On 9/30/16, the Rosetta spacecraft will purposefully join its Philae lander and crash into Comet 67P. Before then, StarTalk All-Stars host Natalie Starkey, co-host Chuck Nice and Rosetta Mission Project Scientist Matt Taylor review what we’ve learned.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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welcomes the dot org. I'm doctor, nothing stocky, and this is thought all stars. Today. I'm gonna be or install heist joining me as a co heist. I have comedian struck nine Natalie nobly now eagerly nice. To see a man was cited The plan is to field some fine questions about our topic. Day and night. The cosmic queries and we're gonna be looking at the topic of the readmission us really exe I thank you very much is an exciting. Listen. I place my heart because this is where it is kind of I've been doing for my research, the last, and so I M excited talk about Rosetta, very excited. I must say, more excited and she's all guest today joining us sky and is doctor mats hayleigh after matter,
yeah well commands. That's all right now that you are the project scientist for the European Space Agency, Razetta mission. This is quite an exciting time Oh, I wish I had your job, but you are really really busy, so and envy use the amount travel in talks. You currently doing bad, it's so good to have you here My pleasure, Isabel hectic at the moment should say explained. There's lobbying on right, so we ve had the resultant mission launched. I mean over ten years ago now right and it's been travelling to this comment. It was travelling to a comment for all this time. I had to catch up with his comment, get onto the same orbit, which is no small matter in itself, wrote and then in twenty fourteen. It actually come up with
went into orbit around first I'm ever. We ve done that this and then not only that complements later land. As spacecraft oughta comment, we want us the best thing ever an ego first time we ve ever done this. It was successful, a soft landing there was a bit of a bumpy ride. M until it came to rest by eating it's done, science, it did if its first science sequence as planned, and since then the little Landor little filet, lander, ass, loud ass, correct is asleep, is gonna sleeps going too What happened to that? The scientists way of saying that its now on a farm with grandmother. You mean we have gone to sleep what's happening, though you guys museum. The problem with a slight shrugging his lambda. We can't read it
I got a box of economy and kick it to see if it still life, we just aids are highly unlikely to be able to function anymore. At the moment you to our limitations due to the fact that is moving away from the sun We said we we carried out if a sign statements were carried out of the mind, all the signs, with a deepening spot to do better to go into hibernation out it's just because it did this extra little learn leap across the comment that he was put into a situation where location where it took a bit longer to come out hibernation than originally planned. I think you guys you just me cheeky legs, you a light. We wanna lands and combat, but hey wait a minute, we're gonna last three times: no one. You know we're gonna. Just do it all in one guy, you know we should vote the original lander proposals inspire those about the kind of my
father of the land. A mission itself was to have a comic opera that was jumping around. That would go to one placement go somewhere else, and it was that he thought was somehow lighted into the lab and that it was not to be mom place. You wanted to go somewhere and with a guy like that proposal, let's do that gonna do it anyway, but it's kind of crazy, because you know comments have light so list who gravity these things are relatively small compared to you know one of the planet, so it's just really lucky that it didn't on one of these bounces zounds completely often just there all right that was because it that could have been a scenario where any bounced off and it would have been lost forever. At that point, right is actually no way of getting it had no power itself, the right the lander say couldn't have got itself back. Couldn't remember yes to that I've been claimed one of them. The colored cliffs or whatever? You want to call on the features and says the comment I think, without that it might have had a little bit too much momentum and wandered about these and ended up coming over the Asian oppositely would have been lost. Our life
we were lucky? We got it. We got some science which I'd love to discuss. If we ve got time today, but you know it's still there, but a boycott right landed did wake up again in was in July last year was something strange about time period that we never got a full accurate signal. Look where there were still some issues. We never really got enough in talking terms with popular right is really is No, I have to note that this isn't the only all the mission this gets forgotten, a broad definition of more than sixty hours of bird I'd taken that we had with the later we were, the majority of the science is being done by the old time. Remains being done by the doctor said how? Because all the physics experiments are on the orbital? Ok, I'm a geologist sign like right. I want to be on hand, pulling up samples of anxiety and he's writing. I, the arbitrary, still functioning and so mad when, with respect for the orbital worker
data. Are you looking to receive and as it orbits this comment on its journey? Is it just? merrily looking at the comet or is it surveying the do you know what's around the comet and where the common is going are both of those things happen or one of those things are what is its to evolve, I was in itself. A key aspect was, unlike any other mission, begun before to come. Here we were gonna stay with. The comments are as not least before we want. I move that we got in the same order is coming up. We ve been doing that for over two years now, as are we getting in step with the comment, and we see how the common has evolved in time as he gets caused, it sounded would become more more ratify more material of an that's. What we, in observing. We ve been observing the atmosphere, the comment that come up as well as the nucleus and how they are actually, in addition, Alba interacts with the atmosphere, the sun as well of the whole of the home.
