumbled out, but after the flight weeks later, when we heard that there was a problem, he and I just We cannot pondered because we didn't know whether we had bumped head costs. Thing until little carried a time. Yes, there was there was It will leave when someone use this term that I had never heard before. Spherical aberration collaboration,
so it was a design flaw. Design for production flaw, so we went ok so he's off. The hook something wrong with the mirror, but they deployed the telescope correctly. They did a hundred percent fabulous wonderful job. The problem is that it Billy years before a little washer, literally a little washer just half a millimeter. Thick had been put upside down in side measuring devices little little for amateur and they washer wasn't the same. This way is that way that's It's too mirrors wrong, and so Hubble mirror got polish perfectly smoothly: but to the wrong shape, which meant that we could never focus Hubble perfect land when they went through the first focusing test. What have I don't feel
like apron, had how do they feel they went from the most negative focus position to the most positive Focus position, as anyone would do when you try to focus on that, because you don't know if you can get a better focused, keep going to keep going illegal through the exact focus was back up what you far away this I'm trying to get to the temperature in the shower and you are always being scalded. There was not a damn thing you could do. You were always gonna be out of focus. It was horrible, this We didn't we tested on earth. We value the engineer bill nicer, professional engineer. Here we tested many aspects of Hubble. We did not to a complete end to end test, because there wasn't enough budgets what you can't test everything you can ever test everything. But you should
Brazil can test data is some wrong and to an somewhat too what features of your telescope you have well, we have some electronic soon we have similar maneuvering just now. A mirror yes murmured, so is it APOLLO? Thirteen moment fix this to my colleagues that space telescope get up the chief engineer, Jim Crocker, Hollingford colleague, astrophysicist and they propose the most elegant thing I ever heard: how long did it take him to do this? They based on this for a couple of months months, what they did was what they said was listen the beam. Converging at its supposed to convert to a little spot, perfect focus, but it doesnt quite get there, but If we could make the beam length a little bit longer, then in that extra pass that the beam would follow, it would converge. This is too microns or some well. What we're gonna do is we're going to take a little mirror and put
international mirror only the fight, a: U S quarter and we're gonna, stick it in the path of that kind, urging light and we're going to make that light bounce, going to redirect the light onto the camera, so these are corrective lenses, corrective mere mirror starts, and artificially so did it. Work went after fixed. Well, we take it up there the next shuttle mission at that time goes up there. The astronauts dock with the telescope grabbed the telescope, They deploy these little mirrors and we take that first picture and nobody's breathe every one in the room is turning blue. Is that picture comes down at it's perfect, Mitya was absolutely product. Suddenly you saw a tiny little points hundreds of new stars that had been blur by all the other bright stars popped into universe came into force.
Because if you were right, as you know, that was really has never been able to see and you put on your glasses and paying. You could see sharpest you're, going to wear out. It'll we're wrote in the sense that if we don't send astronauts to it and there are no plans and no hardware, no technology, the currently exists, because the shuttle programme, it's over, it's actually going to either fail. One of the key components is going to fail. Or it's going to re, enter the earth's atmosphere for five six years from now and burn. You enter the atmospheric, no matter. What at some point. Unless we do something boosted and there are no plans to anyone of plug it into the big toilet bowl of space, which is the Pacific Ocean. That's what's gonna a reminder that we are featuring my interview with the head of NASA General Charles Wolden and we'll find out what's next for NASA when starting
so have try to hear secret for you I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen? The star talk ad free you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just SAM.
