See the Sun with new eyes as we discuss the many ways this ball of plasma illuminates our past, present and future.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode, commercial free. MRS filled with secrets in industries, leaving us with many questions to be answered. We find ourselves searching for those answers as the very fabric of space science and society are converging here for the first time, what woody Recently, the domain, the brakes daddy you going to do Grandma South Brenda get lab Why?
well to start or radio earlier hosts, Neil, the grass Thyssen astrophysicist and Director of New York City didn't planetary. This week's guess Comedian CO, whose Chuck nice your back back back with a vengeance. This time it's person this. You are too many slam down right, would revenge movies, Jaws, work is mad, and this time it's person well this week with there's a subject that is always talked about it on everyone's mine? and thought about for millennia and we're gonna do a whole show on it, and it's on the sun.
You know I really thought you were going with sex there. I really did the same number letters, letters avowal in the middle, ok, but the sun is good, but will bring you back for that item. If you remember the society she had with the science of science upsets works for many people on the list for their ok, but just this Most people just think of it as a source of light and a source of he, but it's a star one of hundreds of billions in the milky way galaxy. You know I was very disappointed, probably like most human beings. The day I found out that all the little lights that I saw in the sky at night. Are nothing more than a another version of our side. What it means, nothing more than this is ennobles them from little points of light to entire incandescent balls of
and it took centuries put for people to figure this out. While you let us have a lot better than what I say just say: the sun is millions of degrees in its core thousands of degrees on its surface and at those temperatures atoms is there electrons, and we have a new word for that state of matter. It's. It matter. We have Adams right that are not complete their charge because you re the offer them and they run amok in a soup. We call that a plasma sometimes referred to as the what state of matter. I remember her you might have heard about ply about plasma, because I'm a huge fan of star trek- and they have planned I'm a conduit which actually help chart, help help the wharf injured. Function so that the best excellent
that's all I know about plasma, thought a little more technical detail. Now I've got a million out these plasma thing ease and they hope it go getting to know they. They they actually make it move last month that- and you know, if you break your blood apart, plasma sweetheart, I course that's different. That's a whole different word. What just happened to be spelled out the same. Ok, now, don't forget. There is also the most, how shall I say, important plasma, which is the television o the plasma which brings me my foot on Sundays. I gotta hear that reports give it to me Last mattel of where you watch the gladiators of the glitter watch it that plasma in your tv is not blood, plasma and actually is related to the planets. And this ok, that's correct its charged gas charge gang volume. All you need there and the sun is composed of mostly hydrogen. It's got
Ninety per cent of the items in the sun or hydrogen, and about eight percent or helium and the rest as other my favorite element of from what I understand? we're. Gonna have to borrow some helium from the sun because we seem to be running out of it here. We are running out of helium on earth honor. If we get, we I'm sure you would not gonna get it from the sun. I will send you there. No, you can't nobody is going to make their pick up. The sun is manufacturing helium every second of everyday of every earth. Dazed son has its own day, which actually last about a month. Son takes about a month to rotate Willie. A damn it doesn't almost make, makes no sense to think of it. On the sun could recite. The sun is today the day, no matter where you are, but it's on tax about a month, Robertson, rotate through its going around
just like a planet, but it's a big ball, a gas. So it's not all in one piece, a kind of rotating the faster, the equator then at the polls. So it's it's a kind of it's a fucking situation. I not has got itself in a real question. What a real question for you said: the sun rotates near our earth rotates. Promises as well and where we have about earth rotates on its action on its hands. All revolves around with two different words: rotate on an excess revolve around something. Ok, so the sun is rotating. We are rotating and revolving is the sun travelling as it rotates the way we are travelling? Are we all travelling together, de really how the sun is now only moving randomly among other stars in the solar hood. Ok, solar neighbourhood, this several hundred stars that together We amano random motions in the galaxy together, we orbit the centre, the galaxy, so we are actually travelling as a soldiers