Yes, that's what would be looking at. We really be looking to the house, the present commission is to study this comment as in depth as possible. Plan with the land, and we get the ground troops. Are these measurements? Well, with the over till, we get a global view of women Maxwell together. That was the key aspect of this. We do the mission the site with the orbit up, but the landing I was there to get on the private. Give us the ground. Troops are really dig in a nun. Scientists like Batley, you, gotta, dig a nun scraping sniffing place. Think again, yes, she's, always bombing about finding the money, but not what I wanted to mention is the end of the mission a case. It's gonna be really sad time for all of us. I imagine more say, for the guys are really heavily involved and on the mission side, but the end is coming it's,
this year end is near end is very near my hands and there are some really crazy plans of how this mission is gonna end and involves essentially crushing this orbital. That's doing all this amazing science blue, these very expensive instruments on board crashing this thing into the comment. Ok, Now that sounds Matt very much like when I was a kid. I would build a giant Lego castle and then kick it down why why? Why is that? The end in the midst of what is going on with you guys online, I've, always wanted to break stuff. Accepting that the problem, we have is the committee's moving away through capillary motion is moving away from the sun. Now the spacecraft is over Randal or is in the same orbit. That's moving away from the sun is well losing the capability generating power, so we'll get to a situation where we will have to put it
I believe we have to do that before because move so far away the site, any wife, and because the orbit despite Bob is now even with the comment that would free. We also running out of fuel will have no fuel lesson and the best thing to do was to end the mission in around September October on actually the reason for that is we get to tie up where the solar energy is reducing, but also we go into junction with the terms of the signal that we getting from the spaceport very minimal of that time period. So we can have The Indus at time would be a good time to close the mission off now we could have just switch the mission. All do something more extravagant. More extravagance aim has been to control area controlled impact with a comment. Told him I M not a crack Hughley, you know that's what I tried to tell my insurance company about my last controlled impact. We are, and I love this light
because it means on the way down. The instruments has taken me on and they gonna get tons of information as they go down, causes away the closest ever been with the orbital, obviously having not crushed it into the combat yeah, they ve done some amazing mass soaring math, I mean the states now I again, man. Yet we done some. Some very clever math to work out how to move around this thing is it's not claim, is, haven't really gotten of gravity for and opted to just all begged a kind of speech not be in a gravitational tractor pull back, but it has been in power for a lot of the time. So it's light the indignant wanting to place, but this com is also active, so it's got material streaming off the surface. You dont together orbital cheek eyes and be hates by dust particles. Can I this is our best chance to get Clarice get some really detailed images of the service. I think either one pixel isn't gonna be a meter or better than that. I am to be here
you get mothers nothing once we get within ten kilometers, we gas. We also meter fifty centimetres ten centimetres awaken again very high resolution him just once we get down to that level realise as you capture these images and you're still in orbit around the comet as its doing its controlled impact is. Are you going to be surveying all part? the comment like kind of going around it and taking pictures like like a radio camera light? Is that is? Will that be, though, is that the case That's what we call in the last words arose as a result, actually still being destroyed and say, discusses being calculated, because the old alone that this committee is very density and has a weak gravitational attraction is still has gravity so, to actually is now in about a woman were about things that twenty six point. Twenty
kilometer over we'll go causing closer and closer we'll get below ten kilometers hello, ten kilometers things get very complicated. Because of this talk like that, like structure so. We have a very weak gravitational potential once we get down to that, so we'll have to put in a special way and really be careful how we controls Scott around, but I'm I'm leaving perturbations of gravity the continuing to try and do as many measurements as possible once we get caused by those final words is weak, about the last day of Rosa to what we do. There is still being discussed still being fine tuned we It will be some kind of arresting manoeuvre from a recycling. Carousel, more bitter will have like a baby. That goes with it about mark bunk onto might be the says, might even loud animal injects towards the comment and will now
I hope he will be the image, but also the mass spectrometer dismayed everything possible will build, have other reason operating, but when we start getting too low power during that period, we really have to say why these the priority instruments getting those images, can irresolution images and also to our resolution, Spic Spectra from this message on to the last named out that nothing like me, I love mastectomies there. Is there any anticipation as to what the common smell like, because I'm hoping jasmine is far from nice, we already listed smells yeah. How come all the way? It's it's like a kind of a Friday night in a border area with any city in the? U S, tales of Britain or wherever you. It's not like. You telling me this comical smell like a drunken part. Yeah previously it is probably not replaced.
