It’s now or never. Neil deGrasse Tyson sits down with environmental activist, Nobel Prize winner, and former US VP Al Gore to investigate ways to combat climate change. Joined by co-host Chuck Nice, journalist Andrew Revkin, and climate scientist Kate Marvel.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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from the American Museum of Natural history in New York City.
Beaming at all is based and start with science,
the real regret, basing your personal astrophysicist tonight we will discuss the science and politics of birth,
preacher, my interview with Nobel Prize winning Environmental advocate and former vice President Al Gore. So let's do this.
I got my committee prose check. Nice led me to man. Weeding, took nice comic. Thank you, sir. Yes very nicely volume I follow, you do. Ok,
the ends of the earth. Also joining us is environmental journalist Andrey Rift
not you for one third of wartime brake on startup, we'll be tabby your expertise tonight, as we discuss my recent interview with one of those recognised leaders of the environmental Movement former Vice President Al Gore, he held the first congressional hearings on climate change, beckoned linking seventy six as a freshman congressmen and in two thousand and six, the film
many truth was an Oscar winning production and that alerted us all to the dangers of global warming. People might not have thought about it. I had the occasion to sit down with Al Gore and his last trip to New York City. It was just after the release of his followers film and inconvenient sequel. Truth to power is my first question.
So I ll just relax and ocean interview and your unfamiliar with fewer than ten years eleven, actually eleven at them
Then a decade now, and you just back in it
you couldn't leave it allowed. What's what were you
thinking, you needed a sequel, all long winded this, so you well over the last decade dumb since the first move
urban, too big changes number one, rather, obviously the climate related extreme weather events are way more destructive and more freedom,
tropical diseases, moving into our latitudes, more floods, more droughts, more mudslides, more strong storms, it's a parade of Horrible's and the rest of the economy is very great as well, but this
can big changes very positive. We have the solutions now and there are affordable, they're getting cheaper all the time
running around the world. Much faster than anybody would have dared hope. So that was worth some telling people that yeah it's worse than the scientists predicted
and it's getting worse still, but we're on the way to really having a chance to effectively solid.
let's Al Gore? Really?
So so any is. Is it? Is it true that extreme weather events have been worse than predicted? That's what for a lot of climate change? The knob sceptics deniers,
they often would cite whether the models were accurate.
Want to know is going to be an extra two inches of sea level. Six storms at such a level ever didn't match you'd or so what is? What's? What does it look like now? I hate to use the word complicated, but it is a little complicated heatwaves. Hot the hot thing
The warming part is absolutely measurable in the data and its links through modeling to greenhouse gases, but things like tat.
What's your NATO's, for example, are kind of a counter example.
No one really understands tornadoes yet and we're how they form
in that area there's no statistical relationship to what's been happening in climate and even with things like flooding,
Noah, the National she atmosphere, thugs Bob denied is plotting.
What else could they may not be an hour? You never know what good are the more severe or not will you say we don't know flooding Hurricane Harvey and
Maria devastating hurricanes are the hardest thing. I when I wrote my,
first article, nineteen, eighty eight about global warming carry a manual most d, the dean of Hurricane Climate stuff at MIT
I quoted Emily said you know that time is thought to be a fifty percent increase in the intensity of hurricanes and warming planets like an twenty, fifty or so, and now the science, the best sciences, this murky
where it says they'll be fewer hurricanes overall, but the ones that form have a higher chance of getting to a stronger categories, those that manifested in the in the hurricanes and of the two thousand seventeen season.
No, no, no, that's not ours. In the mud folk in the months long Reign, along with, we could do a whole show on wildfires, in the sense that there is many things contributing to.
What gets hammered- and I understand the many things that factory we-
just want to know, that is what we are experiencing: the drought and extreme heatwaves across the globe in the wildfires and mudslides cow
poignant and Mondo Hurricanes ploughing and through the Caribbean.
