Join your cosmic tour guide, astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, as we explore the most memorable moments from your favorite episodes in Season 4, our most popular season ever.
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Skip the commercials support star talk on patriarch to listen to every episode: Commercial, Free welcome to start off your place in the universe where science and pop culture collide. Dartle begin right now welcome. Star talk, radio on your hosting the elder Grass Thyssen. For my day job, I'm an astrophysicist and director of York, cities, Hayden Planetarium right here in New York City the American Museum of Natural history, the show about two. Here is a time capsule representing fan favorites from the fourth season of start out We start off with a number one pick: our lives show it. Town Hall in Times Square, featuring one of the first man to walk on the moon Buzz Aldrin.
Also appearing in the show, was the author a man in the moon, Andy shaken and committee. Eugene Merman and John Oliver from the daily show Have any of you. That's thinking we're doing this to explore for science for anything other than flexing muscle. Of course we were doing it for that reason, but I was certainly a race. We were told that I probably was more antagonistic than anybody else or a couple of your real cosy people. Let's, Buddy buddy. But those are our enemies. Will you help me get to the moon in there be a russian leave. It punch there beyond the moon. You collecting southern neighbours signs that comes out of that. You lay down the corner reflectors where those a cool corner, reflectors that was nails, experiment
pretty easy down. That's all you have to do more damage than the size bomb. It was a hell of a lot more complicated. You deployed decides monitor, There was a levelling devise their guns, instead of of kind of it round, dish They had a baby. In now with a low lunar gravity, guess what that baby was doing, for our raw. Our later right in the sun? That's not how it that's all like a child toward I've been discovered. Ever since nineteen, fifty seven and when these two engineers from Baltimore decided Maybe this stuff in space could be.
In another medium like underwater neutrally, buoyant the body weighs about how much said to ensure we ninety percent? I really gets the same densities, water and bubbling, though I always sounded pretty good to me. Some of the other Astro, that's snuck in or what you did. Suppose you ve been scuba, diving and an astronaut do just hate this Sevilla What is more, not only does he hated even when he's on the surface of the earth back in his day, he was a poles alter. Do I not in this regard, I would get away from the ground. You started with full boldly and then we're like. I should probably dry spaceship so Dennis Tito, who is gazillion air in California, who was the first base, turns he fluted.
I bought a seat on the russian side right in two thousand. When and how the whole time I feel about people buying to see when you guys, like starving in the desert, becoming the right stuff, the earnest see we get people who just pull out a beautiful and plug it down. You, ok with a nod, I got paid for Don T, know how much I filed travel voucher, came back. You expect, war is that most of the meals were government meals. Yeah most transportation was government government rioted are unable to take up my parents, aircraft carrier did name to rent a car.
And you took up again from the airport in word to the crew court. Did the governor cover ladder. They like sorry, you have to get their somehow and I will bring you to the moon apart like one I have a damn official government problem about thirty three dollars. Thirty one cent: that was a lot more in nineteen. Sixty four point: you did all right, yeah you're, welcome, You can buy the analogue you know, I happened to be an ax ambassador wrote that is actually a exe, There are around your body after May, not see, because I would have thought at the bar telling the lady
I went to the moon that that would be you now. You all know something to smell. You are the one man who does not need exports. We need that smell, like our concept of what use will. Presumably, the moon has a special place in your heart and mind and soul. So there's no talk today about whom basis or you're? Ok with a shell like talking about moonbeams you're there Norman Bates now. We are therefore international people at the. U S, oh well, sure Russia is a risky. So you're, not only not going to happen so the basis for international science, research such as what pap what goes on in an article
I guess international banks pack ice chinese tackles german astronauts, indian Japanese. Is that kind of what everybody there doing things for prestige nor country in there. That's for sure we ve done so. What should we do for prestige once again league what happens at the moon with out Wasting money wasting money when you can use better go elsewhere like like San Francisco,
you gotta, go wonderful but rise. If we can go to Mars and hang out shouldn't, we like practice hanging out on what well the gravities differ. So so it's got gravity at all. General practice at one place too then go somewhere else. Oh yeah swimming tell we raised oblige me you're, just an automatic.