Who else could this mandate but donor? I call him, Sir W Sir William. Thank your brother me. Don't let anybody else call you that So what am I supposed to like mess? Em up? If somebody has to pushing down he's been in New York to miss you work and I went with mass ice. There's other verbs, we're featuring my interview with the head of NASA General, Charles Baltic and ass head of NASA he's overseeing NASA's plans to go to Mars. Let's check it out people have always dreamed of going to Mars. Always you know long, as I can remember, even before we get airplanes given them. We have today, We are on a path that will get us to Mars in the twenty thirty survive region. Another check for another eighteen billion you can speed up,
Perhaps maybe we can. I can guarantee you with more certainty that twenty thirty we're in of humans animals, I you know you're you're you're, trying to get me to presuppose and long. I'm writing a cheque for you. I know you re right, please let me know and and new friends and guys, please write those checks and I am going to be able or whoever sitting in this chamber is an ass administrator is going to be able to say with Green, greater and greater certainty. You know we're gonna, be on Mars with humans and the twenty thirties. They will be to say with great certainty, greater certainty as by down more risk their risk in everything we do? Risk is never ever going away. Risk is never go away, so exhibit you. When did you predict we'd, be on Mars? We didn't predict a date. As we didn't know what the budget was or will be. Frankly, I think that we We are not as brave as we should
as you well know why wait might well. I stop MIKE you gonna, tell me you correctly it is an exhibit could have said we could be marked by a certain date. But since you didn't know, if there is money available, you withheld such prediction. Oh we certainly. We felt that way in the nineteen sixty we will build the world, we don't have a call. We had a cold war. We said that, he could be there in the twenty thirty's, just like Charlie Bolton said, but if you doubled spending, which this country sure as hell should do because we're spending half of one percent of our national budget eighteen billion out of three and a half trillion frankly is an embarrassment. We should be spending thirty six billion a year on the space programme. Now you should be spending right that check you. So I said to the guy monetary society which the posture there well planters. Thirty, we advanced exploration, space, science and we think the sooner the better on all the stuff now get the deepest
are you can show people say why send humans, because the robots are so successful? they and Opportunity Rover? The curiosity rover are fantastic by the Are you guys curious three rover now is: what's sort going on two billion spear and opportune about a you know like and a half billion dollars for these three role hers and they're not even walked anybody could just on Mars could just walk up to him but the thing is, nobody does because There there isolated. So people say why send humans humans. You have feed them. You have only just to be clear: the price you cited for them is over their entire mission gagged, not just many given its budget year the whole divided into a budget year? It is time we had the opportunity rovers still driving it be like it's been eleven years. It would be like a car with a three year warranty
not changing the tires, not rotating Does not change the oil not and have running a hundred and twenty years later, as pretty good man, that's a bargain, but putting human zero is extraordinarily difficult. But the reason to do it Is humans would make discoveries its estimates very about ten thousand times faster than what very good. Robot does in a week a human I'll, just or Astro biologists could do in about a minute? The key to going to Mars the single thing that we're going to be able to do his answer. That question with certainty is their life on our nearest planet, cause we're going to drill down. It's, not our nearest planet Oh you want to get in the thing about Venus. He's he's all right away. You raised resettlement realise that your authority tardy in Iraq, a g gotta demands right, we're gonna, get to Mars, we're going to drill down and we're gonna hit water.
There's water on Mars. We know that for sure, there's no sterile water on earth, except in a pharmacy you drill down on earth. You hit water, there's always viruses, bacteria protests everywhere you go the first time you hid wherever honour everyone on earth, the first time drill down on Mars and you hit water you're either going to find bacteria or viruses or critters of some sort, or you are not if the water is utterly sterile, the first time you drill down on Mars than Mars is This adorn up It may not always have been anger, drill, we'll be micro, sampling, looking for false all the way down, but down there and there's nothin than Mars is completely sterile. I don't think that I'm gonna hamburger and then we and our farmers with a clear conscience, but if there is life there, what kind of dna or any kind of migrants at all other? Is it like some
totally? Why did he? What is it I always wondered about, so we got to even the police. Of having this conversation because of what was known as the space race. Our union United States, whose ahead of whom, Now we're in a different world where other countries are rising in their presence on the space frontier, we should be here is what NASA's plans are in a world where we are not the only player in town. More on that, when, starting continues. We're talking about the whole of the universe of the rose centre for her and space? It's cool This is where you got inspired as a kid: that's where what age? Now? So what we have we,