Be. It smells like Jersey. right, I said, and I lived there. We should firmly move on to some of these fine gas, because we ve been everything. I've got. No, that was it. That was a ton of cloning. Honestly that I want to get some questions. We should get some question dealt with, I'm so happy that we had a conversation. Now. I know that, basically, we spent a billion dollars to find out that a comet smells like apart. Frankly, that was worth my tax dollars. All guys. Let us go to our cosmic queries where we have taken questions from all over the internet and every different incrimination. Where start talk exists and I am to start off with Gregg Fisher from Facebook and Gregg says this: aren't we plan
any other misuse to any other comments. Is there any specific interests landing on one of the asteroids in between Mars and Jupiter or in the art. While all this is a great others, a very good question, Gregg question. Thank you. This is love is subject to so much talk about, but I'll, try and keep it very short. So we're not planning any missions to comments at the moment are fortunately what we are planning submissions to some asteroids now these are not in the asteroid, bout between Mars and Gipsy, because it's quite long waits go right. What we do is we wait for these asteroids be knocked out as the asteroid Bell and join us in the inner solar systems that these become near earth. Asteroids Let me just add that I am an intrinsically your question. Graduate How do we know when an asteroid is gonna get knocked out of the asteroid? Well, we don't when, but we I don't think we can tell what any
time for me, not the right person to ask, but we know when they have been knocked out now we can trace the orbit. So we can, we can observe them in space and we have a whole list of narrow asteroids and we have a list of those that are on potentially asked crossing orbits these the ones that we need to worry about, and we we keep an eye on them and we check you know that we need just ready to find them read it carefully and work out an and gradually these fall off the less because most of them end up not even as we work out a little bit more, whether going I'm not gonna hit us, but there's a few that we want to go and visit with space missions cause the kind of easy to get because there are already on a better all that we have to go as far as the NASA Sars Rex Mission, which is launching this year, should be launching this year and it's gonna approach an asteroid cooper.
In twenty Tina believe and it's gonna be collecting samples to bring back to earth, which is pretty much progress is the second time that's happened. The Japanese had a mission Caboosa that did this a copy is going worked on some of these samples, tiny little samples from this asteroid, but has also at the high boots the two mission, which is another jack. These one has already been launched and that's easy. Into another asteroid, near earth and clutching some, hopefully cutting samples again, so we have a couple they were going to turns games. We all cloud collecting samples, that's not gonna happen, it's just so Far away again, we need to wait for one of these comments to be nocturnes. The innocent system for us too, to gateway light. We did with resettlement, sixty seven pay, it came to us, so it makes it easier cottages, an immense distance away. That's it would
yet what will now together, but I think that in our lifetimes right world growth that those great great question, so, let's move and I'm trying to figure out which question because this is a core question: how much are we actually needs to break? Ok, one another readers? Can we come back and you say that after the grey or that we are running the show around our eye, Kayser we organizational break but I'll be right back we'll start always does I have a secret for you I'm gonna consider singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one
and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen. The star talk ad free you can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here, another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria, dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking. I mean just The future is space and the secrets of our it revealed star die.