We blame any of that on climate change links we need links with. As I said he waves, yes, the heating of places, I California the drive out the landscapes us more flammable, yes, but the thing that's driving the losses where we care about
It is the things burn up or get flooded, this other things we're getting in the way this guy had villain over Stephen Strader. He said it's important, not it's important to remember that we are changing to where we live. How we live I've written about around that Rouge Louisiana, Epic flood, that storm the drop of rain of thirty or more inches clue is very consistent where you expect in a greenhouse heated planet, but losses
Are these houses there? There's a house? I wrote this peace where this house it was built in the colonial era on still on stilts
because back then they knew you need to keep your house up. If you don't want it to flood and there's these houses there's a picture
that one guy who is in a state gave me, and then he took a picture of like a nineteen. Eighty ranch house completely flooded and if they had just raised it,
So? The answer to climate change are saying is still do not know. The answer to climate vulnerability is acting.
In places where we know that we're vulnerable California, twelve hours and the these thing, which is essential if we want to avoid-
centuries of climate change is a long term imperative as well, but you can't like get away from the need to do everything to ultra. Have you seen hours late, Israel I did I saw no, I saw
and being in truth, which was the first to the second them sequel, Europe. Well, if you're gonna
make a film eleven years later issue, because inconvenient sequel, it should be called an inconvenient hey. I carefully we're still talking
This seriously guile. Ok, let's do something about. It is what it is:
So, as a journalist was the upshot of this well, Jimmy was working and what does it?
What has been tried has failed the there there. I wrote about this first back in two thousand and six, when the two,
magazine how to cover the covered images,
polar bear with some open waternot said, be worried the very worried and it turns out that was the scariest science of,
see, if you're, a polar bear where no. No, no, here's the deal. Someone telling you to be worried, these psychologists see that's what are they
We're peer reviewed science. This as that's you, don't you can't imposed? Ok, so you can't say tell someone be worried. You have to have something in front of
That convinced them on their own, that they should be worried right and that that there is a that's hard, because you know we all those really understand the system.
This desperate urge. We have, we have consensus, there is scientific consensus and there's also consensus that human activity I mean not just recent but like over the entire century, has confirmed,
It climate change, but there remains a powerful movement to deny this fact. Ok, so I asked Al Gore. What he might think is
source of that denial, is check it out, and
I'll see where I live, there's an old saying that if you see a turtle on top of a fence post, you can be pretty sure it didn't get there by itself, and the same thing is true of this. So persistent climate denial a hundred years
one of the great Macgregor journalists, Upton Sinclair Road, its difficulties
a man to understand something if his salary depends upon him, not understanding it, and I think that sir very much at play here, I think that the coal industry, oil industry, certainly the tar sands industry and now to some extent the guy
sir natural gas, methane industry, frightened part of that is well racking is all part of it. They have seen this sum
rising awareness that we face an existential crisis, sir, as human civilization
they see it as an existential crisis for their companies and just as the tobacco,
companies delayed for forty years the translation of the scientific consensus on smoking and health into appropriate public policy their whole
plan is to delay the recognition of what the science really is.
Telling us for long enough that they can squeeze more profits out of using the sky as an open, sir
so any is will objective. Evidence went out eventually whelp scientists and journalists like to think so. So what would you say? Is your responsibilities, a journalist there's a conflict. You know this in your journalistic.
So we have to give both sides equal time. You were trained this in journalism school. I think the first rule for a journalist in if you're writing a story back. I'm a change is what kind of stories us today it if its a story about a paper that just came out on sea ice trends in the Arctic, you talk to people who study sea ice, you don't call Greenpeace and you don't call a think tank, that's paid for by fossil fuels. I dont know that all journalists follow that. No, they don't really right. Now. I ask our Gore if politics failed in addressing the root of american climate change changed, and I checked out where a capital,
democracy. This is not some secret that people care about money. The corporations care about money so can it is it am I allowed to say that these companies were not handed a political solution, political economic solution to that very problem to their own potential
I think they actually were handed a solution. They just fought against it by putting a price on carbon and fully integrating the environmental and climate consequences of what this industry and all of us a do. We could have seen a an appropriate and gradual transition,
But back to your your your question, the premise of your question is that somehow our democracy
held in not handing on a silver platter to the large carbon polluter
uneasy plan to transition their business to the summit
Yes, I will say that a little differently, I would say, I'm putting a top spare cash decides on the top span, sure, but I'm a scientist, and so I dont spin
much of a day. Thinking about how people react politically right. So
When I go to Washington, I can say something like she is to be greater.