about a hundred twenty miles per second, as a soul This has in solar system in orbit around the centre, the galaxy to supermassive black hole that dines upon anything that gets too close, and we have other neighbours. Doing the same for the whole herd is in orbit around the centre, the Galaxy and what is the closest sources that go borrow a cup of sugar What's with you, because it is. The turn of the century is how the system is about four light years away to travel at the speed of light you get there and for years, for you should come back in your cake is burnt now I don't want to carry the subject of the sun all by myself. Ok, I could, but it wouldn't be as interesting as if I've got a real solar x, Ray studies stars, but as points of light in the night time sky, as any good astronomer does but the sun there are people out there who looked at the sun with special tools who study them, who try to understand every bird that
hence in the sun and why we found one yes happens to be visiting New York City. Judith Lean jury, laconically juniors, Judith wasted. Its accuse me like my mother and my friend no answer me: ok, so welcome Europe visiting New York City visiting the guarded Institute for space studies, where they study all kinds of solar system questions, but your based at the U S name, enable research lab naval research land in Washington Dc Chuck. If not there, belly button just how I was about to set the sounds very interesting. How did you know when you fly international airport? Yes from the south? If you look too one sided All these big doins Rhine, dance in every sense, let fry real estate on the time it remains a very secure place. So what possible interests? Does the Navy have in this? You are not the first person
do as I go for the Navy. To clarify they do a lot of things there, but you're in the Sun Earth system, research Zelda, I mean this. A size. The vision and the work that I do is research on the sun assist connection, which is why the Navy cares, because you think Navy, like shit, seen over there. You will not find water right one. I would think that maybe would be a hell of a lot more interested in the moon since the moon controls the tides and there in the water drew out the sun controls ties to, but will get back to the nine that, but this is hang on you guys. Ok, they have all these ships right now,
depends on the ships and they have lots of assets and they distribute them all over the globe, and so all these assets need to communicate with each other and they need to track Sumner. How do they do that? They do that with satellites, satellites, more or less a new system for the Navy. The Navy is the biggest user of space. I bet you didn't know that This is the biggest user of space of space ass. A tall space can cause. It has satellites that it uses for communication a gay Shan and not to mention those awesome. Little crews, missiles. I've been mentioned that the sun is the driver of what we call the extended operational, I am it so where they satellites that are less code for something operation in the minorities were used,
operating off of earth surface up there above the cook above the atmosphere, so the in the old days when you were at war, then it was terrain right needed to know the terrain. There was a mountain or something now we call it the environment and if you operating in it is the operational environment and if you are operating on the sea, that's what your local operating environment that, because now the assets of the Navy extend essentially all the way into space. We call it the extended operational environment and the sun controls the weather all the environment where satellites orbit where the radio waves communique, whoever is using the term loosely zero. It doesn't rain on the satellite, you mean: is the sun messing with its allies with its own
sources. Reality I'm using whether an climate even as a terminology for changes they things like the pressure and the temperature, the state of the atmosphere above like a hundred kilometers. Nowhere where any actual, whether anybody cares about to export. Well, if you, if you want to connect like with your Iphone and a big solar storm, comes along smashes all that pleasant, but you talked about into the earth may needed. The air would be bad for my writing. Location sets. The satellite varies connecting York. Ok. So why don't you do care about the weather? Aren't you ve done? Is you ve built an entire vocabulary that borrowed from terrestrial whether to describe with the sun? Does to satellite? You speak of solar wind. You speak of solar storms, you speak exactly what that's exactly our solar umbrella.