Welcome back in the old lady, I nearly restoration. This time capsule features your favorite episodes from season for next up. Our lives show with the Bell House in Brooklyn with planetary scientist. The Greenspan talking about Mars curiosity Rover joining us, where the CAN the UN's Eugene Merman, Jim gaff again and lit one and only Sarah Silverman. page one story and s three sized Rover was flung down on Mars, like what's up That's what we're really glad it made we are always skin. I said it's not gonna. Work yeah because you go months, and then it wasn't the airbags like the old ones did right. That was scary, but I gotta ask them to the airbag landing this one? It have like he'd shields in Vienna,
hypersonic drogue shoot and then retro Rockets have been voiced, creates it was some Rube Goldberg would have design thinking. I dont want Rube Goldberg on Mars, so with his ok videos, no deals on Mars. Nor, let me tat is: why does it have to be an issue? Be our main? I wish they would do something a little better for the environment, but the last one was a mini cooper. Electric last one was sore. This one's got those though cider. So, first of all, confident we you that this whole sequence, of landing devices, would work. I wasn't confidence at all. I was shooting bricks, but I guess I'm on the science cited this thing so got our instruments. We want to get them on
surface of Mars and very interesting places. So we can learn things in the engineering side with those guys tell us, don't worry this work, and then we say so. How are you going to do it and they describe This thing you know it's gonna come in at hypersonic velocity and make these s turns and then drop the heat shield and there's a parachute and is going to fire these rockets and it's gonna stop fifty meters up and hover and drop things down on this on a voice. Ten were like you got, He made a second of work and it was scary. We were scared. I was not confident. Did you know that I had a private tutor. Conversation with the rover just before it landed. I don't
excuse me, I had a relationship naming you waited. The rover in the rover was leg high. Neil the Robert really know what it was probably do. Some old guy pretending that I was like. I can't talk now about to go through seven units of tat. Seventy six rockets have is an irony and already all about that because you are mentioning this tension between the scientists, Engineers, one of my as to question. Was how do you like better scientists and engineers. You asked the rover, this diagnosis of the Rover and what did she say: yes a shape she actually here it is. Scientists have to build a lady instead, its monitoring of April in love. She said she would not pick between the two that they are both important. Her love this both she was just both yes, so it
landed, nothing went wrong. Almost nothing went wrong. What went wrong? Well. Helicopter crashed into the Wall Molly was work since it was remarkably free of goods is actually. I did my very last question to carry city, which is her name, was that's a reprimand, she's out very clearly that I said you type two hour you did. I haven't you I'm in charge of these. My where a party do, I say, Martian pulls out from under a rock climbs on your back and ride you like a rodeo bull. She said that was not in my brief. I'd, less counters, like ten experiments on this thing. What's your favorite among them? Well, I'm not a bit partial because.