Welcome back to startle Gustave. I am nothing stocky and I still have here with me. I say is gonna, be asking me some more cosmic queries. I've got Matt Tain on hand from the European Space Agency to help answer some of the questions. If I saw an answer that absolutely so, let's let somebody back into our cosmic queries and let's go: let's go to jail the Vienna, a clear role as a key role in Welcome Massachusetts, cake and Joseph Vena wants to know this. She said. First of all, I am a huge fan of recital mission and start talk our meal there. You got me guy
It means you're, Smart, Joseph Vienna. That means I'm a chemist by trade, and I was wondering what the implications would be of a rosetta finding that a only left, handed amino acids were found on comet, sixty seventy or be only right handed amino acids or sea area Smith mixture. I e equal amounts of both before you in Matt go totally geek boner craze. I on this question you're going to have to tell us what all of that
meaning what it over me. I have no idea what Josephine it is talking about, but its opportunity for me to learn some ok say will kick off with the fact that we want to link for organic material in space, and I think this is kind of what the questions getting. I always looking for organic material in this comment. We, yes, we are there's quite a few instruments on the arbiter lands at looking. These features and trying to detect carbon molecules now in terms of looking for anything more advanced than that of which we can dna? Don't think that anything that can look for that, but if we come back a step Before we have dna, we ve got amino acids which form from carbon molecules unease. What we would refer to as the basic building blocks for life. We kind of need these to get life started. We think, and our bodies contain lows amino acids and we found amino acids and space before we found them in our stories meet. Writes that land on the south,
this piece of asteroids, we found lots lots of amino acid, so we know that the building blocks are out there now with razetta we're not looking for these specifically, but there are a couple of instruments to trains to tax carbon compounds. Now I'm gonna positive mats cause. He can now tell us a little bit about what some of those issues I found it quite recent research that has come out o again break moves up. It is definitely Cyrus yeah that was cup of instruments on the lambs are found some interesting stuff related to the organic material. You told him The university instrument also concept for Mass Germany were on the specifically now, from my knowledge amount by run the plasma physicist by my cumbersome as it were. I not the way to find a balance Can it be sure we could see that I'm gonna conceals a commonplace material? The comment is regulated dark and instead, its bearing very black. It reflects less than five percent of the sunlight that ISA in put to it. So,
That really tells you that we have this very carbon rich material on the surface, and I was saying before you noticed this ground level, tasted the overcoming of what we need. From some like a mass legal, even with the passing across the surface of the planet and we had samples. Remember. Actually, I think also like it is peace. The top of the ladder and down at the bottom of the land or Think Cosette was pointing down. He had told them is not even tat is actually asked carpet got these fractional sample of of the atmosphere in the new services cause I actually got. The dust was kicked up from the from us. We ve got some nice dodge Carbon which come hands. I think compounds. That would know I've never been seen before these are associated. I think again, on the edge of my memory with rivals, which is a sugar which then, if you don't get a building block of our, can be connected to amino acids and dna. So
seen on the bottom, with concise and on the top it was more. The comet gave him all the gaseous material with a real estate in the atmosphere. I'm. So we were able to see that distinguish the different components. From the land. Beyond the omens, ever seen. Others scope this fantastic array of instruments that do my spectrometer. It can Sancho material that I've been looking at what we thought. We'd have record old, all instances of saying different taskbar, we'll talk about it for the may find, etc, and we hope to get some more information. On that same that's along. We have an insight here. This is exciting. Coolly! Ok! Well, it's great because all different instruments are done slightly different things and when she did it, necessarily agree which is quite interesting well. What do you mean by that is that sounds that contrary idea and it sounds worrisome woody.
They don't all particularly agree, while, basically because their measuring different things, as I was saying, the closer instrument is measuring the composition of the basically the rock of of the comment right, because it's right at the surface where's the Ptolemy. So it saw nitrogen compounds and there is an intolerable for measuring the gases around that. So it didn't. Actually, I sure any nitrogen. We don't mean I why maybe not she wasn't takes up high enough Ptolemy didn't get it into its it's my spectrometer buddy She had lots of carbon dioxide, so we need a lot of carbon there. They agree on something, But then you ve got Regina, which is why, outside of the combat looking at the Cairo, everything outside of that and that's in a oversee, got different results, but I'm sure they'll be complementary. It's just you looking at it from pause. Its economy is not a bit dont, agrees that their measuring different thing saying those things don't always just perfectly mesh. Why we have to
all of these little better data together and build up a picture of the comment, because, as an active system mean I we gotta understand what is things that goes towards the sun, how it's getting he somehow that's affecting the different molecules on it yeah, but the one thing that we can say Matt is that is not broken. So it's not like it's measuring different things. That's not why one thing I recall is when I want to know is: are you wasted my money? hardly intricate instruments, but one asked and remember talking to a colleague of mine, there's a lot of carbon there. They agree on some things, but then you ve got Regina, which is why because my spectrometer being as because a room about exactly what about you. I remember talking to you: are you with these big machine tat? Now you can't find something that begins. I saw you at the minutes was the instrument and What I mean while it has less capability is still a fantastic. You'd miniaturized is only as