That's your signal. Absolute evil, talk about that intensive GEO engineering for climate change. If you can put a reflective shield to stop some of the funds photons the bright energy coming in then, the sight of course is in addition to creating spaceliner is the primary energy skills to the drives the or, if we didn't here, I've got the steering wheel. If we didn't have a son, we wouldn't have great greenhouse effect. We will get back to the UK and other segments, but before we get there, let's start from the beginning: let's go back in time. Ok, we're not the first ones to be thinking about the sun. Folks have been doing this for ever and the most obvious thing. The Sunday as is, of course, it goes around the corner, and this is what everybody thought it did. They kept time by this ill defined the day
and the sun at different times of the year, is not the same height at noon as it is at other times a year, or so that effective seasons. People thought deeply about this and, in fact so has bill not always of and start talk and bill. Now, don't you know, he's an expert in some dials. If you knew did not know TAT year, he just he's thinks about the sun all the times. Let's check out what he has to say in this week's now I want to show hosted by an astrophysicist everyone It's a talk about space time lag is one thing and we all know what that thing is its ease. Insert combination in our space. Time. Well, it always has been because we reckon time with this planets path through space Ancient astronomers, like Ptolemy of Alexander, were very good at space and time Tommy it places in his mediterranean world astronomically. He read, locations places in space with time limits. Of the sun his
vocational table of shadows, essentially told you what a Sunday, I would say at each city or seaport of interest with it information. You can find your way from one place to another, even across the trackless, cold, blue sea, so Anchorage everyone to take a moment or an hour when pondered I, the sun shadow, moves clockwise and why in August is slower than a clock, but then in February it's faster shadows, don't talk, but they have a lot to say about the Sun space time. For start radio, I'm don't lie the science guy, the one and only bill now so he's Tillman like it. He asked from that side of the universe so TAT. The sun is responsible for calendar making in a famous counter. That's been in all the newspapers, the my encounter gas. It ends its long cycle next year and then we're I'll do, and that is its that's. If you think the Mayans were more scientifically literate than we are today and or that they can
the future in ways that we can't today, but of course they couldn't predict their own demise. So that would give me a little so maybe a little suspicious about past. They saw Our aim was not there and there. Oh yes, when we come back much more about the sun. What made of wood. Its gravity. What Judith is up to doing research baby we're gonna get to the bottom in that one before we end this, girls before you when I consider singing all of the ads on this show there just one way to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last startled and support Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free?
You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk. Ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just SAM. Breathing space inside it down to earth you're. Listening to start, I welcome back to restart talk, radio, I'm your host near the grass Thyssen like us on Facebook, Spined STAR Talk, radio were also you can listen to these broadcast, live or find out how to, download them. Mine are archives or digging up out of Itunes that any more.
Our torrent, radio dot net. We're here Chuck nice Chuck welcome as good and we have Judith lean and enable research laboratory. She is a solar scientists, specializing, of course in the sun. That's on working for the Navy at the naval research lamp happy to have you here, visiting New York and that we snatched you from your busy day visiting the Goddard Institute for space studies, thanks for being here on stock and keep my pleasure. We left off talking about the ways: people have worship, the sun and ass, we can note no mention of that would be complete without Stonehenge Stonehenge. As we all know at the summer sources which, in the UK they call the midsummer, the sun rises over what they call the helstone there. The problem is, people hardly ever know since you know why now it's always climate bad place to worship, they chose the wrong. I think maybe the Egyptians,
I had a little something on the good Japan that it in that department. They had a leg up, I'm out one. So you know we have a kind of hands here in Manhattan up if you knew that you, if we haven't Hatton hinge here, the grid of Manhattan is sort of a rectangle agreed as any grid would be, and you do as you find the days of the year where the sun sets exactly on that grid and become a celebration. Thousands of people More into the streets, and what makes it interesting is that the roads or narrow the buildings are tall and you have an exact line of sight, all the way to the house miles away so the sun set at the vanishing point of the steel canyons we call the streets of new