You weren't so much politics in the air. But you
HU as a senator go to
Washington. You can't then complain. Oh there's so much politics how I gonna get work done parties be.
The currency of action in a democracy so,
to be surprised that a company doesn't want to die
rather than having a built in solution that satisfies the political check boxes. It can I make such a goal, an obligation of elected officials, yeah yeah, it's fair, but but you're
Europe on how to say this, but I sense that you're mental model of our democracy is aligned with
The model are founders gave us two centuries ago. You correctly called our system of a capitalist democracy, but
it's happened in the in the last fifty years. Is that the capitalist side of that sphere has encroached upon the democracy side. Of that
their and our democracy has been hacked law,
before the Russians hacked our democracy. Lobbyists and big contributors hacked our democracy to the point. Where actually allow
the proposed laws and regulations
are literally now written by the lobbyists themselves and by in this case, by the polluters, and that has corrupted the price
as to a shocking degree. I know this may sound like a radical analysis. Look I've lived through it.
So do I swear I'm asking you. I saw this happened when I went in the midst of voices mouth right here, the when I went in the mid. Seventy two, the cars. It was not that way and I watched degrade over time it and since I've been out of politics, it's gotten much much worse, but it needs to change back to a point where ideas and the best of
evidence and rational discourse can actually play a role again.
Any cutty reconcile the needs of capitalism, which is like maximum profits with safeguarding the planet. You spur
innovation and invention, tat. They re all potential, just innovate and events now add me at innovative. Now I like you, I must gets a lot of credit for holding out his inventiveness, but he everything he builds is based on technologies that came out of the space race or the cold war. Realistically, that government did the basic heavy lifting on so, if you're not putting in that for
aye Sir, and we're not building education system that vary in which science matter we can do that. But then politicians have this sort of be on board
to be able to do to motivate politicians to do something about? Why should we not yeah you're right, just or not its rise or are not entirely, and I think we all agree that climate change disproportionately affects people who are poor and disenfranchised and politicians are none of that, and so what you gotta do is make them feel like those people that it affects, which means like, for instance, they have to live in uninsured houses. Net
coastlines, like that's a good thing, to make them or to storm, take him out exactly or how about that they have to drink water only from fracturing sites.
Or make a rain on them and on that's all them, whether I'm talking would they
fan has rights is re, that's right back it up settler next week,
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Unlike in the secrets of your world and everything orbiting around, it is Dar
start off from the american Review of natural disaster were creature, my interview, environmental activists and former? U S vice President Al Gore, we discuss the politics of solving earth's climate crisis.
Check it out. Our democracy is not working the way our founders intended it to work
In order to solve the climate crisis, we have to spend some time fixing the democracy crisis
maybe we should stop thinking federally about this and then looked locally because locally, there's very big differences in how people vote and how people act and how people to think of the invite?