Of one of the instrument teams. I helped propose and design, and so by partially meaner, biased and by ok. So what I want is- which I mean the obvious thing, saves the cameras goes. A cameras are so cool because we all want to see in its beautiful and it's amazing and part of a sight seeing, but our instrument is called rad and it is rather it's the radiation assessment detector and we are measuring for the first time. I would read how you like that it's what its name I invented that ten years ago now we're measuring how much radiation there's serves to Mars has never been measure before it is one of the things that would possibly can the EU and possibly kill martian bug. So we want to characterize it and see what it is doing in the soil and in the atmosphere. So that's not measuring anything about Mars itself. Just stuffed it's coming to Mars! Well, but it's doing stuff to Mars when you say martian bugs you. Don't know about that. I'm not saying there aren't margins that I'm just saying or their motion, but also? Are they attacking us
well. That was a swift. There are no martian, but not like microscopic life of some kind. Well, that's what we're trying to figure out what the red detector would tell you whether radiation flux, sterilised, surfers and claw. But exactly probably, if there's bugs Michael whatever on Mars their underground? Because on the surface, there's no water, there's ultra violet, it's freezing its ass but underground there might water, it's a little more reasonable temperature and your shielded from the radiation. But what we're trying to figure out? How deep do you have to be? If you're, a martian bug what's happening to the radiation, landed where on Mars, because a lot of places to go, you please picked a spot. Yet we landed in a place called gal creator and I've been It's nice soya guys actually name it. After a friend of my girl, that's funny she
killed by a martian, I might add, is by far the cool place we ve ever landed on Mars because our universe has been their color blaze back me up here. It's a cool place Ryan, because it's an ancient greater, used to be awake and has sediments in it that tell us about the ancient past on Mars and it's gonna five kilometer s three miles for you, Americans Threem a high mountain in the middle that we're going to climb up, and it's like going up the Grand Canyon on Mars. Every layer is from a different time and martian histories can tell the whole story more rotate, twenty four hours. We will do in twenty four hours right, actually not quite twenty four hours. What's the act, weapons Mars's, idly slower, it's like a half an hour longer in the day, which is strange
the people studying Mars or their earth time on Mars time there on Mars time. Actually without them, Last week I wear a gene oil on Mars. While I was, more for Berlin, reminds us in laboratory in Pasadena, where we're running the rover from and the day is on Mars time, which changes compared California time and its really an article about its time is on the same scale for neither well. Sometimes it is, but it's sweeneys past it Gunnar hours out of the deep down by half an hour a day which is convenient if you're stuck in traffic. But actually it's there weird, because it gets to the point where it's completely the opposite and it's fine you know a grad student or whatever you're just doing that, but if you have a family or whatever it leads to like divorces and psychosis and in a bad thing. Germany where's divorces. Has there been? I can't give you Precise number Come they always couch
the mission statement in ways they were not actually saying we're lookin for life we can owed for water could be like we're lookin for minerals that could tell you it does water why the subterfuge, because we know how to look for life we tried that once and we realized we didn't know what we were doing. What where do you mean? How do we try what we automation? Viking, our first ever land or in eighteen. Seventy six and did experiments like Ebay is no and responding the experiments worked, and afterwards we said we still really enough. We we found life, we we didn't even know what questions to ask and then we realized decades later what we gotta go back and do this grew more slowly and try to understand the history of Mars and what kind of life there my could it be that you cannot ask what something is If you only have one example of it, yet I speak problem with Astor by cannot characterize life is as much
biologists cell a break what they call biodiversity at the end of the day, all life has common dna and common origin you're dealing with a sample of one when you have a sample of one you don't really. Have a science. Do you know IRAN problem. That's what I want. I said myself, but this is a major problem for us or biology is worrying something we have one example how scientific How do you define what life? Please? Can we have one example? There are legal, some silicone base thing imaging and upon somewhere in California recently, where I saw that episode. I know that what I said was vague, but you don't have to worry about where there is like one thing that was rather had legate different all your time. Other arsenic based life, yeah, sorry RCA now that was really like baseline, was really hyped and possibly interesting, probably wrong but it wasn't. Another kind of like that stuff was still carbon based just maybe had a different kind of dna so