I had no idea that that's what they called it, but I know many people what myself included where there are certain streets on certain days, especially in the summer where you there's outdoor bars like rooftop bars and you go, and the reason why you gotta this particular rule. Tab bar is because the sun set in the middle of the street and goes down into the river, and you get to watch this disappear between the build. That's your excuse going to the bar in those days, so we have some now it turns out those admitted. I don't if you knew that the two days where that happens in New York happened to correspond with memorial day and baseball's all star, break so I'm imagining apocalyptic earth with a dig up the grid of Manhattan and they try to understand? Why did they oriented in this way? It must be because their son worshippers and they put their greatest rituals on this grid. It is war,
baseball that allow them to understand. Americans is the question, of course. That's. Pretty much America where there is not much else. Warm says black sums it up. I don't think so. It's what you got here and so their interesting I'm shows up in a lot of things their newspapers that have the word son in the Chicago, sometimes the well there's the Phoenix Islands that he asked for exactly because Phoenix, as we all know, is a quarter mile away from the surface of the sun. That's why two hundred and fourteen degrees feels that way, sometimes in the summer time, but listen more about the sun as a physical objects, it's it's the most mass if object in the solar system. More massive than all the other planets combined is a big got Bala gas and it is in balance, usually when people hear the word bounce they think of the delicate balance of the sun is not a delicate balance is actually in a very stable
about is, if the difference between balancing a pencil on its tip for on a freshly flat eraser on the other side, one. If you d, balance and Eyes Tipp, it would be an unstable equilibrium. And on the other side it would be slightly more stable. You know it's really stable a pyramid. You can push over a pyramid. True, I was gonna say how about we lay that pencilled down flat, various even more stable than in all cases, So all of this is going on in the sun, and we mentioned earlier that the sun does not rotate all in one piece and that its plasma, it's a charged gas and Judith. Tell me why
What happens when you have a higher summer? That is not all rotating at the same rate. This is this. Is this can't be good for the star? Well is actually the reason why the star goes through its cycles or part of the reason, because the different regions on the sun surface rotate at different rates that moves around features on the sun's surface, that we call active regions magnetic flux, bubbling up from below the sun surface, and this is part of what drives the sun dynamo and that's the dynamo that produces cycles of activity in the sun tomorrow is the is the magnetic field being driven by these activities? I guess- Is it fair to supply them It didn't work. A number of positive is the eruption of the magnetic fields onto the sun surface. There's the rotation
sprang up so much of the sun field, the inside and normally you want to keep them inside, but occasionally they burst out past static, partly because of this rotation. So you say it is the sun has its? well yeah little black law a little with blood cell, but that our thinking is less to move around busters us was the sunlight, clearer, Sylvia S, magnetic flax, pops up into the sun service that we see a spot, a blemish cool young at its core and not an ethic. I got this right. Isn't it true that, because its magnetic fields, the drive this or sun spot are either positive magnetic field negative, so they come in pairs, is that they do and adding a gold star for any fact in irregular sun spots cycle, one of the eleven new cycle there'll be a spot that has one polarity, let's say positive, leading a spot that has a negative polarity
across the surface of the sunrise and then when the next set of eleven years comes by, What happens is that where we talked about the sun's rotating so that separates these different spots a little bit if there are different latitudes on the sun surface, so there's a sharing of assuring effect exactly equatorial ones beat the other ones around. That is more complicated than that, because is also what we call a meridian flow, its flow from the sun's equator to its ports, as that transports, difference lots of different polarity and some of them come to the polls and then they get sucked down back below the sun surface than that completes the cycle of the dynamo so simple, We need an active life yeah. I want Smallbury, thus every soul cycle. So let me add that just to put things in contacts with the sun were Oh, you could poor more than a million earths inside of it and still not fill it volume
Only more, and that should tell you that these little blemishes we call sun spots in fact, typically are larger than the entire earth. So these storms, the Judith, is telling us about our larger than the entire planet that we call earth people. Let me just for the sake of completeness here, boss. I think that everyone knows that, but there are many other agents on the sun states. Some of them are called Plash Plush flies. Then that comes from the french word for the beach so bright, rages and others the cold factually factually factually, and that comes from the italian behold. How would involve toted american sooner
does he accept the reality of the matter? What you call a just think of the sun is having lots of different fates opulent so large and peculiar I'm their bright, sunspots dark, but they're. A bright races on the sun is well be bright region, let's find out. You know, I spent some time at the national solar observers and guess what the name of the town is Sun Spot New Mexico, as you know that check, if I do you can you actually get a date stamp on Europe on your males at sunset, mathematics, massacres and I and I sat down four star talk and chatted with the director of the National Solar observatory, just to find out what it takes to observe the sun as a professional, I'm gonna go with sunglasses check in with my interview with Steve Caille, director of the National Solar observatory,. Our primary function is to study and understand. The sun saw our telescopes during the day and pull