and so you go to places where they're kind of on board with this green so and then let that transition to a hundred percent renewables and watch jobs go to those places
then, all of a sudden, the economy's arising intimidates that embrace this year and of Europe and a state that has had now
The money then just drives it like like a flowing river yeah, that's it
Now, in your film, you show cities that one hundred percent green, including Georgetown Texas, sixty five thousand people in the
art of oil country with a conservative report
come from supporting mayor who happens to be a superior
ran the numbers and figured out that his citizens, electricity rates, could come down. If
they went a hundred percent renewable. They ve now done that
Everybody's thrilled about it and it's kind of a pleasant side benefit that their helping, save the future of humanity. Now states like hell of foreign, you have led the way New York Stay, a lot of other states after President Tromp announced his intention to pull out of the Paris agreement. I worry that that would cause other nations
still use it as an excuse to do the same, didn't happen and the next day every other country in the world had not more still in and all those states and hundreds of cities
and thousands of business leaders said not we're still enter, and it looks
Clear. Now, though, that the? U S is going to meet its commitments under the Paris agreement and by the way legally, the first date upon which the Eu S could withdraw from Paris is the day after the next presidential election in twenty twenty. So if there's another presents given moment
a new president could give thirty days notice. God are you wearing an interview, AUS Pain, God equation? So any? Could you provide us with the Paris agreement, it has to be weighed and there is a treaty way back and ninety ninety two there's only one climate treaty, and then there are these like addendum, ended the latest when Miss in Paris and its basic.
The first time in this treaty process that all these negotiators realized. If you want to get everybody the two hundred countries
physically at one table agreeing on something I can't be binding, it cannot be. It has to be soft. There's this think I'll soft diplomacy and, and so it is
and everyone comes together every five years and will build momentum towards de carbonized world ass. The idea to talk, how would you convince Trump, do not withdraw from the Paris agreement. Its is Subaru,
sue breezy, you just gotta, rename it up
I lay like a cause he's closing the orbit of Paris accorded Britain out just rename it like the most bigley. Awesome is negotiate
a cord of orange and will do for or just like the
hands or the dead
whole waller. Cord of them is all in all. It is more my interview with former vice President Al Gore check it out.
We are now in the six great extinction, but you know some of these.
Critters like bees, are actually really important to us and a lot of others that we don't even fully understand.
And why their important are endangered. Now we could lose half living species with which we share this earth in this.
Century were seeing the extinction brought about by the existence of human conduct and civilization. Here you stay here, it's there.
It's the disruption of the climate, balanced land use a convert.
Version polluting of the oceans and the amount of plastic and the oceans by weight, is about to exceed the weight of the fish in the ocean
literally and under their many insults, but the biggest and most serious is the climate crisis,
an budget to be clearly what we had. Seventy percent extinction from an asteroid, or I could possibly approach that just by human beings B
inhuman, be what collides with the earth now is not an asteroid, but it's us, while a liar
so any how bad are we making things for other species are a third of all. Animals are now threatened with extinction,
level endangered or threatened yeah. It's us
yeah, the only when they just be the only life on earth tat would be,
I think I saw that unemployed within what would you eat a man
There is even gonna get me. Well, you already report on removing any that you ve got a lot about the influence of people on the climate
and we ve heard this term and proper seen as I announced that correctly, if you're british also have their two different sort are competing versions.
And sourcing. Well, his answer proceed
as a result, we would have been received. What is there and interpersonal go with no rights in hand for building up yet
History is like a united split in all these areas and epochs and Indians, and we are in we ve, been in the Holocene epoch or epoch, as some people say
and its last eleven thousand seven hundred years since the end of the last ice age and in the eighties leading into the nineties some scientists
and I just quickly as a journalist, I wrote that I wrote a book
united to about global warming. That was part of this.
This museum. Ninety, ninety to that- which I said you know- perhaps we ve entered a post Holocene era that should be named further species, that's creating it and others were jogged. We ve jogged system enough that we ve moved out of
that Holocene, wherever unequal and all our actions right here and there
lay down and sediments. So so what is the sediment that causes this to be the around as you
it was on this route for several years element of us Randall
our generation is gonna safely. I've gotta, let it be. What I'm thinking
in reality, I could think of something
you're setting this this five percent working group, which I am I left when I went back to full time journalism. They ve been concentrating on every point where the rules of geology of strategic graffiti, the layered cardiology, are that you have to have a signal that synchronous and global. That's me something laid down in the sediment. This is something change the system in a big way.