a limited capability compared to something on earth. So the limitation, in what you can do. So you have to make assumptions only observations that you're making saw the spectra. As you know, looking at my spectrum, their bombs and wiggles lines everywhere. That could be various different compounds that these things as you have to make based on your understanding, a general vote. They also it's really you'll do the best you can with an inch. Has been acting from a room size instrument to some. Because, because all small than a shoe balky allow ideas are made When the interest we light right, because we got a a space where we need to be relatively simple, because we don't a human to go out right. There's right! No maintenance for the sitting goes wrong is pretty much, not anything. You can do have you pre programmed sequences that it will run and the computer program, and it runs them and if anything goes wrong, this just nothing. You can do about it, so these things are going
a simple, but it doesn't mean there actually simple, united, that still doing very, complicated? I did science, it yeah. It's it's physicist simple. It is like you know you you guys simple is like most people's I'd just died of a stroke, thinking about it and they also have another version of the instrument on the ground. Say the scientists in over waiting ten years for us to get to the comments that have actually been out of performance. Calibration experiments on their version that they ve got, May Vienna in a chamber. This kind of like comic conditions, that in a vacuum and stuff, and they can actually run sequences on it, to test how that judgments gonna work in space that's important as well there's a lot of work, the guys in to and aims Matt. When you run in these calibrations, do you then take that and make an adjustment to the data that you receive from space and and adjusted accordingly, calibration that you run here on earth
What do you do that? I'm actually something that was done based on the roads that are measurement so the rosetta over this was for rosy. Not I made measurements, I'm with their honey whilst instrument available to actually go back to data that was taken thirty years ago from the highly mission wow, that's just Holly really address some of the aspects that were taken there with the instruments there. Ray I lost bite on the mission will be happy to a kind of course, spacecraft mission. Relations? Well, so all this time you can go and crossing an I'm cross, comparing prove your measurements at his fantastic yeah, Ammonites, really fascinating step. Will Josephine Let me just tell you that was an incredible question that you gave us that, because I made him who knew that we would get all of that. Out of this. One question really is fascinating: and I learned some things there too. That was really great. Well, I feel, like I'm one of the car,
because if you look at that, I learned something you don't even realize. Ok, stop that we're done there, because the Joseph fingered asked about plurality. One of the payments we wanted to do on the lander, with contact and that's the only instrument that could have made this measurement of this look? Hadn t its basic, The symmetry of molecules you can I've had left hand It was only on my left handed you I'm against Israel. Action with the material we see in space and how is it connected of life on earth and so Things on earth have a particular cleverality and others have a difficulty and by looking only comment, we'd be matching and see if there is a match between the to solve all the amino acids and comment left handed her right hand, role they both and vice versa. For other things.
It isn't dna of this kind of thing and see if there is a connection with those that we fighting on all mirth. The problem is with the land that we were able to guess opposite the ovens which was necessary to run a specific part of the cossacks instrument. It was to examine cleverality. So without that now that the lander is most likely not than are functionary more, we had not been able to carry out that measurements. I just want to get back about that nice, IRAN. It still needs doing so he's doing mission there. You go Josephine that's what I believe we have thoroughly answered this question from top to log in and out this. Obviously this was this answering. This question was like a cosmic proctologist exam. Let us move on. Ok, look man laughed at the courtyard,
our right. Here we go here, we go here, we go, this is span rose. Handed I don't know how to say lasting, I'm sorry Sven resounding. I don't, but what a name lifespan, I think he's a Viking so this was felt spend, says, he's doesn't tells worries from, but he's writing to from Facebook. This is what he says. Would it be possible to Lana spacecraft such as were set up on a common and then stay in contact with it so that every few years it sends us more information, and so I'm going to add ons that with at a mine. Will we be able to handle any comment? it is safe for, like Haley's com, which we know leaves our solar system goes and then comes back. What we
able to do what Sven said and then get readings from that comment wherever it goes, and then gather those things. When it comes back to us, I mean kinder than it does. It has a lot to say with this answer really it's it's more that yeah you could in theory, but the problem is when comets get really far away from the US and the sun. It gets re codes and communications take forever. So you're gonna have to put that spacecraft into hibernation most likely like we did with possessor as it was trying to catch up with. A common sixty, seven pay. It got very far away, so it hats going hibernation, good sleep recovery is so you you could do that. You need to leave a little bit on because it needs to stay warm in order for the instruments to actually kind of work. I was just gonna completely phrases and be broken, so if you could do that bring
in turn it back on. Not always that easy when we had to bring razetta of hibernation, thou stressful because we don't know was content because it was not. You know. I mean you can probably add something. To this I mean I was there watching it on the internet fades, but I was dressed in earning. We got the signal and it took longer than we thought, and It must have been bet you what we emission control for this yellow waters, it was no, it's fine he's like planets out has been so much happening since then, but I was like a piece of cake. Has nothing really let us army, we, we pull the Most people are designed this to happen, so so we done the best job, our hibernation, video, had been delayed a little bit Where did you come back? In fact, when you talk about stress the one guy, looked about, stress was the person, involving writing software for the hibernation exit and eat up much.