working during the day is the skies pretty bright. You gotta make a special, this telescope, the seed, the sun, because, as an Four physicist, as you know, our biggest problem is the lack of availability of lights. We're gonna build really big telescopes to detect the dimness things that are out there and we won working with the very brightest thing out there, and so you have no shortage of light to work with no is actually kind of the opposite because when we look at the sun, we like to look at very small pieces alight and we like to look at him. Simultaneously with four five instruments. So my time The light gets to the camera. Were in the same situation as the folks, you say slicing dice the sun's light too? your needs, and by the time you're done, is hardly any light left to youth. That's right. I still have sympathy for ya I don't have sympathy for solar cause, I'm a deep dark sky observer of dim things right and he was furious. Throwing away photons of light
the slicing indicting this I'm just so I'm jealous actual he's not far away. He looks different wavelengths in that tells you different thing. About the sun's atmosphere, so always always gases over the molecules in charge, species in the atmosphere they radiated for wavelengths. So he just peaks interesting points which will get back to later in the brokers, because the sun is not just visit Why does much more going on there and I want to find out how that interacts with earth? You know one of the best. As you can see, the outer atmosphere of the sun from earth is during a total solar You guys are receiving Judith. Have you seen what I never have you ve you're, not gonna get out of here now I gotta go I've not saying Aurora, which is another one night
this site, try to rule out in the desert in Australia. Doesn't that council shock? Have you ever seen a total solar eclipse? Ok, what's this? What's this took her of sea solar eclipse, when and where I dont want, as they were because of a date me you'll, know exactly how you will know exactly old. I would but I was a little kid and it was a huge, huge, ok we'll get back to that after this brain here, listening start shortly the future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal star tie
welcome back to start or radio, I'm here, you're the grass Thyssen businesses and your hosting star talk jerk nice. I am flat gas. It grew to always have to hear you next to me here in these times of need, yes, and let us not forget our special guess: Judith Lean, solar researcher at a naval research, lamp she's here cause talking about the sun, which is now, I know a little bit about the site. That's why we ve got here. We left off track your boasting that you would actually seen a total solar eclipse back and eighteen Well, ok, you don't tell us what year, but not where were you here, and I tell me what year can I know where the oil you'll know where exactly in Philadelphia so you'll know? No, actually, I'm sorry, you actually from Philadelphia,
Will it have total solar eclipse? I was a total solar eclipse at our house and in the afternoon I remember, and They are going to happen in the dead of night area, so I have to say you know, sitting next to Judith and hearing her say, she's, never see why I feel very special, but I'm also perplex that, are you do a steady discern? You haven't seen a solar cells. Let's not beautiful our special thing. Judith lean solar researcher at the Naval research lab she's here cause we're the sun, resource lab. Currently has these most beautiful instruments looking at the sun and the energy that its views out and the images that we collate of this
from these instruments are so you know what you say is all the action is happening behind the moon, giant eclipse. You don't even meet the moon to help. You see the sun, well one of the instruments that we built than ever research like well, I didn't, but the expert experimental stage literally put Surat official a culture in the optical, create your own clock. Exactly that's! What's that I see the outer ever serve the sun at once hasty disappointed their Judith, but I have seen the real you might wonder. You're right, I didn't know you don't see it every minute minute after you, Godiva year after children, at the wait around for travellers from Regos
dial up are all you have to do- is Google. So in this, in your studies, the eclipse that I saw, I happened to be near a solar maximum, whether many sun spots and saw the corona the atmosphere of the sun, which is laid visible, rendered visible when the disk of assent is blocked by the moon during a total solar click. It was huge. So all I can think of is at the sun is, is cycling in its energy that it sends to Us- and this is what you study is an absolutely and so sunspots more sunspots its peak and lessons since its creation right right and we are supposed to be approaching a sense but maximum next year, but lest I checked, the sun has not been delivering on the on the promise. What's going on, I guess what happened was just come out of soul cycle twenty three. Now these cycles were numbered back eleven times. Twenty three years ago, solar cycle, twenty trade lasted for a year.