And so they decided. Basically, ninety fifties and the big thing is the radio nuclear ads from farm tests on its the best single indicator
because you ve really has everywhere, but the Good NEWS about the Andreasen, where there's been a robot, robust debate about whether you can have a good answer, proceed like we're, beginning something now it's just beginning and how fast we can sort of turn things around. The signature that will be left and settlement is up to us like this has happened in history,
or Santo bacteria couple billion years ago, thralls, oxygen and atmosphere.
Blue everything up all the biology to reinvent itself and that happen and that they weren't the Santa bacteria, weren't gonna, looking up going
What do we just do the other microscopic things so here we are looking up and starting to realise something things happening. So, in fact, the biggest climate changes in the history of the world, where the sino bacteria that turn a carbon dioxide atmospheric into oxygen
you off a bunch of things. They are relying on having no accident
not even ass, yet no medium sized or bacteria,
Diana bacteria back here, never put some Altea next we're gonna. Take your questions on the science of climate change. When STAR talk,
This is a start,
welcome back to start off my interview with environmental advocate and former vice president of the United States of America, Al Gore and back and ninety ninety eight. He as a sitting vice president secured funding from Congress to launch a new climate monitoring. Satellite
well, but it was cancelled, merely to detonate asked before it was finally resurrected check it out
discover satellite great idea when it came out, but then nothing happened now. So again, I when I see something not have.
Politically now I dont know that I have patience for a politician to say it wasn't wants because the politics
candidate. For a politician, he added launch my finger out the political
dead maneuvering so that it can happen there. So I dont do it. Should I have sympathy for you that you have political resistance to
or should I be angry with you for
Knowing that you would have had that resistance in advance and trying to sort of Navid
is there any other option? So here's one hears? What happened? I mean? Ok, I dont want I'm. I'm upset that
present administration has take.
Nor mentions of global warming out of the EPA website? Should you be
angry at me for not preventing where I mean somebody else.
In charge and what
happened in January of two thousand one after I left the White House involuntary.
The new incoming administration cancel the launch of that satellite and
It went on three wine charge, you weren't, I wasn't in charge, but when,
Obama was elected. I went to see him and he told me
he's. Ok, we must launch a than an end. He did at an I'm very excited about, and but what are the spate of experiments that IRAN were detectors? One of the most exciting is for the first time it is. It gives us the ability to measure the energy balance of the earth as a whole. We have been able to measure energy coming in from the
because it's a single point source, but we have not been able to measure all of the energy radiated and reflected back into space, because it's in three and sixty degrees,
but by putting this satellite a million miles away between the earth and the sun and watching it rotates costly underneath the satellite, we can get
that the second number and that equation an inner
the M and
related to energy out. That's what the problem
Global warming represents an indirect manifestation of the real problem, which is the energy heat energy build up in the planet, including in the oceans where ninety three percent of it goes.
That's a reflectivity civilly prevent some energy from getting into the system correct on cloud from glaciers, even from oceans, private and that's changing. Yes,
a moment miles from right right. Well, nowhere near we'll house raises Euro area of expertise. You know it, you know planets eyes, but but now, for the first time
we have the ability to measure the actual energy balance of the planet, it also
an early warning system for solar storms which
Breton electricity grids and all kinds of circuits.
Pipelines and all kinds of stuff, and we can airspace assets are huge. The grass sensitive to this yes correct, and we also get the ten to fifteen.
Beautiful, blue marble type pictures every single day as like the one
on your die
still joining our discussion now is an actual climate scientists. We will. We want to keep handed climate science questions to end.
Right. We got like the Real Mccoy in the house now jointly welcoming climate scientists, Kate, Marvel
Thank you for joining us. You associate recent scientist up in Columbia, university right, you're, aiming at NASA Goddard Institute for space science while so NASA launched his anyway. It into
fifteen and we do have one of these images. We can check it out, so we can talk about cleaner,
applause, but just to be clear. This satellite is war bitterly parked in a sense between earth in the sun. Had one of the residents points where all the gravity balances, and so it is orbiting the sun, while we orbit the sun staying in their position. So so what would you guys picking up on this, and I mean there are first and foremost thing we're picking up is that the earth is.