entered a new era. Other countries are putting things into space, even countries like India, in the mean even in Vienna, because when we think of India do we think frontier space of look american hubris that we carry coming out of the twentieth century. We have on our deep understanding of what we think the rest of the world is and then what it actually is different such as India, where they don't and on crude vehicle into orbit, which is the first step before you put people into orbit. Absolutely so I want to talk to Charlie Charlie, I've been trying the whole world is how kind of doing what NASA has been doing this competition. After isn't that a great- and I asked them doo doo Doo doo- does it feel a competition to you? Let's find out what he told me, we teach people we act as a model for how people of different cultures different races, different nationalities can in fact, work together
There are now five other nations in these five who are sitting on There is a Mars Roman around for the first time. Because he has only been one nation, one nation in the history- humankind that has ever successfully landed a vehicle on the surface of Mars that has functioned and ass the United States. You know the murk how America, Europe and America, but right now there are other knew. I'd lost count that sexual reminded me of that many met their death, I'm not going for the chant international glass without question. If you, the enraged monitoring system is your face. There is no doubt that that's my champ, that's my championship model, that is the largest collaboration of nations outside of warfare that there is so bill. Is this state of the moving frontier? Is
they're going to take us to the world of STAR Trek where, where there's a russian guy sitting next to a cabinet these guys are all together that exactly the optimistic view of the future? And then when we get to Morrow, you know if you are more broadly, not that that it may be that science is what people? aren't you to lead the way for international cooperation on a level. Far more potent ineffective than anything, the? U N itself could possibly, it will be a wonderful thing if we all got to sing and our has we're going to find out whether not we're alone in the universe, we're all gonna work together and and and dust in doing so. The way right over Kirk's Captain Kirk Shoulder is the science officer, not the Miller. Hurry. Firing officer was cool optimist. It is a cool, optimistic view of the future, but they can still five to appeal to those photon torpedoes and ruin your welfare on the wrong side of one and the sheep,
for men is always trouble. You'll see, a man is always buckling. I didn't go back and such design issue are working, but you still have to get to that. Yeah. I want you have engineering challenges. Yes, you want only to solve perhaps behind challenges of them all is money political yeah slowly, the tape challenges are solvable everybody. Let us find out with general, Charles, bold and head of NASA S, about how worldwide thing everybody looks for what we call it. The return on investment dollar Arlac everybody looking at this show knows what our way as you know, what what am I gonna get back from this what we are going to get back as a nation. What we're gonna get back as a people is the incredible satisfaction of knowing that we have finally accomplish something that humanity has been trying to seek for millennia. We have left this point.
We have gone to another planet, and we're on our way you no farther out. Did the solar system, and maybe one of these days, but it is a long long long long way off. You know we're going to turn even more science fiction in the same at scientific by maybe follow Voyager and leaving the solar system. So the unstated fact here is: you need a vision statement that is by partisan, supported at it and be cause timescales for NASA, to plan and execute are longer than reelection cycles. We have to so needs us. Rachel Neil United in Euro, big personal on NASA needs more money. Nasa Nasa needs need more public, will more national will so my kind of how do we do that having NASA monster plants up? If you want to go to the stars,
it takes decades, but you re elect people every two years for years. How do we get around the political sphere in the: U S for funding It is in many ways broken Will you join the planetary areas required and and the way to fix the system is to get so much people, yelling, not yelling, but speaking loudly Congress or through the planetary society through the american, astronomical society. To your congressmen to the White House saying this is damned important. The return on investment every dollar you spend in space, a hundred bucks back, maybe a generation later in new technology, in planetary defences and in discoveries you can't even begin to imagine what they are. This there's another twist here, because now, if you just come, with a couple million. Don't you start a private space company? Oh yeah, as rightly couple million but slower than unless million years,
less the masses budget considerably, so that these might be game changer is perhaps now. You know I ask that of the head of NASA. I just wanted to know what did you feel about private companies to getting in the game we will find when STAR talk returns we're talking about space between my interview with General, Charles Bold, in the act of NASA, the Knesset administrator as their call bill nigh much our friend and colleague. You guys are helping me through this. Thank you wear without talking about private space export know their popping up like mushrooms might yet so does put online the ban on Nano corn but mushrooms corn, pops, Neil you ve, seen