nine harshly get it for. You can only learned so much from the USA today have secret for you, I'm gonna, considers singing all of the ads on this shell there's just one and where to get out of hearing there go to patriarch arms last star talk and support. Where does at the five dollar level or higher to listen the star talk ad free You can download all current episodes into your favorite podcast player and never we're here? Another commercial on star talk ever again. You will definitely not have to hear me saying if you support us at Patria Dark coms. Last our talk, radio, I mean I'm just thinking I mean just saying
Welcome back to restore hope when next time, capsule episode again comes from our lives, show the Bell House in Brooklyn with planetary scientist, David Greenspun, Vista, he and the comedians Eugene Merman, Jim gaff. Again and Sarah Silverman talk about it. Supporting the rest of the solar system We got messenger and what's more the little guy near the sound of mercury. So what do we find her mothers ice at the pause we think, which is we are considering a markers that close to the sun, theirs a much stronger magnetic field the moment, so that would be ice. They'll be Where the sun doesn't shine, yes, either got a much more complex history than we used to think wheezing mercury was this the sort of cod end member, just a dead called small world, but it's got a complex
volcanic history. That's been a surprise. It's it's more interesting, a much more complex than we thought. Okay. So next out, we ve got Venus, whose Venus now well, there's a spacecraft called Venus Express a little European Space Agency ESA lobby- nay, because they have like a year to build and launch this thing. They said we got a spacecraft. If you can do it quickly, something puts it. Why did they have a year to do it? Because it was us? air from Mars Express, and they said come up with a mission quickly can honestly and so we came up with instruments and they sent it to Venus, and it was actually amazing how fast they would do it and the thing has been an orbit for years and still working. So it's basically first, whether satellite at Venus, which is needed it's also where we get those razor blades so. What we have in the asteroid about what we actually spacecraft. There are now called dawn, it's been or an asteroid called Vesta
for a while now and in getting, is really amazing, sweetie closer pictures- and this is really like a small planet. You know we can get into what supplanting what's not radiantly, but the largest Asteroids are these round objects? You might call them dwarf planets, even if you wanted to- and it's been bring it for awhile and, what's sure, what's cool about this out in ITALY to raise grant this spacecraft has now left. This asteroid is on its way to another asteroid called series, and it's the first spacecraft with ever had that visit. One object in space. Did a mission there and then took off and is heading to another options. Those are our first time we ve actually had sort of an expedition. They could explore more than one planetary option. It does not, Jupiter now I well know, but we have a spacecraft called Juno on its way while hasn't launched. Yet, but it's about to be launched to Jupiter and it's a magnificent spacecraft going sweet probe the interior Jupiter by orbiting in such a way that we can make
the gravity and learn what it's like on the inside. It sounds dirty toward probe today. Well, we haven't done to uranos. Yet so Jupiters got Europa. Let me say I Roper yeah. We don't have any missions now on their way to Europe are now, but we might NASA's top priority for next big, Ga flagship mission billion dollar persuasions billion plus, would be built in billions. Yet, ok, I guess I'll show you the schools in the states that no matter where you easily afford to do that exactly European NASA top priority target for next big mission, because it's one of the places where there ought to be life if we're right about what it takes for life. There's a ocean. We think beneath this icy crust. In fact, maybe our solar systems, big, ocean of liquid water there. So we want to know that for sure and we want to or not by the Sun Yakima or none at all by while kind, but its jupiters gravity as the flax,
You have the moons in orbit around Jupiters Mass of gravitational field, interact, with each other. What it is doing- arms, Numabo America, water and how the mud risque about two setter. Yet we have a spacecraft there now caught Cassim that's what he's energize or bunny spacecraft. It got there in July, two thousand for and its making beautiful images of Saturn in the rings, but the most astounding discovers have been about the moons tightened Saturn. That is one the most interesting places, harassed or biology, because it turns out to be a very earth like world. In some ways it's got rivers, it's got volcanoes. It's got clouds. It's got rain. All our coastlines. Do it's got coastlines, but it's all made out of weird stuff. The rivers are liquid methane rainfalls liquid methane. The dunes
organic matter of allowing around reveal organic matter by carbon stuff. The stuff that were made out your life is made rivers flowing life, maybe elevator, lay like a James sailors, are so maybe you're innocent Neptune, so you're saying Uranos away. That's like different from other people used to say you'd say like Uranus or something you want to hear something funny about that. One time Carl Sagan told me that names on Madeira I know, but he told me that when you get to do it's always a good join, he was in school. The kids got our giggly about. Calling Uranus, because it had the word urine in it. So you can't win in asses ten year plan the cable service, that they just came out with a very influential plan for the highest priority missions for the next decade? One of the top pray pretty missions is a billion dollars proud to uranos. We need