Meta right like this. Is I'm sorry this letter, the headline of your recent raper applicant amazing? I know this is the best plan. I am sorry it is,
that's a paper. I want to read this. The best planet I mean
So is its super exciting to have this new perspective, where we have the satellite park two million miles away and were always looking at the sunny cited are like that's cool, but is important to know that this is just one tool in this really big toolbox that we have to. We have been looking at the earth for more than thirty
since the late. Seventy is basically and we're measuring all these different looking here, but not with the travel like reverse now decided I like that, but we have other satellites open,
ok, we're. Looking clouds were looking out rainfall we're looking at the temperature of the lower atmosphere in the upper atmosphere.
Have satellites, the casually measure, the mass of the earth, and that means we can see things like ice melting. In real time we can see aquifers getting drunk
so we ve been doing this for a really long time, and we have this really comprehensive global picture and that's really important right because we're talking about global warming. We know it's gonna get one, but we don't know exactly
how warm is going to get a lot of. That is because we don't know what humans are going to do. We don't know if we're going to
Our emissions or vicious gonna be business were loose cannon where loose cannon, but
and if you remove that loose cannon, even if you cut out that uncertainty,
There is still a lot of uncertainty and the climate system, and that's because, as the earth warms up, things change
and those things that are changing, can actually feedback onto that warming? They can speeded up or they can slow it down so for emergency braking. These are feedback loops exactly so, for example, I think Al Gore touched on it when you heat up the planet email ice. An ice is really good at reflecting sunlight that would otherwise reached the planet and exposes that kind of darker ground or sea.
It's an that's more absorbent, and so that is a process that speeds up the warming. So we call for the more I smells more. You exposed absorptive resurface than the harder it gets. Ineffectually isotopes. Exactly generally positive feedback,
so we call it a positive feedback loop and I think that only tenure of old terminology that sounds great. So it's more like a vicious cycle. I thank vicious feedback loop little test which an example of a loop, because the other work so loop that could go the other way, for example, is if warming the planet gives us more of those low tech clouds that block out the sun. Then we would get less sunlight.
We have more gloomy days that, because you warming to climate you're, putting more moisture in the air and yet more capacity to make class, we don't. I actually think that this is going to happen. We have evidence that probably this is not going to be the case, but it is something that is not insane to believe could happen. So this is an example of a negative feedback loop, something that would actually slow down our warming. Ok, so more reparation.
You more clouds but no more times reflects sunlight and then that reduces the energy budget, but causa incredibly hide. I spend so much in my day thinking about power than there really really frustrating, because tiles both block sunlight and they trap heat coming from the planet. Also, clouds play this dual role and its really confusing, and for a long time they were the big wildcard. We didn't know what clouds we're going. Now you have every square inch of cloud for half the earth overturn. Yes, so now white, teeth, George, why don't you have an internet? So what's up with
we give you. The data citys covers only been up their assent. I think June of twenty fifteen refers and that's not long enough to really see any long term trends, so
We're not learning nothing, but we really need that long term record. We need to see these long term change as a tribute something to sign a change, but right now we're gonna go to our crowd, favorite part of our so called cause requirements.
We take your questions about the science of climate change. If it's our national physics, then we don't need the guests, but I am not an expert here, so we have the expert at regional area, though question number one from Lenny set Walden from Winchester Tennessee wants to know. There's what can I tell people who do not believe in climate change and use the excuse? Well, it's been called this year's old global warming is a myth living in the south. I get this kind of now,
since more often than I should have good line. How do I fix there? Are you? How do you like that? So I think it's ok to be confused by the difference between climate
whether like climate is not an intuitive concept, right we're talking about things that happen over a really long time period. So this is not my idea. I forget who S.