Two, maybe two years longer than we thought it would no longer than the eleven your average I've? No, I see that's an interesting point. Eleven years is really the average of the whole twenty three cycles. The last two cycles that we have observed, France, with all of our fancy instruments, have actually been more like ten. A little bit is shorter than other such an average, as research statistically gives an average with high variance associated with it right, and so one thing now we did say this longer cycle and, and that means that the rise to the next maximum, which assault twenty four is delayed. So it's it's later than you thought it would be occur that vodka heart now one and one of the finest that I work with he thinks is because we haven't been studying the sun with all of efforts, instruments for more than a full of solid cycles. You got back in the past and there was cycles that were long. Why these there were times when the cyclist disappeared
saw there's a lot of worry and aims I had a bad. Are we going into a long minimum and what's happened to the next cycle? But that's just because we haven't it's because you know too much now your data are ever before. So you get to think about the sun more deeply than anyone. Any of your predecessors could absolute. I asked a similar question of Steve Kay the head of the National solar observatory. Ok, let's see what he says about this odd minimum were in now in the history of sore cycles. Normally, when the sun goes through a period of questions, the number sunspots drops off Lee and held some minimum and then comes back, and lately we have seen any Well, we ve seen a few new cycle spots, but their their smaller than were used to. We ve seen this dollar magnetic field reverse, so we know the cycle is showing alone, but since Watson big getting smaller and dimmer and This concern you where you hiding the sun spot, but you know hide them down at the bottom of our big telescope.
In reality, so the solar cycle, we NOS eleven years, that's more eleven years plus or minus about three years. I've had some cycles have been assured is eight years in some as long as fourteen year. So you're saying we have fewer than what you would expect in a normal eleven year cycle, but maybe this last cycle was just a little longer than you would expect yeah. This may be one of those unusually long cycles, or we may be into some, like the minor minimum back in sixteen forty five and says was disappeared for about fifty years view Rita on the monitor Minimum Europe was steeped in what they call the many ice age where they were skating on the river Thames in London in the winter river that hardly ever, if ever so are you saying we're ready to plunge and
new kind of winter world does not really clear right now, so during that period, says was, were gone for so long that those overall solar brightness was now a little bit. So you saying the brightness of the sun correlate with the numbers sunspots it or on a surface right. So the more sense was on the surface. The more active the sun is becoming its little bit warmer. The chromosome he's a little more light. It sounds although opposite to what you'd expect, given that sunspots cooler regions of the sun and their darker, and so you think, the sun's total energy would be less. But I guess what you're saying as the rest of the sun is more energetic in more than handily makes up for this. That's right so that energy that is blocked by the sun spots has to get out somewhere in it does. But.
Khazars, more magnetic field present that heats the rest of the atmosphere, and so we get a warmer sun and we're not talking much less than two percent is a percent enough to plunge Europe into an ice age certainly could be. The earth itself has so many variables. Volcanoes co2 emission in the sun also affects the chemistry, the upper atmosphere, and so you can get feedback mechanisms that can They really strange Judith will remember. We talked about right regions, yes, factually applause. The reason that the sons, rightness its overall energy that it says the earth is higher when the sat there are more sunspots is because a fact in view of the bright regions dominate over the dock regions, so the sun, the net energy from the sun, is actually these competition between a reduction in the brightness from the sun spots and enhancement.
In the brightness from these big bright rages and the bright regions will know. What I want to know, however, is that when the sun gets brighter during solar maxim is not that much brighter, I'm told that it gets even brighter. In some invisible parts of Asia, like the uv in there in the total sala brightness, in other words, fair radiation, photons all wavelength- it gets about one of percent brighter. Ok, now before you say that is so boring the energy from the sun, is so big, a tenth of one percent of that energy. Still a lot of vantage doesnt matter without energy comes if its visible ultra violet, because the ultra violet affects people how much s p f, tanning lotion that You know the sun is a black body, it's hot. As you said, it's about ten thousand, where we have to go by black body. I was gonna sit with these other committees. Totally descent was a brother moody classic radiator.