It was the Basel III person in the room. I didn't measure and I can- and I would be yeah because at that point it's all on him and you know everybody's going to point a finger evil other not physically pointing the finger they're, just like IE, Thomas Tom. Yes, early I think I would fain said when they had no idea. You know we think this is like it. It's like Alex Rodrigo as in the bottom of the night, and the bases are loaded and you're up to bed and you know when you strike out. People are just like what a waste of thirty million dollars nobody's, As light, it's ok, everybody says it's ok, but you know what they're really thinking is dude you just wasted. All of our money and that's where Thomas thanks for the programme
your screwed up here, so I can imagine that is pretty stressful. Yes, so we very much, I think you know we're running a little bit of time on the second we weren't I, but I think it's kind of possible. It probably isn't the most important thing for us to be trying to do because it badge go to to an asteroid your comment and measures and then get some with? Theoretically, I would love to bring samples back. That would be the best. There is more important to get on that comment as its traversing out close enough to our solar system, yet land on it get some off of it and combat bringing physical sample home exactly, which is what we are trying to deal with some of this each asteroid missions. Ok, we're gonna wrap it up there for this section, The more cosmic worries when we come back where we started off. Does
the future is space and the secrets of our planet. I feel this is a start. Welcome back to startle stars, I'm not really Starkey still here with me as Czech nice mats data from the European Space Agency to carry on with some more cosmic query or a cosmic queries. Queries from the internet. It's my news on its lovely. Am I Perhaps on Tuesday? Thank you are here's the deal I lost the question I wanted to hear RAM, Whoopee grand woolly
wants to know this wire clue. Toys made of different material than comets their origins are both trans Tunisia, wow, hey I've licence, the guy who he knows what he's talking. I read an article in scientific American. Only right now in those stop. Ok, ok this down a little about? We ve got the cape about or the quick about. Have you want to say this? What's funny, I you know, of course doing this job here I get to talk to a lot of scientists yet, and I still don't know if it's Kippur belt or Cooper Bell. Think it's because I hear so Many of you said that both way, I think hype, I'm so high bred man. What do you say? A thing like ice also later thinking
you're Keyser, Azotised gets a thing, is tat? George, it's ok meal says hyper use a hyper Matt, you say comparable. I know several physicists ass, a corporate taxes on that said. There's this is my point for two years the middle somewhere. Always the politician man look at. Do the diplomat did the great aren't go ahead? We have the kite about. This is kind of way out. Podsnap, gene and sell us now. As far as your cloud, we also have comments, but I think is important is not a common. There is also were kind of PLUTO happens to be so. We ve got objects like PLUTO. Now the differences but we ve got a slight pluto that are around and contain a load of ice spits seem to look a bit like planet. That's why PLUTO used to be a planet of legitimately no longer feel killed. It acts Neil that we have the comments which the remnants of the very earliest parts of the solar system that the remnants of this dust cloud that we started with
It was a detail of ice now, but we still don't really understand what all of these objects came from her where exactly where they forms. Now it's thought that we ve got the kite about which has placed around the all cloud which is further away. We actually think the all cloud comments formed closer written to the sun and the quite about initially, and actually they were so placed the sun that they, they kind of interacted with some of the inner planetary bodies kicks. Out of the solar system so when we see them coming in to the innocent system occasionally, and we can look at the Mattel escapes and even goes somewhat missions, we actually see that particular composition, and will you much the one from the cap about their different, but then we ve also got the blue towards which are another, family of objects out that farmers are already far away and we don't go to them either. We now with the new horizons. Of course we have been out of this far and well. Some other missions have been not far as well, but in specifically to look at these objects, so
is still learning about them. So I kind of like can answer the question that well matched savings because it's like we just we need to learn more about these things. I think that the failure to constrain what you call a particular thing. Unless the thing you start associated names to different objects and boy, you alluding to the point about the old cloud and when you look good, sixty seventy runs at up The first comment, like these noble with we call every at a classic Amanda true, capable object. We Other judge fast commissary themselves have a completely different competition on the rights of the Kurds. Hydrogen ratios, which all kind of earth a proxy for this all aware with, but we live form with respect to the son, a nearly some system and what we with Rosetta, but also the highly measurements, with sixty seven pay showing a broad range of these data white Russia has for a particular class comments which again mixes up Europe,