Contributing this too, but somebody told me that climate is your personality and weather is your mood and what you are doing is were fundamentally changing the personality of the planet. We're still gonna have ups and downs
still gonna have whether we're still gonna have mood. But what is really happening is we are changing that base state, so were actually heard for a personality disorder exotic not worth the trouble I e from Twitter
This is a possible final Mikey. Aren't you know my dream? Is it possible that the earth could reset its own climate like in the
will be the day after tomorrow see Maggie. I liked where he gets his. I am so I don't know if this is gonna get me fired by. I have never seen the day after tomorrow, our guy, you have got to go now. So in a movie. What happens is a climate of then does the opposite of what we all think as global warming and it causes a weather patterns.
We're all of North America freezes over the Gulf stream shuts down when it starts to grant. They have begun with comes in like a snowball earth, and you see the poor icecaps and
happens, and that is all of a sudden. You have Americans running South trade
get into Mexico. I think down. I won't! Let me let me repose the question: is there does earth ever restorative force that is bigger than ourselves? Not that we know are not that we ve been able to find and less you count us destroying our. So,
limitations due to climate change and getting rid of all the humans. Oh, oh! Here's. Your answers on how people we just have to go says that impede go right,
do you think I'm a beating Kate model,
majority is coming up by president. Al Gore shares your view. Cosmic varies of his own when we return on.
The future of space and the secrets of our planet reveal star die.
Only rarely regime of natural history right here in New York for future. My interview tonight with former vice President Al Gore and how is scientifically curious guy and have all kinds of questions for me about the universe.
Check it out, so we're in a multiverse right like key this good theoretical reason to think so: yeah yeah, but not yet evidence
but where there are other ideas that are working very well in our understanding of the universe, you few extend those ideas.
Naturally to where they will take you. You come up with a multi
Could you imagine a system for creating millions of proxy
points in our known universe and when the computing power is available,
measure for DE formations. That would give
evidence of another universe so,
There is a chance that in one version of the multiverse you can have to expanding multiverse. That know nothing of one another, but their expanding edges collide and that would
revealed as sort of a signature in little nonsense.
Other universe was here like ITALY, as you would have eighty as I'm Oliver, you would have a marking that was evidence of two
universal, I lighting, and we would see that in our cosmic microwave background, but we ve looked for it. What that signature might be, and no one has found it yeah, but it would be intriguing that we're
yeah, I saw and it would likely a slightly different laws of physics. So you'd want to be the first to visit. Ok,
was a physic that hold your molecules together could make them fly apart and another universe. So when I bring a coin or some Flickr
crossed the barrier. Do you assume that even in a multiverse gravity is a constant might have slightly different expressions of the forces of gravity, but we have no reason to think that so that they could be the physical Constance might be different in then,
and so so matter would manifest slightly differently to them as it does to us, but because the laws of physics
permeate all of our known universe. We will have no reason to think that their laws of physics wooden also permit their universe, not across not only cross time but across space. So do you assume that life is ubiquitous in the universe? I have no reason to
Otherwise, when you see, but it used to be that people had no reason to think that it was anywhere, but here well I'll get so here, but I am, but I have. I have reason good reason to think that we're not alone, because you look at what were made of the molecules: the atoms
atoms, are everywhere, the not rare and then not only found on earth through everywhere on all planets across the guy.
And then you look at how quickly life manifested on earth even earlier. Now you even earlier right. So within half a billion years out of five and a half billion years, we have evidence of single sex life.
And we think it probably would have started even earlier on I've if it weren't for this period of heavy bombardment because earth is.
Still a creating material from the nascent solar system.