So I am now less ready if the sun is about ten thousand degrees Fahrenheit. The spectrum, in other words the the wavelength work produces most of US radiation is a visible spectrum, is a visible lie. I, where very lucky, because if the sun had a different temperature, we wouldn't have all that visible light, and our bodies in our planet is choosing to visible radiation. So most of the radiation is in the visible part of the sector. Glass arbitrated, son peak somewhere else than the whole planet would have targeted to that right. I, and I comes first thing this ok. You got that one where it so so are you suggesting that during solar maximum, where the uv easily,
a higher people need to be a little more cautious people with lighter skin, more sensitive to skin cancer, and ultra violet there to be more cautious about using sunscreen. Well, yes, and no yes, but not for the reason that usage really ok right reason, so the sun produces more energy in the visible in the ultra violet part of the spectrum. You know that in the EU the aid and the UK be re radiation that reaches the surface, that the reason that it John Frazier surfer. And is not absorbed like all of the very stream ultraviolet radiation is because we have an ozone layer. We look on love the ozone yeah. You know what makes our design the sun does he know that the sun makes ozone so wait? Let me get this right. The sun is actually protecting us.
From the surrounding, so I now sounds like a starship. Tens of thousands of land gotta tell you something right now. You never know what could happen to your business. It could be a terrible accident here on fire anything good. I ll be from you for my dear I go back to the said. The fund makes only son I win. The solitude is high. There's ultra violet radiation is more ozone so that she does protected. So we receive different amounts of ultra violet light more because the ozone varies than because of the sons. Ultraviolet radiation interesting, I do not know their and for those who did miss the day in chemistry, Clarence zone is oxygen three ways and three is a three molecules. It's a three at a molecule o three is ozone and get zapped by ultra violet lighted, each the ultra violet, preventing it from reaching earths When we come back more of the sun is also
a little bit more about the many ice age poverty in Europe and we to start hungry check your day, marking the secrets of you world and everything orbiting around it. Storytellers welcome back to stop radio on the other grass Thyssen, startled radio, tweets star, talk, radio, what else and shut nice you tweet its job, my comic jackknife? Mice got me better, be funny at yes, we also have with us Jude
we saw word scientist from a naval research lab, because today's topic is, of course, about the sun, and we left speaking about the monster minimum this period in Europe, where it was like a mini ice age day. It was cold and happened to correspond with the period of low sun spot activity. Just as it is now which makes people wonder with the global warming phenomena be even more severe than if we were going through this sun spot Minimum Judith. You have any sense of that. There has been a lot of speculation Ivan many decades that the funds rolling climate and a lot that is taking place so the corners birth climate, not solar classes, climate. Now, by in the last thirty years we have had and instrumental. You know those instruments that major things from the sun there they measuring the brightness of the sun. So we know it changes by a bow
a tenth of a percent, and we can see that this impacts the earth's surface temperature, the global temperature of the earth by about a tenth of a degree centigrade. So it's not be compared to the effect, for example, of greenhouse gases over the last thirty or forty focus was interesting. Its importance. You gotta know what matters more doesn't in the equation. If you really do have to matter now, because in the last probably eight years, there's been a lot of talk about. Why hasn't the global temperature Bay warming? Why haven't you know? Has greenhouse gases stop warming its they cause over the last, maybe six or seven years. The sun is thin in descending phase of cycle, so just simply stop for life
be it the net me switch on pause mode right now, because of helping us base is helping us. Besides my job- and I hope you guys only- I can only do it alone. We have now saw the cycle, the seller cyclist starting up again, so it's gonna be just warming a little bit, only a small amount compared what were you saying from citizens cycles not only about sunspots, it's about explosions, on the sun that blast and burst in Bert Force, plasma pies into space, some of which head towards earth. These are charged particles at high speed What gives saw? Ok, so we haven't, I knew, go we so we have these little irruptions right and they fall nasal spots. Sometimes these fields,