standing. The dynamic process me evolution for those particular body, so it's a bit of a difficult makes them when you say why I came back all cloud. That's the comments unamiable the asteroid bell, but they must be the last and was ideas when peoples, talking about minded comments as well, so this classification of these small bodies in the solar system is becoming more and more diverse. Drafting there I didn't you makes them. Everything is just their evolutionary process is of evolutionary track has been very different. By doing more set about doing new horizons by doing asked emissions. We try and get a better idea all I want particularly strongly than how that fits into the global picture elites in the massive simulation for doing so is not an easy one to answer. We are learning yeah. And I mean mentioned these eight regimes, which are really important from the studies objects, and we can actually measure that, in a kind of all the objects of, if we can get to it or we can measure, it would tell us
It's now you then comparing measurements made by different kinds of instrument. Yes, what we're looking at is essentially the composition of the water or ice water ice or liquid water, mostly ice, and when the king Ass, the heavy type of hydrogen, which is deteriorating in relation to the lifestyle which is hydrogen and will let me just looking at the the abundance of those two things, and that tells us a lot about where we think that, for our solemn, we ask you both is based on what we just talk about their. What would you rather have a physical rock sample of an asteroid or a chunk of ice My comment so, which one would you rather analyze eating a fast waist deep? First of all, we ve had destroyed so common
problem comment in a lab, as, as I started off as eyes regarding that's go for that phrase. Anything Fraser NL down. Now, let me ask because that's a huge of course. We all see what happens when comets come into the solar system. They get close to the Sunday starter and then they just kind of a lame out yet so now how I'm sort! This is a stupid question, because if we knew it, the question NOS two, because I disagree with you when they say there are those who, because he's up just like you, have not urban I'm about so now, their plans or a contingency or anything, to actually break off a chunk of ice and get it back here. But how would you do that with, but you? How are you
keep something called. I now get it back to earth, so did a dozen evaporating disintegrate once it gets. You know on the on. The journey is massive challenge at it, but it is something that most sob obey scientists are actively thinking of I'm trying to work on actually the first place we want to try. This is on the main, because we know we ve got eyes deposits at the poles of the main, Rosa replaced who, as we know it, gets the me we ve done it lots times and not saying is easy, but the challenge will be trying to collect some of these. These ISIS from them oh and bring them back as ice. Because you can analyze there. You can go and allies in with instrument on on the moon, but Ideally, we have we're gonna bring stuff back as we want the best instruments on earth. We ve got to people with audience and we can make the best measurement said. The best instrument of all is the tongue and uses tab, loath zip water say when its eyes.
So this is what we are trying to do. I think that the first step and yet if we could bring the ice from a comment that would answer some major questions about some of the solar system. For me now. I say that, but the proposal, the comments, as we kind of alluded to, are all different and we all day, there's gonna, be groups of comments that a similar going to war comment is not seeking to answer all the questions, you know it's gonna help us, but we need to go to lots of them, which is a bit of a problem. You are very greatly downgrading. I regret I look at you, later on, why do you like we gotta, get that fifteen or twenty adds? Yet? Actually just jumping in their nineteen eighty seven when because it was first thought about that was actually a common saltwater, what it originated, as he was supposed to come to a common base, were permission. Speak Albania was
we did anyway was quite extravagant nothing by Mokanna Guy, look, look just about paper, contribute you're, going crazy, landed there, but not a land of come back again and then find the way back to the early makes it like t missions and say effectively doubles the costs, because not only do you have to land, you ve gotta, then launch again and get off this helpful easy on a comic, as has so much gravity. However, the very encouraging and positive thing about this is we're halfway. There we got the first half of emission done thanks to manage this aim. Rightly had with roses: We could land and one in the first place. As you know, this is the thing we're going to learn on Mars. We did lots of all because we ve got a serving to decide where to land areas with Rosetta. We were doing all of this in one go away that twenty fourteen. When we arrived at the commission, we saw what he looked like for the last time we had to land on within six months, imagined registrar anyway, Really important stress. We'd, never seen this before the main. We say that it is right that we can just look at it.