Mama care So now we got a mission to PLUTO. We don't want, moreover, was headed there, oh yeah, it's gonna be awesome Oh, it's a little spacecraft called new horizons. It launched in January two thousand six. I was there so I got her life magazine was incredible. The fast this object ever launched from earth because it's got a long way to go and is most of the way they are now it's getting there in July. Twenty two. Welcome back and restart oriented primeval grasp this time. Capsule show features, fan favorites and for many of you, my interview
the controversial podcast Joe Rogan, was a season for highlighting so do I you always talk about science infuses, almost everything you do because all of it, physics, biology, chemistry, engineering is going some force operating. What is it with me. It's his curiosity. I do think we live in an extraordinary times and the ability to access information is so unprecedented. How often is science material for you? like some of my best bits of involve scientists Ernie quickly move either that may know you're the mood isn't there would our own outside and that it is my style of stand up is more like these long chalk discuss the head. You heard the one about their rights now, like a one liner. You know like one of them as the anti evolution of man, which explains like pyramids and the ideas that we are the best
children of the Idiot Stone Workers of Egypt, and what happened was that some people, just outside the smart people- and I just got to the point where there was no smart people left in a bit- was about like how many of us really truly understand how this world operates, and I would like tat on a microphone go why's that loud. I must comedian. My whole life depends upon this, but I have no idea how this works. I just it up here, and I do my job and I like how many of us understand how the power is on and if the power went off. What would you do one day. We're gonna Fuck all the smart people and there's gonna be no smart. People left because women they want our sex with and baseball players. I mean, maybe you you're, like a celebrity scientists. I'm sure you get a lot of hot caused checks at are knocking at your way, but like for the average dude involve and science is very opportunities to breed for sure the podcast represents me in a better way than anything. I've ever done before it's easy to have a perception of someone.
How well do you really get to know someone unless you hear them talk for hours and hours and hours and end, and I think anything else. I've done whether its hosting the ultimate fighting championship or fear factor would even I've come he's gonna, give you a sort of limited view into help, functions. It sort of like you at your operating in a very specific bandwidth or through specific frequency, rather, whereas with the podcast frequency, when we talk about taken every frequency band with words, we we d vocabulary, counting physics, book era, a graded at the ends, the outdated annoy you forget, we have over the sea, but with upon cast its really anything that I find curious, and that has resonated with a lot of folks that I think felt like they were.
Unrepresented before the idea of needing attention is a trip and the idea essentially comes from in the ancient days of human beings. The person who got the most respect was the one who is the most successful in the hunt, the most successful and battle the one it was the most successful inbreeding that led was to be followed because there was benefit in being the leader. There was benefit socially, there was benefit sexually and more offspring as well and, as I said, a boar turnabout before about reward systems built into our genetics, will. These reward systems are now hijacked in this weird way where you can kind of circumvent all regular reality. All hierarchies and all you have to do- is get a cam on. You were other people, see that and you get some benefit and its really really strange,
a strange, an aberration, a strange sort of a blip in the matrix where you get like this Kim Kardashian Type Human, where you just get someone who is famous for having a lens put on them, and that is essentially it there's not that much interest in going on. You know there's prettier girls, there, certainly smarter girl because this lenses on there's a great amount of power and energy focus in this one really mundane spot. So it's a perversion evolutionary features that exist within us yeah? I think so. Do you think science, literacy every fighter had it would improve their fighting? Yes, unquestionably, because a lot of fighting is hindered by emotions. I think science literacy would benefit fighters extremely. I think that, as I said before, technique is the most important aspect of martial arts and technique
point allows you to overcome physical advantages and that's very scientific and I think that the ability to use leverage and the ability to understand force and mass all of that applied with the standing of the cardiovascular system, the understanding of the scientific principles of nutrition and rest and recuperation. All of that unquestionably benefit, not just fighters, but any Astley. Anyone involved in doing anything this difficult where you are competing against other people that are also trying to do their best. Science really changes the entire games.