So getting slammed accumulating all this extra matter, this your services very hot, then you can sustain molecule life. Let that die out earth cools
got a big within like a hundred million years. We have left it happen quickly,
we example. We know we have. We made the most common
greetings and the universe gotta happen all over that the list of exile planets is rising through three thousand
and now it has just in our little pocket of the galaxy. If you think we're
we're alone in the universe, there's something else requiring that
Al Gore explains how climate change can cause war when starting
return recipes and saw him down to earth. You need to start
Welcome back to start off, we're talking about earth's climate crisis would be through my interview with Nobel Peace Prize winner of war is also an environmental activists. That's why you got there
Nobel Prize. Let's check it out. Is there something that you can think of that could happen that just wakes everybody up and said? Oh, my gosh, I was wrong yeah we ve got
think about? Well, I think theory is, and I think it's happening right now. These
Climate related extreme events are,
our getting way more intense way more frequent,
and every night on the television news now is like a nature right through the book of revelation
even those who don't feel comfortable using the phrase. Global warming or climate crisis are now sand.
And a little bit out a hand them. Maybe we really do need to do something about this now course: insurance companies and the military they ve been on board from the beginning. It was too late
thing, refugees, coastal places of impoverished nations. Can this is a this? Is destabilizing international, secure
absolutely, and if you look at what happened in Syria long before the civil war began, there, they had the worst drought in the history of the Eastern Mediterranean, centred on Syria, two thousand six, two thousand in it it destroyed. Sixty percent of their farms killed. Eighty percent of their livestock drove one and a half million a climate refugees into their cities. They collided with refugees from the Iraq war and
and the gates of hill open, tragically or held, did break loose yeah an end. There were other causes, the dictators and evil bad guy in their sectarian proxy wars, and all that, but the baseline was the devastation of agriculture by the drought and the disruption of their whole country by the climate related event there. So
This is a political issue in the sense that many countries have
A hard time governing themselves in the best of seasons and when you
overlay a crushing burden like the climate crisis, then they can get tipped over the edge and chaos to anyone thinks you to get worse before they are better cause. You you haven't, want base line of thinking about this as a journalist rather longer than most people have in thinking about this problem, such except Al Gore, except our work. So in this arc, can you see things getting worse before they get better? I think that's a good way to think about it, but I do see the play
thanks for a good outcome, he made an accurate way to think about is not good yet whether that Iceland is calm down, fragment, there's no magic, there's no magic moment either way.
I think that when I interviewed Al Gore, he had just been releasing it just released. The film will. This was in in screening rooms, the sequel to is ongoing, two thousand and seven film and inconvenient truth, and in this final clip I ask what's ahead for the next ten years on his mission to solve earth's climate crisis
the secular I'm open that ten years from now, we will be so far down the road to solving this crisis, really and truly that there be no need for a third c,
As for what I M just find your on the beach and well
you're out of succeeded if the beaches to anyone beach. I continue to train a climate activists at grass roots level, and I am so inspired by the millions of activists around the world who are really driving.
The sustainability, a revolution, that's where the real energy is coming from
you know I'm a scientist. I count myself also as an educator and when I see
resistance to the consensus, the emerging consensus of scientists- and I try to understand that
I'm a scientist and I'm an educator where we failing here and I thought
long and hard about it looked back at elementary school. How do we teach science is set a beat it out on the head when we look back in the school system, it here's. What I found we teach science has, though it's a satchel effects. Here's this information learn it will test. You want it. If you do well,
you keep going we're not taught that it is a process of worrying nature. We're not taught that it is the best system we have ever devised to establish what is objectively true in this world, and we are politicians
Who also in denial of scientific truth, here you could beat the politician on the head, but what good is it
there representing an electorate the thinks the same way. The problem is not the politician, its people vote for these politicians who don't know any science yet have the fate of this nation in their hands. That dangerous is worse than dangerous. You know what it is. It is the beginning of the unravelling of an informed democracy. That is not the country I grew up with. So I don't often.
Teal to this viewing public. But I can tell you now that, without that, we're just going to slide off the back side of the mountain for the rest of the world passes us by, and I don't even want to know what that feels like this.
There's been a cosmic respect that you ve been watching the site. I bid you think she's looking out, we should listen to start or commercial free, joint startled
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-19.