pop in a proper and they're gonna grab the whole market and those on the ground the market again. The rams markers the buyer anybody who wants to launch any kind of commercial vehicle like a weather satellite, like a communication satellites, if you ass. They orbital sciences we get where there is no arms. What's the difference, Columbus left, Spain. He was government funded Ass, he went Magellan was government funded, Yazzi, Lewis and Clark or government funded. Yes, I will go to Mars and look for life for kicks you're not going to off you're. Not. Going to initially, but you may go look to capture an asteroid not for kicks, but for profit as soon as people start making money in space and near earth space, then you're going to see lots of. Will jump on the weather data to be sure and imaging data and spying javelin. So, let's find out what Charlie Baldwin has rice,
but neither does infusion private enterprise into this new game. Private space ventures are absolutely essential for us to. Successful with expiration. We, you know we, we took a gamble. We said we believe in the president's it. We believe that we should allow NASA to free itself of requirements to get things. People in things we have of it. So formal sciences and and space acts have been carrying cargo back and forth to the international space station for two years, if not at NASA, has never partnered with industry. Before we all, we always have the real. I tell our employees and in our family than ass, a family which, to me includes the contractors, at any time. Anybody ask them what they do. They should stick their just out. Proud me and say I work you know four or with NASA. I work with space problem because we have always had this and breakable partnership
with american industry is a different graph. We ve done this time. We are not controlling. We are but if owning that's, when we are not operating soda the ownership, the operation, everything right until they get to the international space station when they get in the box, then it's my and- and we will take over and manoeuvred into the box- let it doc They want you to know I'm to us the Lamb descending on the moon, didn't say: Grumman Undecided said ass, it's a! U s! You didn't say net He would say that if the USA, thanks for correction, that and whereas today is their spaceship grown up, so it's going and is going U S flag on the sad and he's gonna, see U S, but it also says basics, baby. You know, I don't know whether your book outside or not hopeless, but also it'll, be a big. U S flag there, but that's gonna be the mode of transportation of U S and partner astronauts to the international space station.
As a nation like the United States business model and its a brand new business new business model. Let's do but we are reminded every now and then how dangerous this activity is chat, but I just one of mine. We send people to space, return, adventure, we're going to make discoveries, but it's going to be an adventure. So we need two motivations one. Yes, we want to do some science and maybe that's best done with robot, but if you send people it doesn't about is about adventure and discovery, we're gonna, just fine soft. I guarantee you will find things we didn't ever think of and those humans are adaptable. They get there. They get to the surface of Mars. Something doesn't go quite all right. They see it right away or Sudan was pouring out some of lumber pretty stupid once we're gonna send to Mars. Ok, so so so you ready to do this. Are you gonna say
go to Morrow, I would go to Mars, probably in a heart beat, but not being a seventy four, the second not just for the adventure. I'd really wanna go. If I was carrying the equipment to go. Do drilling to look for life to hit the water and I'd want the microscopes dna analyzer is coming along with me because I want to make that discovery. That's the point: the way, that's why these guys are all hot for bringing a sample back from Mars because they can't get all those instruments up there, but if you could get only from so you'll have to bring sample back charge studied in situ, yes, forget all the landing on Mars stuff in terror, forming at the end of my interview with Administrative NASA to ask him the burning question than up that's on all of our minds. Where are the flying? What is gonna happen, that's what I asked him coming up on start.
you're talking about- and this is the point of show where I throw to bill lost somewhere in New York. But I've got bill night by right here. Give us that gesture. That will bring your clip up. What's, let's roll that for decades. We will support the near reaches of outer space we flown because, like this up into the icy blackness, just to see what's out there, but missions like this are just a first step. It certainly in the twenty first century, I hope in the next hundred years we will have explored under the icy crust of Jupiters Moon Europa. Looking for signs of life, the next hundred years we'll probably know whether there was or even is life on Mars. If we, discover life on another world. It would,
everybody's perception of life on this one everybody's perception it means to be a living thing on a planet in space. Would change open the coming decades? We commit talks for food further and deeper into space, so that people everywhere will know the cosmos and our place within it. So people everywhere on earth share a vision of our place in you look romantic they're alive, worried about round with soap to MIKE. What is your? What? What are you? What do you want the future space. If nobody wants what do, I really wonder whether guys really want, I want to know if there is life Mars. I think that's the single most important question at all of science right now, not just biology, not just astrophysics, and allow me to broaden out to say you. We want to know if this life anywhere other than earth of cork, yes, but the place to go to answer the question.