Welcome back to restore thought. We were wrapping up our season for Time capsule without episode on asteroid mining. The show featured my interview with Peter De Amandas, who not only come eight the x prize, but also cofounded the asteroid, mining company, planetary resources. We now have the ability privately go out and begin to struck: resources from asteroids, you know much. Of humanity's exploration? Much of maritime growth has been a function of gaining access to resources, whether its these silk trail from Asia, whether its Europeans, the new world for golden spices or american settlers. Looking to the West Coast for timber land, gold, oil, that's what's driven us. Its driven us consistently and
as I think about it. Why are the fourteen hours called affording? Eighteen forty nine knows the gold rush in San Francisco, people moving the body and soul and they drove the creation, the railroads it drove different parts of the United States to be little settled? Homestead? ACT and so forth, and so people were looking for resources that would create value and uplift. Humanity in that regard, how do we connect open space? Frontier too call in exothermic economic reaction, meaning We can do something and makes a profit that consistently drives us exothermic. That is the release of energy ass. More than what you put in yes and, as I think about this space, tremendous value, everything we fight wars over on earth. Metals, men Energy, real estate These things are in your infinite quantities and space people look at the earth,
very close system. But the earth is a crumb in a supermarket filled with resources and if we can back to those resources. It uplifts everybody. We, building the very super low cost deep space, so lights. Satellites. They can go beyond law earth, orbit millions of miles and consistently accurately operate out. Their communicate back by laser have super hyperactive. Pointing have big optics to look for asteroids and openly go to them prospect and understand what their made up put a beacon on them as the first step and then be able to extract valuable resource of issues it does. All prospecting phase is a priority that we're gonna be prospecting for decades, I'm sure, but We are launching our first of what we call the arcade series of spacecraft within eighteen to twenty four months, and these argued spacecraft, our space telescopes, their telescopes- that in low earth orbit are
What to see asteroids coming whizzing by the earth the set integration of the markets. Spacecraft can have propulsion that you see by ignite the engines and go on an intercept course. Ok, so far, You say that throughout their value, chastened down Jason down vacuum attack, am I like, I think, we're gonna call official in the bag and target mission, and when we look at three phases, phase one argued one hundred are spacecraft in orbit of the earth trying to characterize find these north approaching aspects the prospect next next is we go out faced the ark at two hundred spacecraft propulsion on em they're, going out to actually tap these they scrap, put a beacon on them dock with them. Able to actually characterize them when they made of a bigger, One is Telescopic early, the next When is the next one actually has the same telescope on board, because they're going, using these telescopes to actually look at them
point at them as you're going close Greece things are moving at ten thousands of miles per hour need to be able to accurately track them down and go doc with, but once you talk with him now you you're that now we're pulling a beacon on them. Then the third. Phase ultimately is going to be, as you said, back them an extract, the resources. So the question: is, can a private company owners and ultimately, what is a celestial object, not only the moon I can buy by I can by different Fergus not only me, you can agree with the moon. I can agree with, but owning a ten metre rock in space. I mean when you draw the line and if you can own the asteroid? Can you own the materials you extracting Astro? Just like you don't, in the ocean, but when you put the fish out of it, you're the fish so somewhere in there is a structure we'll be defined over this next decade, because what we're gonna drive to be defined in a
that ultimately allows for business to exist, because if you yet have ownership, no ones, out there and extract materials and the loser is humanity because the The matter is once you can extract these resources. Everybody wins because it becomes cheaper that five new battery technology, medical technology, electronic technology that we all benefit I guess the frontiers in a trillion dollars. I think it is. I think that the first brilliant, as will be made in space, but as a result, its upping the economic growth of human not just anyone individual. In summary, it will have an effect on the free market trade, but if not bad thing. No, it's a great thing, in fact that The way science works, you know genome sequencing used to cost a billion dollars today. It's a thousand dollars and dropping energy
the last hundred years. The cost of food is decreased thirteen fold. The cost of energy is decrease, twin for the cost of trade, recrimination, smaller fraction of our paycheck on food than ever before, ever before and costs, transportation is not hurry. Our country, but you know anything about the cost of communications. The drop the thousandfold, so what technology does and hopefully, if we do our job right, these metals that viable for society will get cheaper and cheaper and cheaper. You ve been listening to start operating working in part by a grant from the national science. Until next keep looking We should listen restored, talk, commercial, free, joint start
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Transcript generated on 2020-01-25.