ten that without these refugees, Koromo Mass no longer having they are getting that we're not even very they come from the surface and they break open subtle. Instead of the field lines, making a start, thou break open and extend into state the sun was Sadly, that is so. That means the atmosphere of the sun, in other words, in the corroded. The Anna Ramsay can just five freely to earth, and it does. It literally is part, most everywhere in space, occasionally forgers, what a shawl and there I saw you're a of the sun, has the whole solar system to care, so it's either solid terrestrial signed. Let's fan, let's find out what Steve Cure has to say about this centre of connection and the storms that it might
We make daily forecast, but our accuracy is about the same as whether men around the turn of the century. Ok, ok, so the question wasn't whether you make the forecast its Lego good as your precision. So that's a measure. How little we still know how much more we still need to learn about the sun, if you think about earth whether what makes the forecasts accurate now is persistence, leather and we can measure where it is at any given time we're getting. There were the sun, so like solar sentinel Cease Mass coming from the Sun reporters, you're. So assent knows it is a satellite. It's at their planned mission. Stereo witches came a precursor to Sentinel, gave a set capability for awhile. It see stuff coming out. The sun stereo is that other than the word itself is presumably that's an acronym for some thing right eye. They take well guess I'd better get the first s name for son. Is my bed Ezra? If you
today, solar. Whether prediction is about what earth whether prediction was a hundred years ago, a hundred years though they were reading sort of bare fat in a jar out the rheumatism in need, so the people come to your office and say check your. Writers and decide whether what the sun is going to do. You give us an century. How much longer do you can take the accuracy now of the current twenty four hour, forecast is summer on the order. Seventy percent for weak flares and about fifty percent for strong. And we need to know this also for long term space exploration Centre, not to Mars and there in a spacecraft four year, their basically bear asked out there in space its assent, the ball to solar radiation. They're gonna need to know your forecast in the interest of their health and survival. The threads of they had a good for ass, they knew there was a solar storm headed their way. They can move into a part of the the spacecraft whether more protected, so protection means weight.
So there's a trader the weight of some shield that they might have to carry with them right. So there's always a trade off between how much protection you can put in how much what you can launch. We just get astronauts who were on one my trip, and then we will have to worry about it. One. We did. I say that in my interview, so Judith, so they are these bad. Is everyone say they are these blobs of plasma headed towards earth, the blog paths plasma head towards her and they disrupt the protective magnetic, showed the earth? Now the earth has a magnetic field, just like the sun anymore, tax. To some extent, this solar, wind, rushing so guides the bare particles around around or doesn't right when there's a big storm that smash ASEAN till the sun at big sandstorm its smashes into the outer environment of the earth, and that disrupts this protective This is when you get your war. I bet you do
the northern night? It's what happens there in Europe from Australia what they call it? What in the south. I don't know if you say that otherwise, your Austrian, I don't know it's even name it after you guys the Austria of trade in her lips, she doesn't name it. I'm gonna, call it a beautiful bit slap so so so what we ve run a very short time here, so it so it's a real danger for astronaut. We have to have some kind of shielding for this right, but earth it has built in shielding it's a magnetic field right. So when you go outside when it whether an astronaut or a spacecraft, if you go outside, I know you shooting, then you get bombarded with these energetic particles that can do a lot of damage or maybe what we need is a way to put a magnetic field around the spaceship they'll. Be cool then make him have their own aurora features
What's for me, we're winding down here. Judith has been great, have anew on STAR talk radio here, trying to figure out how to What tweet should I use to end? This show check? What do you think I should do here? Let me see you got where I will have out this. Ok, are you ready? five, you you knew the Sun To expand and engulf worded as charred ember? That was once earth evaporate? Suddenly have a nice day you ve been listening to start on radio watch in part by the National Science Foundation. I want to thank shut nice thanks for being on start always apply, then, once again, dutifully is fine. Thank you hope. You never forget us when you go back to work this is the other s eyes and signing off as always heap looking up
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.