Utterly definitively is Mars. At least we can get a confirmed or yes or no much less than twenty years, and we don't need to send astronauts this, can be done. Hundred percent of I want to know what the dark energy is, and I want to know what the dark matter is because future of of science, but I'm told him up going places in space if we're going explore the solar system Europa. Again he made an Calisto obvious placed the Roma. Have you drink eyes to see water of the moon and is more than an what's the fishing like there? If you are very euralia aliens, around under the eyes of the head, early, ass, Charlie, ass, it Charlie wouldn't his greatest accomplishments, and what do you see for the future of this all its find out? Why? I feel so good about this agency today,
is because I honestly have done because its you're running it now we do slackened some under this some things we don't do as well as we should do. Ok, ok, you're watching my watch, but in terms of technological treatment. Nobody can match us into forms achievement in exports. We are on Mars, we are on the moon. You know what where's, your left, the solar system, page one story the first time in the history of humanity, not only He had. We visited every single planet in the solar system with some NASA instrument, but for the first I'm in the history of humanity. We had a man made vehicle that had left our solar system ass, a big deal, Charlie. I don't care what else your agencies doing. Are you going to give us the flying cars come when we have one of those four days trying to enable industry too.
Do that we are already collaborating with with companies. I won't go many advertisement of step on autonomous automobiles whether they're gonna fly or not- I don't know, but we're learning we're working. Greater with them, because what their learning about autonomous vehicles we're trying to apply to autonomous flight of unmanned aerial systems, you know: how do we make aeroplanes more efficient? So there is a lot of collaboration going so we'll be NASA. That brings us flying cars, but industry. Fully. One of these days may develop it as a result, collaboration with us to start writing letters about the unknown. Although separating me letters, I mean it's important, that's the way we determine what what what the public wants or maybe the word would accept that for the moment, one. So there's nothing doesn't Orton little bit of information there we think of now. As planning flags and in there We get a taste of the IMF, vision of NASA's energy
money and intellectual capital in Creating technologies are. This is a big deal This is the difference between your good old days and, what's going on now the girl days NASA the world and are not bustier jobs. Amended was different areas like, but that it what it means is we perhaps we need to think of NASA. As an engineering is as an agency that aspire engineering solutions to our greatest problems. Sure and one of the greatest problems gonna be cool. The change in that's going to require some space space assets, things flying around and space but even in those good old days in the nineteen Sixtys, when there was this huge, singular Guess, on going to the moon, there was lots of planning going on for the Hubble space telescope are already working on it. For the iter actual ultraviolet explore for astronomical missions for lots of other kinds of science.
Has always had this multi faceted approach There's always this one huge thing that there will be no need to one thing to get to direct around. You can rally round a hundred words. Do not you asked the troubled are you spend my Maskew S? Didn't we fund at the age of the earth by rocks with rocks on the moon? We Do we determine where the earth and the moon came for more important where the moon came from, because we found that the opposite, like oxen no, no, no. The oxygen isotope ratios in the lunar and the earth rocks are basically the same, which meant common origin. Once you knew that the giant impact or theory was just an idea writing, be born. I get that, but you and I are astrophysicist, so we care deeply about things like the origin of the moon and with the rocks or made I'm in all of this, but at the end of the day, someone's gonna write a Czech yep, it's good
amount of Congress out of a community of people elected by the country right, I'm not confident that just tell them to spend money on an agency that employs us in our activities is efficient enough for them to write that travel, I have to tell them at the same time that we are their life insurance policy because of ignore us and We ignore those space rocks out there, for example, when one of them the unity of the citizens like. If you do this in the diabolical scientist, I am I'm a pragmatist guys you want to ignore those big rock. So there be them at your peril. Just like the dinosaurs, ignore them and you're gonna go the same way, but there's a hunt.
But other reasons, because we do all this other cool stuff for you. I cannot top that comment. We will end star talk on that comment. You ve been watching star and I've been your host Neil digress. Thyssen, your personal astrophysicist from the hall of the universe. I bid if you wish you can listen. Star talk, commercial, free, joint start. Compatriots for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com slap star, talk, radio.
Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.