And we want to know what is what it looks like on the surface. What is made of three have but yeah comments. We have no idea who never seen it before, untasted Graham Woolly, that woolly was a woolly, was a great question, get very nice. We got what kinds of someone to drive Britain is only a little bit, but we know we don't know anything about fiscal sovereignty coming one of the good That is an illusion. To about tomorrow's debate is the thing that we can now see. These crops from the ground will now also spice face an apple in another measurements, like the issues faced telescope, except drops by having rosetta sitting managed to comment and women are observing it from the grand it's kind of like a booby trapped calibration of the ground based observations. So
We do that for comparison between what we see in situ with what we say other ground for sixty seventy. We can then take those measurements and applied and all the other commentary observations that meet everybody. I will make an inch or so it's a nice calibration of amazement, weeping, two more comments and right exactly so. Yes, everything that we ve already observed. Yet now we can re, observe that the eyes is near Rosetta, sixty seventy fantastic, that's great stars, ass, great gray, point gray, point right, Grand Willie where to go man. That was a great question. I love it when the when these people really think think very deeply about the questions. They ask let's go to ok, ok, Maria How do idea Mackereel, who writes Western, says this from Facebook when Rosetta flew by
the asteroids twenty one Latisha and twenty eight sixty seven times what relevant information did it gather on them appears. I hope got. Nice doesn't mispronounced, my name just kidding, I'm sure he will. She didn't say how we were too pronounced. This is true. We need fanatically ice everybody's names, so you found it gets me. I hope so and guess what? If I said it wrong, you should change your name to Maria Myocardial, Mozilla about these other two asteroids that she sat on the fly by one Latisha and twenty eight sixty seven dines. Yet where we People are getting information relays information, so we as of images of these things, never really seen it before. I say it. I abuse for images of asteroids Arclight fairly close anyway, and my
because I am I right in saying we turn on some of the instruments just to have a little test to see that they work. She didn't work, vengefully and kind of sniffed. Let's say we sniffed the the asteroids. Is that that's right, isn't it? Barton, gothic. We also rocks on the just instruments, but they proved that there was not really a coma around. These objects are either, but there were no results which are results. Yeah there aren't any. We got us with me and say that we got you are right. You go modern bonuses today to the puzzle, because that was icing on looking on the way I was on. The way is ugly grey zone. Like you know, like Parsecs sex on the way home tell my goodness. We have to express our very short question hour?
I would make a joke ever. You can't see about matters laugh and I'm just like luxuriant right that our step on the way home you like all my ex back as matters crack and make our love it hey I find it quickly. Outlasted, quick, quick question. Our right. This is Eli from San Antonio taxes coming to us from Facebook, why is the comet surface? Fluffy oh no longer, I'm gonna have made this really really sure. Ok, so the collar is essentially made of this early gas and ass from the sailor, nebula and ice, and it can help get us. It is this real dust is like the flood of the solar system. It's it's not made it into a planet, so the planet's kind of consolidated all this dust and made it solid like the planets, but in the comments because it was kind of a low energy environment. Out in the comments before me,
and so this stuff state fluffy a bit like candy floss gonna thing. So the surface of the com is very much fluffy as it goes by the sun. Italy. This is all its ices is it's going and it loses love material. This stuff's gonna comes off. It do dehydrates. The surface of the comment says because the surface of the earth It was never compressed to the point where it bound tightly that clay side. We have a fluffy surface and it's that, as I loved I love this dossier, what I do but am and the other answer. Mad is cosmic fabrics. Oftener ok and we make that setting up ok. So we are completely out of time, and I wish we had long ago that a lot of flags are you. There was yeah. I think we ve learned quite a lot of Lebanon's himself as well who's gonna answer over there was supercool to have met here because to tell you having somebody who is actually part of the mission gap,
I really learned a lot. This was burnt areas. We are we're very lucky, it happened, but thank you so much man, you ve, been closer together ways. I love you too much and I believe we have time to say. I want to thank my tail between nine and that was lockdown lay I'll drop the organs which you can listen. The star talk commercial, free, joint startled, on page ran for as little as five dollars per month and the ads will disappear. Learn more at patriarch dot com. Last star talk, radio
Transcript generated on 2020-01-24.